ELECTRONIC AGC FORM SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENTSECTION 1: STUDENT TO COMPLETEI.D. No: 099018609 FORMTEXT insert student numberENR...
Difficulty in access to Public Secrets: Block (1981:268) believes, ‘People do tell truth in an organization, however, they...
Foucault (1983) and Block (1981) warn by distinguishing between ‘doxa’ (opinion) and ‘episteme’ (truth) and consider ‘para...
De Haan(2006:51) says consultancy is not about being an expert but about being different. Ruud(2010:Lecture4) ‘Organizatio...
Solutions are then suggested to the problems constructed beforehand. At times, consultancy appears to construct problems a...
Consultancy experiences occurrence of prejudice or paradox
Pre-judgement of some belief is called prejudice. Father of Enlightenment,(Descartes,1637) authored the Cartesian Theory o...
A consultant is expected to make use of ironical situation in a positive manner. (De Haan, 2006:42) views, ‘irony, an appr...
Further, Deleuze(1980:257) and (De Haan,2006) search for humour, as it helps to mediate movement of intensities to seek em...
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
Mba Critical Inquiry into Consultancy_2010
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  1. 1. ELECTRONIC AGC FORM SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENTSECTION 1: STUDENT TO COMPLETEI.D. No: 099018609 FORMTEXT insert student numberENROLMENT/START DATE : 09/2009PROGRAMME:MBA(FT)MODULE: Critical Inquiry into ConsultancyMODULE CODE:MN7311  FORMTEXT      STUDENT DECLARATION: In submitting work to the University you are agreeing to the following statement:“I declare that this assignment is my own work, that all sources of reference are acknowledged in full and that it has not been submitted for any other course“. <br />SECTION 2: TUTOR TO COMPLETE: COMMENT and GENERAL ASSESSMENTPresentation of assignment and clarity of expressionPresentation shows a polished, coherent structure. Thoughts and ideas are clearly expressed. Fluent academic writing style.Presentation carefully and logically organised. Thoughts and ideas clearly expressed.Presentation satisfactory showing organisation and coherence. Language mainly fluent.Presentation shows an attempt to organise in a logical manner. Meaning apparent, but language not always fluent.Presentation is disorganised. Purpose and meaning of assignment is unclear and/or is poorly expressed.Tutor to mark by inserting a X in the appropriate box.xAttention to the purpose of the assignmentHas addressed the purpose of the assignment comprehensively and imaginatively.Has addressed the purpose of the assignment coherently and with some attempt to demonstrate imagination.Has address the purpose of the assignment.Some of the answer responds to the purpose of the question. Answer fails to address the question set.Tutor to mark by inserting a X in the appropriate box.xCritical analysis of literature/theoryThe assignment demonstrates application of critical analysis. Arguments are well integrated.Clear application of theory through critical analysis of the topic area.Demonstrates some critical analysis of relevant theory.Limited evidence of critical analysis. Tendency towards description.Lacks critical analysis of theory. Purely descriptive.Tutor to mark by inserting a X in the appropriate box.xIllustrations: Use of examples/evidence.Appropriate examples are fully and reliably integrated and evaluated.Some use of examples. Well integrated and evaluated.Some use of examples. Some integration and evaluation attempted.A little use of examples. Little integration and evaluation.Very little use of examples. No evaluations.Tutor to mark by inserting a X in the appropriate box.xConclusions.Analytical and clear conclusions well grounded in theory and literature showing reflection upon key issues.Good understanding shown in summary of arguments based in theory/literature.Some evidence of the conclusion being supported by theory/literature.Limited conclusions only partially grounded n theory/literature.None or unsubstantiated conclusions.Tutor to mark by inserting a X in the appropriate box.x<br />Comments (first and second markers): A nice attempt to integrate the lectures and the module literature to experiences and cases. Reflection could be better and tried to do to much at once. Very nicely presented using pictures cleverly<br />Tutor marking this assignmentRuud KaulingfreksDate of marking (dd.mm.yyyy)Mark AwardedGrade AwardedNAME OF MARKER19/05/2010% 65Grade B<br />SECTION 3: STUDENT’S ASSIGNMENT (TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT)3298 wordsWORD COUNT. To include everything except the AGC Form, references and appendices.No of words = Three Thousand Two Hundred and Ninety Eight words.