Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
20120828 cci workshop iit_final
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

20120828 cci workshop iit_final

129
views

Published on

clusters in creative industries

clusters in creative industries

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
129
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Clusters in Creative Industries in EuropeDevelopment of a framework to measure outcomes and impact ofcreative cluster initativesDr. Sonja Kind, Dr. Gerd Meier zu Köckeriit – Institute for Innovation and TechnologyBerlin, September 6th 2012
  • 2. Agenda• Presentation• Workshop 2
  • 3. Sources of Innovation External Sources Internal Sources Source: IBM CEO Study 3
  • 4. Added-values Provided by the Cluster Approach• Bundling regional competences of industry, academia and policy• Matching with internal or external partners• Stimulation of innovations processes between different actors• Collaborative product development / technology transfer• Project fund acquisition / fund raising• Information and experience exchange between the members• Training, education and recruiting• Support regarding internationalisation• Entrepreneurial supportThese added-values are especially relevant for SMEs 4 4
  • 5. Main Types of Actors Gathered in a Cluster 5
  • 6. Main Level of Intervention 6 Source: VDI/VDE-IT 2010
  • 7. Current Trends in European Cluster PolicyCluster management organisations can considerably increase the impact of thecluster approach Cluster management excellence is high on the agenda within Europe 7
  • 8. The EU Strives towards a „New Strategy for Globally CompetitiveClusters and Networks“Current discussion on cluster management excellence in EuropeCluster managements play a decisive Key factors to stimulate cluster excellencerole for the cluster‘s success The key is an excellent cluster management• Relevance of the cluster management has been underestimated over years • Existence and implementation of a strategy for the further development of the cluster• After having initiated many cluster • Provision of professional services initiatives recent years, the EU now is that address the needs of the cluster focussing on improving the members through the cluster excellence of clusters. management • Sustainable financing of the cluster management organisation and appropriate staffing of the organisation Source: ECEI 8
  • 9. Active Cluster Managements Tend to Provide Higher Impact onCompetitiveness of SME 9
  • 10. Aim of the Study• To describe and compare clusters in cultural and creative industries with clusters from other industries• To develop a framework to measure outcomes and impact of cluster initiatives in the field of creative and cultural industries (CCI) throughout Europe.Working thesis• On one hand CCI clusters have some specific key features – like clusters in industries, too. On the other side CCI cluster are similar to other clusters.• Currently available frameworks to measure output, outcome and impact of non-CCI clusters are applicable to clusters from CCI (with minor adjustments). 10
  • 11. Developing a Framework to Measure Outcomes and Impact ofClusters in the Field of Creative and Cultural Industries (CCI) • Better understanding of CCIs and what makes them different 1 • Survey on existing frameworks 2 • Adaptation of existing frameworks according to CCI peculiarities 3 11
  • 12. Developing a Framework to Measure Outcomes and Impact ofClusters in the Field of Creative and Cultural Industries (CCI) • Better understanding of CCIs and what makes them different 1 • Survey on existing frameworks 2 • Adaptation of existing frameworks according to CCI peculiarities 3 Describing and comparing clusters in cultural and creative industries with clusters from other industries 12
  • 13. Key Issues and Challenges to stimulate CCI clusters Cross-cutting nature Work forms and business models Innovation• High Interdisciplinarity • Project related work forms • Some CCI sectors with less• Many heterogeneous sectors under • Time-limited projects established links to research one umbrella • Addressing niche markets institutes• Lack of shared identity and low • Highly specialised business models • CCI is innovative but the concept of degree of lobbying innovation is not well defined • High qualification Access to financing• Lack of public and private financing CCI Framework conditions• Investors lack awareness for • Accessibility of existing support special needs programmes for CCI• Projects often difficult to • Technological change – CCI understand Key issues and strongly influenced by ICT• Creatives lack business skills • Copyrights (therefore difficult access to challenges… markets) Industry and Business structure …each of which are Main drivers• Interdependency between major characteristic to CCI • Intrinsic motivation to create and small enterprises idealistic goals• High share of small businesses but not necessarily • Less profit-oriented and lack of• High share of freelancer exclusive. business orientation • Non-linear employment histories• High share of semi-professionals• High share of women 13
  • 14. Comparison of CCI to non-CCI Clusters- Similarities and Differences -• Data sets were taken from a Pan-European cluster database, containing more than 250 Clusters (incl. 16 CCIs)• Internationally recognised indicators were used to describe and compare clusters and their organisations 14
