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  • 1. The Linguistic Issue in Ireland
  • 2.
    • The Celts and the Celtic
    • Languages.
    • 2. Some notes about the
    • English language in Ireland.
    • 3. Nationalism, language
    • and identity.
    • 4. Language planning in Ireland.
  • 3.
    • The celts and the
    • celtic Languages.
  • 4.  One of the main issues considered by Celtic Studies is the meaning of the term “Celtic” itself.  From a scientific point of view, the word “Celtic” is primarily a linguistic term, and it refers to a group of Indoeuropean languages which developped in the European Continent some 5,000 years ago.  Science does not consider, up to now, that the term “Celtic” has something to do with a distinctive culture, a particular ethnic group, a religion or a kind of music.
  • 5.
    • We do not know wether the Celts invaded Western
    • Europe or wether they just exported their languages
    • pacifically.
    •  The origins of the Celts are traditionally situated in a
    • region between Switzerland, the South of Germany
    • and the North of Italy.
    •  The Celts disappeared under the pressure of the
    • Germans (from the North of Europe) and the Latins
    • (from the South).
  • 6.
    •  There are two different groups of Celtic languages:
    • a) Continental Celtic (mainly in Northern Spain,
    • France and Germany)
    • b) Insular Celtic (in Britain and Ireland)
    • Continental Celtic totally disappeared, and the only
    • Celtic Languages that remain are Insular, including
    • Breton.
    •  Celtic migrations to Armorica and Northern Galicia.
  • 7.
    • The Celtic Languages today are the following:
    • Irish Gaelic.
    • Scottish Gaelic.
    • Welsh.
    • Breton .
    •  Cornish and Manx disappeared in the 17 th Century
    • a nd in the beginning of the 20 th Century respectively.
    • They are now dead languages, although several attempts
    • t o revive them have been made.
  • 8. 2. Some notes about The english language In ireland
  • 9.
    • The first time that the Anglo-Normans landed in
    • Ireland was in 1169, on the request of a local lord.
    • It was in the area around the city of Dublin, known
    • as the Pale , where Anglo-Norman was spoken for
    • the first time in Ireland.
    • The first English settlers where quickly assimilated
    • by the Irish population and during the 14 th and 15 th
    • Centuries, English was not widely spoken in Ireland.
    • The Battle of Kinsale (Cork, 1601), which forced
    • the so-called “Flight of the Earls” in 1607, was a
    • turning point in the history of the Irish language.
  • 10.
    • During the 16 th century the first plantations took
    • place in Ireland, and the first people who moved
    • there were soon assimilated by the native population.
    • In the Ulster, the plantations were very different,
    • since it was common people who moved there, and
    • they did consequently not govern, but rather displace
    • the native Irish population.
    • The plantations later included two forms:
    • transplantation and transportation , which were quite
    • different from each other and which had very different consequences on the local population.
  • 11.
    • During the 18 th and 19 th century, the native
    • Irish population was deprived of education. Only
    • the hedge schools provided a means of gaining
    • access to education.
    • The Ascendancy , who used to live in
    • Big houses did have a right to be educated.
    • In 1840 the Great Famine took place, what
    • constituted a turning point for the Irish language.
  • 12. 3. Nationalism, Language And identity
  • 13.
    • Man is a social being. Human societies are founded
    • on the principle of identity.
    • Identity may be based on ethnic group, religion,
    • language, gender, etc. and it implies both a personal
    • choice and an external acceptance.
    • Identity as a multidimensional reality vs. power
    • relations.
    • The denial of one’s identity.
  • 14.
    • The problem of identity in nations without a State
    • in modern Europe: frustrated national projects,
    • identities and the concept of “Nation-State”.
    • Nationalism and identity are usually related to power
    • relations within a given society: Catalan, Basque and
    • Galician nationalisms and identities. The bourgeoisie:
    • economical and political power.
    •  Power relations in Ireland. Religion and language.
  • 15.
    • Identity as a historical construction. Identity and myth:
    • The foundation of a nation and the need for myths.
    •  Galicia as a Celtic country: discovery or invention?
    • Other national myths: Spain and the “Reconquista”.
    • The American Dream. The French Revolution.
    • National identities founded in contrast to European
    • State identities: The Catalan and Basque orthography.
    • Catholicism in Ireland.
  • 16. 4. Language planning In Ireland
  • 17.
    • Language normalisation vs. normativisation.
    • The three main fields of language planning
    • in which the Irish government operated were:
    • Education, the Gaeltacht and the public service.
    • Language and education in Ireland: From
    • Revivalism to Bilingualism.
    • Similar processes in France and Spain.The
    • concept of “lengua minorizada” in Spain.
  • 18.
    • Language promotion and power relations. What
    • language will the children speak? The playtime.
    • Final reflexion: The future of minority languages
    • within a globalised world.
  • 19. The Linguistic Issue in Ireland

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