<br />Student to insert assignment below:<br />[099018609][2010] Critical Inquiry into Consultancy Coursework <br />The image (above) is an illusion between a dragon and a face. ‘Critical Inquiry into Consultancy’ brings out a reflection of looking at things in a ‘different way’ by the consultant using ‘fearless speech’ in order to provide effective advice to the client. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://r.b5z.net/i/u/10052210/i/consultancy_services.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET University of Leicester [MBA Coursework]Profile of Salvatore Dali or a strange woman (below) INCLUDEPICTURE "http://brainden.com/images/dali-illusion.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET <br />COURSEWORK QUESTION<br />Question: Write an essay wherein you discuss the literature of the module in relation to the position of the consultant viz a viz the organization. <br />Review the text- what it is about? What does it say? What is its relation to consultancy? <br />Analyse the position of the writer-what are assumptions about organization and consultancy? Does the writer think consultancy is a straightforward activity? Or does he see complications? What does he think about organizations? <br /><ul><li>Analyse what writer thinks from the position of a consultant? Is the consultant an outsider? How does he relate to the organization or clients? What is the task of the consultant? What should consultants do?</li></ul>Give your own view on the discussion. What do you think about consultancy? Try to be as critical as possible about the text<br />Criterion:<br />Analytical clarity- logically connected arguments and well presented<br />Completeness- good review, showing understanding of texts, try to develop own thoughts<br />Table of content: Page number <br />1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6<br />2. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7<br />3. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….8<br />4. CRITCAL ANALYSIS OF PARRHESIA…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….10<br />5. POSITION OF A CONSULTANT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10<br />6. WRITER’S POSITION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11<br />7. IS CONSULTING A STRAIGHT-FORWARD ACTIVITY? ………………………………………………………………………………………….13<br />8. CASE STUDY-Real Life Examples……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….16<br />9. RECOMMENDATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19<br />10. CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21<br />12. BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22<br /> <br />EXECUTIVE SUMMARY<br />21st century’s competitive business landscape influenced by globalization and liberalization amidst a climate of uncertainties, poses tremendous challenges for modern-day consultants. Global competition, technological advancement, multiple communication channels, decreasing product life-cycles, rise of knowledge driven skills have paved a way for consultants at strategic planning levels at organizations dealing with turbulence in a dynamic business environment. From corporate reengineering, strategic counselling to national governments, specialty fields - human resource, education, media and entertainment, information technology, technical and management consultancy, politics to non-government organizations, all pervasive role of consultants is becoming increasingly important and yet a desired one. <br />The objective of this essay is to conduct a ‘Critical Inquiry into Consultancy’ through a philosophical approach, looking into the art of management. The paper critically reviews the module literatures and draws inferences from the philosophical ontology- parrhesia, nomadic thought, role of external, ethical self-discipline, change facilitation, detachment from client, hermeneutics - forming essential elements of fearless consulting. Views of scholarly authors and assumptions about consultancy are drawn to test practical experience. Gaps in the existing system are identified and the paper recommends practical strategies for effective consulting- a journey in consulting from being fearless to flawless.