  • 15. Selection of CCI Clusters Regarded in the Benchmarking Portfolio CCI Cluster Country Cluster Druck und Printmedien Germany Cluster audiovisuelle Medien Germany Baden-Württemberg Connected e.V. Germany Virtual Dimension Center Fellbach Germany Innovative Experiences Norway DIGIBUSINESS Finland Finland InViO - Innovation network for knowledge-based experience economy Denmark Animation Hub Denmark Danish Sound Technology Network Denmark Innovation Network for Lifestyle, Home and Clothing Denmark Mazovian Printing and Advertising Cluster - COLOURFUL VALLEY Poland Total number of CCI cluster data available for the comparative investigations: 16 15
  • 16. Are They really Different? Comparison of CCI to non-CCI Clusters. Is it possible to adapt and apply the same frameworks for evaluation and impact assessment of clusters from other industries to CCI clusters? Or does the specificity and diversity of CCI demand for unique or even individual frameworks for each CCI sector? Our analysis aimed at the comparison of CCI clusters to other clusters: • What do clusters in CCI have in common with clusters from other industries? • If they are different, in what respect do they differ? • Are there any patterns, which are more characteristic for clusters from CCI? • Does the cluster management of clusters in CCI clusters operate differently compared to cluster managements from other industries? 16
  • 17. Results of cluster comparison 17
  • 18. Survey of some Structural Factors of Clusters Structural Creative Materials/ Biotech ICT Food Production Average Factors Industries Chemistry Year of the cluster 2006 2005 2004 2003 2005 2003 2005 management’s emergence Number of committed 75 70 95 80 90 60 70 members / key actors Regional concentration 75 % 96 % 90 % 80 % 75 % 90 % 90 % Driving force within the 4,0 2,85 3,62 3,82 3,81 4,0 3,72 cluster1 Degree of specialization of the 3,4 2,8 2,7 3,5 3,4 2,8 n. a. cluster2 Legal form of the cluster3 88 % 88 % 77 % 55 % 83 % 72 % 77 % Decentralised governance 38 % 31 % 60 % 33 % 27 % 44 % 38 % Public funding rate of the 62 % 88 % 66 % 64 % 60 % 50 % 61 % cluster management Strategy and strategic 4,4 3,3 4,6 3,8 4,7 4,6 4,1 planning of the cluster4 Number of values clearly 2 5 2 1 2 1 2 diverging from the average1 Scale 1: only research driven, 2: mainly research driven, 3: half-half, 4: mainly industry driven, 5: only industry driven.2 Scale 1: highly specialised, 2 specialisation given, 3: specialisation partly given, 4: broad scope (specialisation not real given), 5: very broad scope (no specialisation at all).3 Percentage of clusters belonging to a given technological domain having a certain given form. 184 Percentage of clusters having a more decentralised governance in place.
  • 19. CCI Clusters differ with respect to structural factors but only in some regards that are not limited to CCI. There is no CCI specific pattern. Structural Creative industries FactorsAge of the cluster CCI clusters do not tend to be younger (or older).managementNumber of committed CCI clusters do not stand out in terms of size. CCI clusters show a slightly higher thanmembers / key actors average number of committed participants. CCI Clusters differ with are significantly less regionally agglomerated than other clusters.Regional concentration CCI clusters respect to some structural factorsDriving force but only in some regards that are not limited to CCI within the CCI clusters are strongly driven by industry partners.clusterDegree of specialization of CCI clusters do not tend to be particularly specialized.the clusterLegal form of the cluster CCI clusters strongly tend to a dedicated legal form.Decentralised governance CCI clusters slightly tend towards more centralized governance structures.Public funding rate of the CCI clusters receive an average amount of public money compared to other clusters.cluster management They are neither more nor less dependent from public money than others.Strategy and strategic CCI clusters put strong emphasis on strategy development and its implementation (asplanning of the cluster the majority of the other clusters does).Number of values clearly CCI clusters diverge in only two aspects (the average is two, biotech clusters divergeddiverging from the average in five aspects). 19
  • 20. Pattern of main objectives of clusters from different industries 20
  • 21. Example: Intensity of offered services is similarIntensity of services in service categories offered by cluster managementorganisations (high index values stand for high intensity of services offered) Acquisition of external funds 4.00 3.50 Composite Service 3.00 Indicator Collaborative products and Internationalisation 2.50 technology development 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 Matchmaking and networking with Information and experience external partners exchange -internal- Entrepreneurial support Human development Biotechnology New Materials and chemistry Production and engineering Information and communication Food industry (non-biotech) Creative Industries 21
  • 22. CCI cluster managements only show some unique patterns Summary of comparing cluster management servicesServices spectrum offered • No distinct pattern for CCI detectableCollarborative technology and productdevelopment • No distinct pattern for CCI detectableSupport to acquire third party funding • CCI cluster managements tend to be less active than the averageDevelopment of human resources • CCI cluster managements tend to be less active than the averageMatchmaking and networking with external • No distinct pattern for CCI detectablepartnersEntrepreneurial support • CCI cluster managements tend to be less active than the averageInternationalization • CCI cluster managements tend to be less active than the average 22
