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    Td123 Ccsshow Td123 Ccsshow Presentation Transcript

    • Fair Trade: Coffee and Cacao . Data provided by Tom Dietsch, Center for Tropical Research
    • Coffee Agriculture  Trade; Second largest internationally traded commodity [Oil. Is #1]  Consumption: United States is the largest consumer, (26% of world consumption).  Coffee Drinkers in the US? 130 million  Geography of Origin : Highlands of Ethiopia.  American brew: Brought to the Americas in early 1700’s.
    • Variations in Coffee Agroecosystems (Moguel and Toledo 1999) Rustic T ra d itio n a l Sh a d e d Traditional Polyculture (ÒCoffee Garden Ó ) Comercial Polyculture M o d e rn U n sh a d e d Shaded Monoculture Unshaded Monoculture
    • Shade Grown: Community Benefits  Timber: Commercial and household  Fruit: Sold at local markets; eaten at home  Medicines: Medicinal Plants  Financial Exchange --bartering  Spices  Edibles [nuts, berries]
    • Coffee Crisis  Governance: International Aid: promotes intensification  Markets: Declining coffee prices - ~$0.30 per lb from $2.75 in 1994.  Growers: Farmer response - more intensification and extensification  Household Finance: Poverty for small landowners and workers  Alternative Markets: A solution? Socially- responsible certification.
    • Types of Coffee Certification  Organic - no agrochemical use  Fair-trade  Shade-grown  Cause-related
    • Fair-Trade  Markets: Farmers are paid a fair price for harvest. For coffee - guaranteed $1.26 per pound ($1.41 for certified organic coffee)  Governance: Organized into democratically-organized cooperatives  Producer – Consumer Relationship: Sell direct to buyers in consuming countries  Personal Finance: Consumers pay certification costs
    • Fair Trade: Economic/Financial Sustainability •Create opportunities for economically disadvantaged producers •Pay a fair price, above the minimum wage at the location of production Knowledge: Educational Sustainability •Build knowledge capacity across sectors: financial, markets, growing and producing techniques, strategies, and practices Social Sustainability •Facilitate gender Equity •Mandate safe, healthy work conditions
    • Shade-grown: Ecological sustainability  No ecological net loss!  Riparian Buffers  Species Composition of Shade Trees.  Shade Cover  Canopy Structure  Epiphytes
    • Cause-related: Social Sustainability  Proceeds from sales go to aid social or environmental organizations. Example Organizations  Coffee Kids  Café Solidario  Starbucks - Conservation Coffee  Thanksgiving Coffee Company
    • Ecosystem Services from Birds  Aesthetic/Cultural  Pollination  Pest Control  Panama  Seed Dispersal  Cameroon
    • Hornbill Ecology and Conservation Long distance movements by Ceratogymna hornbills in dry season (Holbrook & Smith 2000).
    • In Cameroon, most cacao is grown under diverse shade by small farmers (1-2 ha).
    • Study Locations
    • Methods  Sampled 7 cacao-producing villages  4 cacao farms per village.  Bird Sampling  2 days mist-netting per farm  45 minute area search per farm  Vegetation Sampling  3 25x25m plots per farm  Overstory trees (dbh & height)  Density & height of cacao
    • Cameroon Results  Bird species richness in Cameroon  150 bird species in cacao farms • 56 species captured in cacao layer (mist nets)  Very few migratory species are using cacao farms  80 species estimated for Primary forests (Waltert et al. 2005)  70 species estimated for Cocoa Agroforests (Waltert et al. 2005)  Tree species richness  112 cocoa shade tree species • 192 shade tree species in STCP database  230 tree species known in Dja reserve (Dietsch et al., this study) (Sonwa 2000) (Fogiel unpublished) (Waltert et al. 2005)
    • Majority of birds in Cacao layer consume insects Highly Skewed Distribution 100% 80% Omnivores 60% Insectivores Nectivores 40% Granivores 20% Frugivores 0% Abundance Diversity
    • Bird diversity in Cacao layer compared with shade layer 100% 80% Omnivores Insectivores 60% Nectivores 40% Granivores 20% Frugivores Carnivores 0% Aerial Feeders Cacao layer with Shade layer
    • Tree species used by Ceratogymna hornbills in Dja reserve (Whitney et al. 1998), also found in Cocoa farms with farmer uses.
    • Cameroon: Summary  High diversity of shade tree in cocoa farms  High bird diversity in cocoa farms  High proportion of bird diversity and abundance in the cacao layer consume insects  Many tree species can provide food resources for hornbills  Trees used by hornbills are also useful for farmers – potential “Win-Win” scenario