<br />INTRODUCTION<br />Theory of organisation development (Schien, 1980), a widely practiced behaviour science approach to ‘change management’ seeks to increase organizational effectiveness through planned, collaborative-intervention process by a result-oriented, problem-solving approach. In that light, consultants are regarded as ‘catalysts of change’ fostering organizational efficiency. The change agent’s concern is on alleviating problems in the organization’s system by focusing on past, present and future constructions of reality. <br />From organisation theory (Schein, 1980), contingency theory (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967), it is evident that organizations are dependent, interrelated and continuously interacting with the external environment. This turbulence creates the need for internal reorganization with a ‘different view’. Such a need calls for an ‘external’ (consultant), to access the situation with an ‘independent mind’ and suggest ‘unbiased recommendations’ and ‘timely action’ to the internal management. <br />Contingency theory (1967) claims that there is – no one best way- to organize a corporation or to make decisions. A consultant seeks the optimal recommendation, contingent (dependent) upon the internal or external situation. Hence, consultancy begins when the management (client) hires a consultant to offer a cutting-edge solution.  <br />LITERATURE REVIEW<br />This paper now captures a synopsis of world view on Consultancy, reflective of influential thoughts of Foucault (1983), Deleuze and Guattari (1980), Kafka (1931), De Haan (2006), Deleuze (1980) and Block (1981).<br />Foucault (1983) ideated a model of moral self-governance, based on the practice of ‘parrhesia’ (Greek word meaning ‘fearless speech’). Parrhesia is firstly related to a ‘political form’ (democracy), establishing the relationship of tyranny (power-holder) and the people (consultant). Secondly, Socratic parrhesia, relates to everyday ‘personal form’ of ethical self-governance. <br />Parrhesia relates to frankness (own/independent opinion), courage of truth-telling (saying what one has in mind), danger (risk of truth-telling), and duty (right). Hence, parrhesia is relevant to consultant’s role of influencing an organization as an ‘external’ even without holding any power within the organisation. <br />De Haan (2006) and Foucault (1983) agree on relating consultancy with parrhesia or ‘fearless speech’. Block (2000) considers the practice of ‘speaking freely’ as ‘being authentic’ in the process of truth-finding. Hence, fearless speech forms an important element of successful consultancy.<br />Deleuze (1980) and Foucault (1983), maintain that the parrhesiaste must speak fearlessly and avoid flattery. Parrhesia refrains from speaking falsely, avoids being garrulous or ego-centric. A consultant must differentiate between good and bad parrhesia. Good parrhesia is truth-telling while, bad parrhesia is influenced by emotions/persuasion. Bad parrhesia can be extremely dangerous for organisations, as it covers-up the existing or forthcoming problems to the management. <br />By ‘mathesis’ (learning), Foucault (1983:62-67) strikes at the distinction between ‘truth’ and ‘silence’. Implying, in certain situations, it may be wiser for a consultant to remain silent and deepen the learning. A consultant must evaluate the situation by exploring client’s inputs and facilitating the desired change. But, the consultant must respect the autonomous nature of change and ‘practice detachment’ from the client without getting personally involved (De Haan, 2006). <br />Foucault (1983:66) says, for successful parrhesia, truth-teller must possess good education, intellectual and moral formation. Socratic parrhesia, opposes self-ignorance, is based on knowledge (qualified educational background), truth and induces critical thinking of the questioning of self. <br />Foucault (1983) says, place of a consultant is not in ‘public forums’, implying that parrhesiaste must ‘participate in assembly’ only to advice on critical decisions. He must speak with conviction, a reasonable fact, constituting a good advice. Block (1981) cautions from ‘getting stuck’, implying repetition of consultants advise to an unreceptive client.