Effects Of Climate Change On Health Dr Troy Gepte

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  • Effects Of Climate Change On Health Dr Troy Gepte

    1. 1. Effects of Climate Change on Health Dr. Troy D. Gepte
    2. 2. Coverage of Presentation <ul><li>Overview of the Effects of Climate Change on Health: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature-related and Weather-related effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Disasters due to extreme climate/weather events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other likely health impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emerging and Re-emerging </li></ul><ul><li>Infections and their Impact on Public Health </li></ul>
    3. 3. Health effects Temperature - related illness and death Extreme weather - related health effects Air pollution - related health effects Water and food - borne diseases Vector borne and rodent borne diseases Health Effects Temperature-related illness and death Air pollution-related health effects Human exposures Regional weather changes • Heat waves • Extreme weather • Temperature • Precipitation Regional weather changes • Heat waves • Extreme weather • Temperature • <ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul>Extreme weather- related (floods, storms, etc.) health effects Climate Change Climate Change
    4. 4. Why are these important? <ul><li>These disruptive events have their greatest impact in poor countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The two categories of climatic extremes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple extremes of very low or very high temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex events: droughts, floods, or hurricanes </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Deadly effects <ul><li>Extremes of temperature can kill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The very old, the very young and the frail are most susceptible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There will be more intense heatwaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as well as warmer summers and milder winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effects of weather will vary between populations </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Source: WHO
    7. 7. Natural Disasters <ul><li>Increasing trend in the number of victims due to natural disasters is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>partly due to better reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partly due to increasing population vulnerability, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may include a contribution from ongoing global climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing countries are poorly equipped to deal with weather extremes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>especially in high-risk areas (coastal zones &cities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of people killed, injured or made homeless by natural disasters is increasing rapidly </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Source: WHO
    9. 9. Additional likely health impacts that are hard to assess: <ul><li>changes in air pollution and aeroallergen levels </li></ul><ul><li>altered transmission of other infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>effects on food production via climatic influences on plant pests and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>drought and famine </li></ul><ul><li>population displacement due to natural disasters, crop failure, water shortages </li></ul><ul><li>destruction of health infrastructure in natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>conflict over natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>direct impacts of heat and cold (morbidity) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Patterns of Infectious Diseases are expected to change <ul><li>Climatic factors are related to vector-borne diseases, many enteric illnesses and certain water-related diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>With climate change, we will have a tougher fight against infectious diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>This is most evident in areas where climate variations are marked and especially in vulnerable populations. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Health effects Temperature - related illness and death Extreme weather - related health effects Air pollution - related health effects Water and food - borne diseases Vector borne and rodent borne diseases Health Effects Temperature-related illness and death Air pollution-related health effects Human exposures Regional weather changes • Heat waves • Extreme weather • Temperature • Precipitation Regional weather changes • Heat waves • Extreme weather • Temperature • <ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul>Extreme weather- related (floods, storms, etc.) health effects Contamination pathways Transmission dynamics - - - - rodent Microbial changes: Contamination paths Transmission dynamics Water and food-borne diseases Vector borne and borne diseases Climate Change Climate Change
    12. 12. <ul><li>EID refers to newly identified, previously unknown infections w/c cause public health problems locally or internationally </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. SARS, H5N1 influenza, Nipah, Ebola, Hepatitis C , hantavirus, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of these diseases may be due to the combined impacts of rapid demographic, environmental, social, technological, lifestyle changes as well as climate change. </li></ul>Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID)
