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OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ASSIGNMENT # 1

Defining and Classifying Groups
Definitions of Group
Two or more individuals inter...
OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ASSIGNMENT # 1

Formal group:
A designed work group defined by an organization’s structure.
A form...
OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ASSIGNMENT # 1

Why do people join groups
There is no single reason why people join groups.
Since ...
OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ASSIGNMENT # 1

Comparison between formal group and informal group
Let us compare both Formal and ...
OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ASSIGNMENT # 1

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Learners get to know each other better.
'Soft' skills such as negotiati...
OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ASSIGNMENT # 1

Status
Because people use identities to define themselves and increase self-esteem...
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ORganizational Behavior ASSignment

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Transcript of "ORganizational Behavior ASSignment"

  1. 1. OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT # 1 Defining and Classifying Groups Definitions of Group Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Group is defined as two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships. (Donelson R. Forsyth) A collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together to achieve a common set of goals. A Group is “a collection of two or more interaction individuals with a stable pattern of relationships between them, who share common goals and who perceive themselves as being a group.” Thus, Group Characteristics are: INTERACTION AMONG MEMBERS SHAREDD GOALS GROUP PEOPLE SEE THEMSELVES AS MEMBERS TWO OR MORE PEOPLE Characteristics of Group        Members have a common purpose but work independently, sometimes competitive with one another. Individuals may have limited knowledge about one another. Meetings serve as a forum to receive reports and coordinate activity. Meetings follow an agenda with set time constraints. Attendance is not essential—the group can function with absent members and substitutes. The composition of the group may vary. Individuals rather that the group are recognized for effectiveness. Types of group There are two basic types of groups. 1: Formal group. 2: Informal group. Bachelor in Business Administration
  2. 2. OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT # 1 Formal group: A designed work group defined by an organization’s structure. A formal group is the deliberate and systematic grouping of people in an organization so that organizational goals are better achieved. Now any organization would have a certain formula. They are very essential for the efficient functioning of the organization. Example  Six members of an airline flight crew.  A group in organization works on a specific project.  Group of sportsman in match or sports competitions Informal group A group that is neither formally structure nor organizationally determined, such a group appears in response to the need for social contact. Informal groups are the natural and spontaneous grouping of people whenever they work together over a period. Whenever people interact and work together over a certain period, it is very natural for them and it comes very spontaneously for them, that they form informal groups. Example  For example, we are officially assigned to the computer engineering department. But in the hostel, we live with friends from other branches. So when all of us live together for a 4 year period, it’s very natural for us to interact and build up groups informally with our friends from other branches.  Friends groups.  Family group  Three employees who regularly have lunch and coffee together are an informal group.  Chat group Therefore, like this, any organization would have informal groups. Bachelor in Business Administration
  3. 3. OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT # 1 Why do people join groups There is no single reason why people join groups. Since most individuals belong to different groups. Therefore, they have different attractions towards these. Most popular reasons are  Proximity, Interaction & Influence  Security  Self-Esteem  Affiliation  Power  Identity  Huddling  Goal Achievement Bachelor in Business Administration
  4. 4. OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT # 1 Comparison between formal group and informal group Let us compare both Formal and Informal Groups: Formal group Informal group Deliberately created. Formal groups are knowingly and systematically created. Spontaneously created. Informal groups are not really created, they are naturally formed. 1. Systematic structure. As we discussed earlier, in the computer department, we have HOD, OFFICE STAFF, etc. So there is a system in place. Loose structure In informal groups, there is no structure at all. They just come together for some time. There is no junior and senior…everybody is equal. 1. 2. Importance to position. In a formal group, importance is always given to the position. Ex: the group leader, the head of department, etc. The position gets importance in a formal way because there is a system in place. Importance to the person. The beauty of being in an informal group is that the position does not exist at all because there is no structure. So importance is always given to the person. 1. Relationship is official. The relationship is very formal and official in a formal group. So the relationship and behavior is almost prescribed in a formal group. Relationship is personal. In an informal group, the interaction and the attachment becomes very personal and not official. 1. 2. Communication is restricted and slow. By restricted we mean that the “boss may decide that certain information should not be discussed below a certain level.” Communication is very slow because a certain procedure has to be followed if we want to pass down the information. Communication is free and fast. Everybody wants to tell everyone all the information. With the gossip network in an informal group, information is passed very quickly. Advantages and disadvantages of group      Advantages More ideas can be generated. Greater diversity of ideas and opinions. More people available to get a task completed. It's a great networking and socializing opportunity. Great opportunity for sharing skills and knowledge. Bachelor in Business Administration
  5. 5. OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT # 1      Learners get to know each other better. 'Soft' skills such as negotiation, leadership, conflict resolution etc can be demonstrated. Less confident learners may feel more 'safe' in a large group. Decisions made are collaborative - builds ownership of issues and solutions. Large groups can be fun to work with, and to be part of.          Disadvantages Greater chance of conflict between individual learners. Decision-making takes more time. Segregation of individuals can occur. Less extroverted individuals can feel intimidated and be hesitant to contribute. The trainer may need to intervene and provide leadership. It's easier for individuals to avoid doing any work and let others do it all. Reaching agreement can be difficult. Things can get rowdy and out of hand. Risk of an individual taking on a 'boss' role and being a dictator. Social Identity theory Perspective that considers why and when individuals consider themselves members of group. Several characters make a social identity important to a person: Similarities  People who have the similar values and characteristics as others members of their organization have higher levels of group identification.  Demographically similarity can also lead to stronger for new hires, while those who are demographically different may have a hard time identifying with the group as a whole. Distinctiveness People are more likely to notice identities that show how they are different from other groups. Respondents in one study identified more strongly with those in their work group with whom they share uncommon or rare demographic characteristics. Bachelor in Business Administration
  6. 6. OGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSIGNMENT # 1 Status Because people use identities to define themselves and increase self-esteem, it makes senses that they are most interested in linking themselves to high status groups. People are likely not to identify themselves with a low status organization and will be more likely to quit in order leaving that identity behind. Uncertainty reduction Membership in a group also helps some people understand who they are and how they fit into the world In-Group Favoritism Perspective in which we see members of our in-group as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same. The in-group can be described as the group of people with whom an individual categorizes himself/herself with. From a biological perspective, this behavior is inherent that people tend to help members from their own group rather than those from others. People can and will interact with outgroups, but use different strategies with both. Members of an in-group feel a sense of commitment to the group and gain greater esteem from their sense of belonging to the group. In-group favoritism primarily exists to protect the group as individuals and as a group. By giving special treatment to group members, resources may be unavailable to other groups, and that group can maintain a higher status. Typically the larger the in-group, the more power they can impose on others. The overall idea is that members of the in-group stick together and give each other preferential treatment on performance reviews, monetarily, or simply for social status. Bachelor in Business Administration

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