<br />Change management is a successful outcome of ‘parrhesia’. It leads to ‘internalization’ or adaptation of new set of values, beliefs and attitudes, by the organisation. <br />A consultant is bound by a contract that demands confidentiality. Deleuze (1980:254-5), Foucault (1983), Block (1981), De Haan (2006:xii) warn the consultant from ‘getting into trap’, maintain ‘self-discipline’ and practice detachment from the client, else it results in violation of the ‘contract’. (De Haan, 2006:11) observes ‘boundaries between friend and flatterer may be extremely blurred’. <br />Foucault (1983:29) believes that the listener (client) must be in ‘command’ but cites ‘power without limits as madness’. Kafka (1931:9) views, ‘leadership is like river, if it overflows, it destroys its own banks’. Hence, orders of the leader must be regulated. Ruud (2010, Lecture4), explains that for a king (organisation) to feel powerful, there must be boundary, implying, ‘management is about creating limits’. <br />Foucault (1983) reminds that solutions to specific institutional dilemmas are never solutions but rather reconfigurations that pose new problems and dangers. Kafka (1931) supports Foucault (1983) by saying that construction of one wall as a protective action against the ‘disorder’ may expose the organisation to further dangers or challenges. <br />CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PARRHESIA <br />Foucault’s (1983) parrhesia has no justification of Greek God Apollo’s silence over raping the queen of Athens, Creusa. Here, the truth teller is silent. This is unlikely in the practical situation where clients have the power to return to the consultant for feedback over a particular situation they would have handled. <br />Practically, the consultant must owe up the errors if any and try to resolve the problem in the best interest of the client. <br />Foucault(1983) maintains, ‘parrhesia’ was not clearly defined in institutional terms, democracy itself was not adequate to specify qualities of truth-teller and failed to appoint one, in absence of formal laws of valid reasoning. Hence, it was difficult to choose the parrhesiaste, bound by social and moral qualities; this comes as an irony to the framework of parrhesia.<br />Finally, at times, philosophy and organizations follow two different logics and each may influence in a different way (Ruud, 2007). While organisations aim at efficiency; philosophy which is not scientifically proven, may lead to loss of time, delay in corrective actions can be damaging for organizations. Practically, the consultant must be sensitive to respond to changes in dynamic business environment, conduct SWOT analysis, evaluate Porter’s (1983) Five-forces of competition and consider windows of opportunity to impart their strategic recommendations to the client.<br />POSITION OF THE CONSULTANT VIZ A VIZ THE ORGANISATION <br />This part of the paper will critically analyse the world-view by scholars about the position of the consultant viz a viz the organization, which is usually as an ‘external’, ‘nomad’ but can be that of an ‘insider’. Consultants may work free-lance, often part-time or as employees of consultancy companies mostly with a high degree of freedom and responsibility (Evers and Menkhoff, 2004).<br />In ‘Nomadic Thoughts’, Deleuze(1980:259) considers the position of a consultant as that of a ‘nomad’. However, ‘nomad’ may not be always moving around and can practice nomadology (consultancy), even by being at one place. A nomad travels (move freely ‘outside’ of fixed locations) through the journey of ‘thoughts’ and uses ‘words (advice) to enter (communicate/advice) in new locations (consultancy assignments), termed as deterritorilization and reterritorization (Deleuze, 1980:259). ‘Thoughts’ of the nomad are regarded as ‘war-machine’ which is used to influence the state-apparatus (organization). Nomadic concept enables awareness of multiplicities and connections between things, to approach think and live without fear. Hence, a nomad has no passport, or has too many. <br />Deleuze(1980) implies that the consultant has the opportunity to relate to different situations, in different locations, strike effective relationships with new people and challenge existing beliefs or habits by their effective intervention. However, Kafka (1931) views the nomad as an outsider to the ‘internal order’. In ‘Great Wall of China’, Kafka (1931) calls for a view from outside to envision the right course of action. <br />Practically, major consultancy firms like McKinsey, Boston Consulting Group, KPMG etc. hire professional consultants who are deputed to various client locations to offer their consultancy advice, once the contract is over, they return to the parent company, and set-off for other client locations. This well fits in the philosophy of Deleuze(1980) and Kafka(1931). <br />WRITER’S POSITION <br />De Haan(2006) in Fearless Consulting demonstrates that, despite risks and temptations, consultants can approach their profession fearlessly, by philosophical inspirations and skills of specific intervention. <br />Essential element of Block’s (1981) philosophy of consulting is the concept of consultant having influence over the management without any direct power to make changes in the organisation. ‘Authentic behaviour’ of the consultant is of critical importance to consulting. Power balance is undefined in the lateral relationship management process.