    13. 13. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) <ul><li>Previously known diseases but are becoming to be a public health problem for the past two decades </li></ul><ul><li>These may vary from one country to another and in different regions of the country </li></ul>Bacteria Leptospirosis Legionella pneumophila Parasites Paragonimiasis Neurocysticercosis Viruses Japanese encephalitis Chikungunya Dengue Hepatitis C HIV Monkeypox
    14. 14. Contributors to emerging infections <ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>International travel and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Food supply and food technology </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial adaptation and change </li></ul><ul><li>Health systems breakdown </li></ul>
    15. 15. We live closely with insects and animals. <ul><li>Anthroponoses vs. Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>“ Anthroponoses” (such as TB, HIV/AIDS, and measles and indirectly-transmitted, vector-borne anthroponoses (e.g. malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever) ) vs. “Zoonoses” (e.g., rabies in dogs; bubonic plague, bird flu) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Emerging infections in the past 20 years Which emerging infections do you think are public health threats to the Philippines? 2003 Monkeypox (in the United States) 2003 SARS CoV 1999 West Nile Virus (in the United States) 1997 Highly Pathogenic Avian influenza 1996 New Variant Creuzfeldt-Jacob Disease 1996 Nipah Virus 1996 Lyssavirus (in Australia) 1994 Human Herpesvirus 8 1994 Hendra Virus 1994 Sabia Virus 1994 Cyclospora cayatenensis 1993 Sin Nombre Hantavirus 1992 Bartonella henselae 1992 Barmah Forest Virus 1991 Guanarito Virus 1990 Hepatitis E virus 1989 Hepatitis C virus 1986 Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV 6) 1985 Enterocytozoon Bieneusi 1985 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV 2) 1983 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV 1) Date identified Emerging Infection
    17. 17. Re-emerging Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Known diseases which reappear after being eradicated (e.g. malaria, polio) </li></ul><ul><li>Infections which are increasing in incidence after they have been previously controlled (e.g. Meningococcemia, Plague, Cholera old serotype, Yellow Fever, Diphtheria) </li></ul>
    18. 18. VECTOR-BORNE DISEASE
    19. 19. Malaria and Dengue <ul><li>Mosquito vectors that spread malaria and dengue need access to stagnant water in order to breed, and the adults need humid conditions for viability. </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer temperatures enhance vector breeding and reduce the pathogen’s maturation period within the vector organism. </li></ul><ul><li>However, very hot and dry conditions can reduce mosquito survival </li></ul>
    20. 21. Malaria <ul><li>Changes in vector-borne diseases are predicted (areas bordering current endemic zones). </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller changes in current endemic areas (seasonal Malaria). </li></ul><ul><li>Most temperate regions would remain unsuitable for transmission </li></ul>
    21. 22. 1990 2085 Estimated population at risk of dengue fever under “standard” climate change scenario: 1990, 2085 Source. Hales S et al. Lancet (online) 6 August 2002. http://image. thelancet .com/extras/01art11175web. pdf .
    22. 23. Food and Water-borne Diseases <ul><li>Higher temperatures & heavier rainfall events may increase occurrence of water-borne diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation services may be severely compromised contributing to potential contamination of local water supplies </li></ul><ul><li>There may also be increases in infectious illnesses in people using recreational waters (e.g. pools & beaches) </li></ul><ul><li>Food-related concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outbreaks of toxic algae in saltwater that contaminate shellfish (e.g. “red tide”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased incidence of food poisoning related to warmer temperatures that increase the survival of microbes and the spread of toxins </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Health effects Temperature - related illness and death Extreme weather - related health effects Air pollution - related health effects Water and food - borne diseases Vector borne and rodent borne diseases Health Effects Temperature-related illness and death Air pollution-related health effects Human exposures Regional weather changes • Heat waves • Extreme weather • Temperature • Precipitation Regional weather changes • Heat waves • Extreme weather • Temperature • <ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul>Extreme weather- related (floods, storms, etc.) health effects Contamination pathways Transmission dynamics - - - - rodent Microbial changes: Contamination paths Transmission dynamics Water and food-borne diseases Vector borne and borne diseases Climate Change Climate Change Changes in agro-ecosystems, hydrology Socioeconomic and demographic disruption Effects of food and water shortages Mental, nutritional, infectious-disease and other effects
    24. 27. How do we monitor? Source: WHO
    25. 28. How can we respond?
    26. 29. Source: WHO
    27. 30. What should be done now <ul><li>Community-wide understanding and response, guided by policies informed by good scientific advice </li></ul><ul><li>Policy-focused assessment of the potential health impacts of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multidisciplinary assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtaining responses to questions asked by stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation of risk management adaptation options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>addressing research gaps to facilitate decision-making </li></ul></ul>
    28. 31. Maraming salamat po

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