STD Prevalence in World, USA and Iran, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Common bacterial infections
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (causes
gonorrhoea or gonococcal
Chlamydia trachomatis (causes
Treponema pallidum (causes
Haemophilus ducreyi (causes
Klebsiella granulomatis (causes
granuloma inguinale or
Common Fungal infections
Candida albicans Vulvovaginitis,
Common viral infections
HIV (causes AIDS)
HPV (causes genital warts and certain
subtypes lead to cervical cancer in
HBV (causes hepatitis and chronic
cases may lead to cancer of the liver)
Commom Parasitic infection
Crab louse, colloquially known as
"crabs" or "pubic lice" (Pthirus pubis)
Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)
vaginalis), colloquially known as
Unintended pregnancy, Potentiated HIV risk (three to six times the risk)
6 Ways STDs Impact Women Differently from Men
A woman’s anatomy can place her at a unique risk for STD infection,
compared to a man.
Women are less likely to have symptoms of common STDs — such as
chlamydia and gonorrhea — compared to men.
Women are more likely to confuse symptoms of an STD for
STDs can lead to serious health complications and affect a woman’s
future reproductive plans.
6 Ways STDs Impact Women Differently from Men
Women who are pregnant can pass STDs to their babies.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually
transmitted infection in women, and is the main cause of cervical
Women typically see their doctor more often than men.
There is a vaccine to prevent HPV; and available treatments for
other STDs can prevent serious health consequences, such as
infertility, if diagnosed and treated early.
GLOBAL PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE OF SELECTED CURABLE
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS OVERVIEW AND ESTIMATES 1999-2001
INFECTIONS 4 9.5 3 16 5 6 5 43 0.5 92
GONORRHOEA 1.5 7.5 1.5 17 1 3.5 3 27 0.1 62
SYPHILIS 0.1 3 0.3 4 0.1 0.1 0.2 4 0.01 12
NEW CASES OF
14 38 10 69 17 22 18 151 1 340
Digits are in MILLION 4
information about the
risk of contracting the
prevalence indicates how
widespread the disease
percent of all the
infections, and 72
percent of new
injecting drug 62%
sexual contact 26%
Men %47 %8 %9 %34
Women %53 %18 %4 %22
between May 2005 and May 2007
• 100 women during
• HIV-Ab, Chlamydia
• The overall prevalence of C.trachomatis was 19%.
• No case with syphilis or HIV infection.
358 parent were assessed for knowledge about HPV
73% of parents had no information about HPV
26% had obtained their information via internet
Others from studying medical resources
Average score of mothers information about HPV
infection was higher than that of fathers
Parent knowledge about the hazards of HPV was higher
than their knowledge about modes of transmission
Most common sexually
transmitted diseases (STD)
Cervical cancer in women
resulting in 233,000 deaths
HPV infection often clears
over without treatment
HPV types 16 and 18 can be
a hazard to change
The ticking time bomb
SEM TEM Methylene Blue Gram Stain
Capsule – antiphagocytic
• Composed of repeating peptide subunits of pilin.
• Mediate initial attachment of gonococci to epithelial cells.
• Specific cell receptor unidentified; high specificity of binding for genito-epithelial cells.
Por (protein I)
• Most abundant outer membrane protein;
• Forms trimers through which some nutrients enter the cell.
• Role in virulence
Opa (protein II)
• When expressed, is a major component of the cell surface.
• Function in virulence
Rmp (protein III) - Reduction–modifiable protein
Tbp1, Tbp2 – two transferrin-binding proteins
Lpb – Lactoferrin-binding protein
Secretory IgA 1 protease
Common diagnostic tests (as of June 2012) for detection
of N. gonorrhoeae
• Azithromycin is safe and effective in pregnant women, but
doxycycline is contraindicated.
• CDC: patients with uncomplicated genital or rectal infections be
treated with ceftriaxone (250 mg) given intramuscularly as a single
dose or 400 mg of oral cefixime as a single dose.
• azithromycin as a single 1-g oral dose or doxycycline 100 mg
orally twice daily for 7 days) is recommended for
administration with ceftriaxone.
Pic: Unemo M, Shafer WM. Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: origin, evolution, and lessons learned for the future. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1230:E19-28
Gonococcal infections are usually treated with
single-dose therapy with an agent found to cure
>95 per cent of cases.
and genetic characteristics Articles
Years Number of
In Countries Techniques AMR
5 1990-2012 2047 ،بوتان،هند
Detection of beta-lactamases
Slide Surface Assay
Direct Contact Assay
Broth Suspension Assay
Lysed Cell Assay
Filter Paper Assay
diluted with PBS
25 units of beta-
Red color within 20-30 min 17
Detection of all known beta-lactamases Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Moraxella,
Staphylococcus, Haemophilus, Enterococcus spp., and some anaerobic bacteria
for the production of beta-lactamase.
Antibiotic Average (%)
Penicillin G 46
ESC resistance determinants
penA (encodes altered forms of PBP2)
ponA (encoding an altered form of PBP1)
penB (encodes mutations in the major outer membrane
mtrR (MtrR represses expression of the mtrCDE,
The mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump)
Mtr120: C-to-T transition
mutation 120 bp
upstream of the mtrC
start codon: to be
stronger than the wild-
Porin PorB (porB) gene (908 bp)
Subunit B of the transferrin binding protein (tbpB) gene
(ST 1407, ST 1901, ST 7363) in Europe and Japan is dominant and
relative with the recent reports of recommended third generation
(ST 225) associated with ciprofloxacin resistance
Therapeutic dose 64 µg/ml (2grX1)
High-level spectinomycin-resistant MIC >1,024 4g/ml
Amino acids 19 to 33 in the N terminus of the ribosomal protein 5S
that form a loop structure (loop 2) which nonspecifically binds to
helix 34 of 16S rRNA and is within 50 nm of the spectinomycin-
binding site. Amino acid alterations at this loop can disrupt the
binding of spectinomycin to the ribosome, which results in
spectinomycin resistance. 19
21 different nanomaterials
1-120 nm in diameter
This study highlighted that the CDS disc diffusion technique yielded excellent
category agreement with their analogous Etest minimal inhibitory
concentrations in comparison to CLSI technique.
Applicable microbiological method to detect antimicrobial susceptibilities of
N. gonorrhoeae in resource-poor countries.
This technique will facilitate enhanced antimicrobial resistance surveillance
and direct and meaningful comparison of resistance data generated within
different national and international laboratories.
• CFU: 1 x 107
• Annular diameter oc 18mm was selected as the uniform cut-off point.