<br />The power-relation in an organization suggests, the managers make decision first, and then analyse implying management is powerful. (Deleuze, 1980), (Evers and Menkhoff, 2004:131) believe ’change management’ takes people outside of their comfort zone. <br />Foucault (1983), Block (2000) believes in existence of a power-relation between the Parhessiates (consultant) and tyranny (client), where separation of responsibility and authority exists in this power-relation. <br />Consultants position themselves working simultaneously across the borders of conflicts and almost always outside their own comfort zones since they often challenge the existing cognitive order. <br />Consultancy challenges existing cognitive order<br />This real-life example establishes the indispensible role of consultancy that left indelible impact on global politics, challenging the existing cognitive order in the history of Politics. <br />CONSULTANCY MAY NOT BE A STRAIGHT-FORWARD ACTIVITY<br />Fearless speech as a principle in Consultancy may not be a straight-forward activity. There are elements of problems, as discussed below: <br /> <br />Fearless Speech may come under pressure: A consultant may come across compelling situations to cover-up, dilute or abandon fearless speech, while conversing, reasoning, intimidation by client, or impatience of the client to hear ‘good news’. In such circumstances, temptation’ to resort from fearless speech to advocacy or flattery may set in. De Haan(2006:19-21) recommends a consultant to apply moral/philosophical learning of self-direction and self-reflection to check their desires overpowering duty. <br />De Haan(2006:19-21) reminds a consultant to avoid narcissism, speak courageously with the sole-intention of helping the client, use peer consultation and feedback. Consultants are warned identify two extremes of bluntness and flattery. <br /><ul><li>Problem caused with excess knowledge: Foucault (1983) observes there is a crisis caused due to relation of parrhesia with ‘mathesis’. Excessive knowledge can become a threat to organization as professionals may disobey the management (Ruud, 2010:Lecture6). Hence, professionals may become a threat to organization.
  2. 2. Difficulty in access to Public Secrets: Block (1981:268) believes, ‘People do tell truth in an organization, however, they say in private’. Since honest conversation remains in private, it is a challenge for consultants to get access to the truth. A consultant can learn and gain insight by use of hermeneutics (Aristotle, 1938), an interpretation theory.
  3. 3. Foucault (1983) and Block (1981) warn by distinguishing between ‘doxa’ (opinion) and ‘episteme’ (truth) and consider ‘paradoxa’ (contradiction). This implies that consultants must beware of mixing opinion with truth and at the same time, keep a close watch on identifying ‘irony’ as an instrument of change in communication (De Haan, 2006:42). </li></ul>Problem of perception: <br /><ul><li>In theory of communication, Soares(1981) believes, that the message sent from the sender is not received in the same way at the receiver’s end, due to ‘noise’. Hence, ‘communication exists due to miscommunication’ (Ruud, 2010:Lecture3).
  4. 4. De Haan(2006:51) says consultancy is not about being an expert but about being different. Ruud(2010:Lecture4) ‘Organizations work because they do not work’. (Foucault, 1983:170) supports, problem exists in minds of people, characterized by ‘problematization of parrhesia’. This occurs due to ‘perception of a truth as a problem’. This implies, in analysing problems consultants, create them in the first place (Ruud, 2010:Lecture3).
  5. 5. Solutions are then suggested to the problems constructed beforehand. At times, consultancy appears to construct problems and then offering real solutions, this is the problem of perception.
  6. 6. Consultancy experiences occurrence of prejudice or paradox
  7. 7. Pre-judgement of some belief is called prejudice. Father of Enlightenment,(Descartes,1637) authored the Cartesian Theory of Fallacies, stating that at any given time a statement can be both true and false simultaneously because of its contradictory nature. The statement is true in its fallacy, implies, ‘truth is always related to doubt’. So, a consultant must avoid ‘prejudice’ in truth-finding in paradox-situation.