  • 23. WorkshopDeveloping a framework to measure outcomes and impact ofclusters in the field of creative and cultural industries (CCI) • Better understanding of CCIs and what makes them different 1 • Survey on existing frameworks 2 • Adaptation of existing frameworks according to CCI peculiarities 3 23
  • 24. What can be measured / assessedCluster actors Framework Conditions• Intensitiy of co-operation - Coherence and objectives of• Competitiveness cluster policy• Turnover / profit / employees - Economic and structural framework conditions• Innovation capabilitites - Links between cluster policy and• Internationalisation other innovation support• …… measures - …. Performance cluster organisations - Strategy and how turned into practice - Main objective and how to be fulfilled - Staff - Financial sustainability - Services and added values - ….. 24 Source: VDI/VDE-IT 2010
  • 25. ECEI – European Cluster Management Excellence Initiative Development of indicators for assessing the cluster management Excellence Working Group 2 www.cluster-excellence.eu 25
  • 26. www.cluster-excellence.eu 26 Seite 26
  • 27. Key dimension to assess cluster managements according to ECEI STRUCTURE OF THE CLUSTER CLUSTER MANAGEMENT, GOVERNANCE AND STRATEGY OF THE CLUSTER ORGANISATION FINANCING OF CLUSTER ORGANISATION SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE CLUSTER ORGANISATION (SPECTRUM AND INTENSITY) CONTACTS AND INTERACTION WITH RELEVANT PLAYERS ACHIEVEMENTS AND RECOGNITION OF THE CLUSTER ORGANISATION 27
  • 28. Key dimensions and indicators I/III Dimension: STRUCTURE OF THE CLUSTER Age of the cluster organisation Legal form of the cluster organisation Nature of the cluster: driving forces Nature of the cluster: degree of specialisation Composition of the cluster participants (Committed participants) Geographical concentration of the cluster participants (Committed participants) Utilisation of regional growth potential International participants of the cluster Nature of cooperation between cluster participants Dimension: CLUSTER MANAGEMENT, GOVERNANCE AND STRATEGY OF THE CLUSTER ORGANI- SATION Clear definition of the roles of the cluster manager / Implementation of a governing body / Degree of involvement of the participants of the cluster in the decision making. Number of cluster participants per employee (full-time equivalents) of the cluster organisation Human resource competences and development in the cluster organisation Strategic planning and implementation processes Thematic and geographical priorities of the cluster strategy 28
  • 29. Key dimensions and indicators II/III Dimension: FINANCING OF THE CLUSTER MANAGEMENT Share of different financial sources (public funding, chargeable services, membership fees and other private sources) in the total budget of the cluster organisation in relation to the age of the cluster Financial sustainability of the cluster organisation Dimension: SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE CLUSTER ORGANISATION (SPECTRUM AND INTENSITY) Acquisition of third party funding Collaborative technology development, technology transfer or R&D without third party funding Information, matchmaking and exchange of experience among participants Development of human resources Development of entrepreneurship Matchmaking and networking with external partners / promotion of cluster location Internationalisation of cluster participants Dimension: CONTACTS AND INTERACTION WITH RELEVANT PLAYERS Regular contacts with cluster participants Integration of the cluster management organization in the local and national system of innovation Customer and membership satisfaction 29
  • 30. Key dimensions and indicators III/III Dimension: ACHIEVEMENTS AND RECOGNITION OF THE CLUSTER ORGANISATION Number of external cooperation requests received by the cluster organisation Institutional origin of external cooperation requests Geographical origin of external cooperation requests Characteristics of cooperation with other international clusters Visibility in the press Impact of the work of the cluster organisation on R&D activities of the cluster participants Impact of the work of the cluster organisation on business activities of the cluster participants Impact of the business-oriented services of the cluster organisation on SME participants Degree of internationalisation of cluster participants Effect of the work of the cluster organisation on international activities of the cluster participants 30
  • 31. Developing a framework to measure outcomes and impact ofclusters in the field of creative and cultural industries (CCI) • Better understanding of CCIs and what makes them different 1 • Survey on existing frameworks 2 • Adaptation of existing frameworks according to CCI peculiarities 3 31
  • 32. Please assess if the respective indicator is suitable to evaluate CCIclusters.ExampleProcedure• Each of you has 3 green and 3 red stickers which should be sticked on the flip charts.• The stickers are considered for rating: • green = indicator has top priority • red = indicator should be dismissed/has very minor priority• The result will highlight which indicators should be included or avoided in the assessment framework Prioritization Indicators / criteria + - Cluster Management, Governance and Structure Number of cluster participants per employee (full-time equivalents) of the cluster organisation 32
  • 33. Thank you very much for your attention! 33