  8. 8. A consultant is expected to make use of ironical situation in a positive manner. (De Haan, 2006:42) views, ‘irony, an appropriate form of communication in a dynamic situation’, that helps to unfreeze ideas and invites thought-movement from one perspective to the other’, as Kurt Lewin model (1951) sugests ‘unfreeze-change-refreeze’.
  9. 9. Further, Deleuze(1980:257) and (De Haan,2006) search for humour, as it helps to mediate movement of intensities to seek emergence of better thought process. </li></ul>ANALYSIS OF THE POSITION OF THE CONSULTANT<br />The position of the consultant is characterized by being one of an ‘external’. This implies, the consultant exerts influence despite being powerless, while the management is powerful. (De Haan, 2006:79). <br />The consultant is in an autonomous position (De Haan, 2006:118). ‘Consulting is temporary and bounded by clear limits of effectiveness which can range from a few minutes to a few years’, depending on issues involved. A successful consultant remains impartial, unbiased and detached from pursuing self-interest. <br />Role of a consultant viz a viz an organization can take place in 4 forms: Expert, Counsellor, Jester and Mediator. As a counsellor, a consultant might conduct a SWOT analysis to reach to effective conclusions, deal with tactical level problems. <br />CASE STUDY: Real Life Examples (An excerpt from practical work-experience)<br />This essay presents three case-studies analysing impact on corporate leadership with consultancy advice, leading into successful business-revolutions. Cases-studies are from my professional work-experience, as a business-journalist gained at NewsX Media Private Limited, TV News Channel (India). <br />Idea of ‘affordable-car’ was visioned by management-consultant, Late Dr.CK Prahalad at a public presentation at Michigan B-School (1997). Prahalad’s lecture addressed corporate-strategies for emerging economies (India and China). His final slide concluded by saying, <br />Consultancy Impact: 13-years later, C K Prahalad’s recommendation became a reality, when Indian business-tycoon Ratan Tata implemented Prahalad’s advice by constituting expert-team of consultants, designers and technologists and created the ‘affordable car’- ‘Nano’. Attractive price, design and safety made it a revolutionary success. Over 10 Lakh ‘Nano-models’ were sold-out in the first-rollout translating Prahalad’s foresight- ‘Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid’- a success-story.<br />My news-presentation detailed the birth of the new business-model- seeds of which are a consultant’s vision of transformation. Hence, it is analysed, how powerful a consultant’s thinking can be, if implemented well, can lead to revolutionary impact. <br />L&T constituted an internal task-force to chart out a roadmap and focused on branding, technology and internationalisation. The thrust was on three specific areas: branding, technology and internationalisation. <br />My news-presentation focused restructuring initiatives and acknowledged the emergent role of consultancy to make the turnaround. In a LIVE-camera interview opportunity in 2009, <br />Analysis: BCG worked with 50-60 people from each of our 15 businesses at L&T, to draw the blueprint. The company expanded multi-fold, making it an established Indian MNC. Hence, it is realised that the company had professional leadership. However, it was under-performing. Analytical recommendation with a different view from consultancy helped the firm. Further, in 2009, the company hired McKinsey and Bain& Company for its next phase. Consultancy results in a ‘win-win’ deal. <br />NewsX is a ‘news’ organization employing professional journalists. The news- reporters have to be involved in on-the-spot reporting by reaching the site of news event. It included both domestic and international travel involving outflow of money from corporate-kitty. <br />At the same time, company’s corporate management was keen on increasing channel’s market visibility and was willing to spend that money from corporate kitty on ‘financing for advertisements’.<br />Here, the corporate management and the professional team of journalists witnessed dilemma over company’s expenditures on ‘Correspondent’s travel allowance’ or ‘spending on advertisements’. <br />While professional journalists appealed for increasing allocation on ‘exclusive news coverage’, the management did not accept it and maintained 'advertisement spends to increase channel visibility’. <br />Thus, there existed a dilemma between the management and the professionals. <br />In 2009, NewsX hired a media-consultant ‘Pulse Media Consultancy’. Over detailed analysis of company, market sensing, SWOT analysis, the consultant encouraged management to spend on ‘travel-allowance’ for ‘exclusive news-coverage’. As, a quality reporting will itself encourage people to watch the channel and company will gain improved market-share.<br />RECOMMENDATIONS: Strategies for successful consulting<br />External consultants offer experienced observation and analysis to challenge previously established positions and/or ways of thinking. By ushering in new viewpoints, conceptualizations and jargon, they act like trend-setters, creating new frames of references that may force owners of both small and large firms to recognize the previous strategic orientations to embrace new business approaches and practices (Evers and Menkhoff, 2004:131). <br />Firstly, effective consulting begins with personal preparation, understanding client’s needs and capabilities, idea of change, adaptability of the client, follow-up and follow-through to complete each intervention by maintaining confidentiality (Block, 1981:65). Credibility defining courses like International Standard Organisation (9001) Certifications have added value to the precision and trust and moral faith expected in a consultant-client relationship. <br /><ul><li>A consultant should be inquisitive for truth-seeking, with an eye for irony and leverage core-competence of the client. Careful collection and funneling of data must be carried out for effective analysis. De Haan (2006) cautions that waiting for creative discovery as an extreme act of irony can lead to dilemma. It is worth for a consultant to have an eye for irony. </li></ul>In Homer's (1842) Odyssey, while navigating through the Strait of Messina (Sicily), Ulysses (the hero) was in a dilemma of confronting between the two perils Scylla and Charybdis. He chose the lesser of the two evils and emerged successful. Practically, consultants may have to choose the best available alternative among two equally harsh situations (Ruud, 2010:Lecture3). <br />A consultant must show commitment, accountability and ethics. Avoid getting caught in self-interest (Block, 1981:295) by clear communication and feedback. (Block, 1981:272-73) believes, ‘task of a consultant is to find ways to change conversation’ by avoiding old subjects and induce insightful thinking. <br />Corporate reengineering efforts must be balanced (Block, 1981:322) as Hammer (2006), states, ‘70% of the reengineering efforts fail…’ and hence must be considered with caution. The consultant must demonstrate leadership at the executive levels in order to build trust.<br />Consultancy is about bringing value to the client. A consultant must create value, change behaviours and not just reinforce behaviours, challenge conventional thinking over ‘different view’, innovate advice, and continuously define and measure results. As a consultant, we need to design efforts to support learning. Hence, it is worth knowing client’s expectations beforehand and bewares of overpromising. <br />CONCLUSION<br />Companies adopt consultancy for a change management. Consultants acquire, package and sell specific knowledge that is to be applied or acted on by their clients (Evers and Menkhoff, 2004:125). For success, a consultant must not only follow Foucault’s (1983) fearless speech or parrhesia, but also have an open ear to ‘fearless listening’ and be receptive to the learning from the environment (Plutarch, 1st century A.D.; De Haan, 2006). It may be a challenging task for a consultant to both speak and listen fearlessly, but an inquisitive and alert consultant read and listens between lines to develop a ‘different view’. They must keenly observe ambiguities, unresolved issues, and suggest effective advice. <br />REFRENCES<br />Aristotle, (1938) On Interpretation, Harold P. Cooke (trans.), in Aristotle, Volume 1 (Loeb Classical Library), London: William Heinemann: pp. 111–179<br />Block, P. (1981) Flawless Consulting: A Guide to getting your Expertise Used, 2nd ed., Pfeiffer and Company, San Francisco, CA: University Associates <br />Castells, M. (1996) The information age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. 1 Oxford: Blackwell <br />De Haan, E. (2006) Fearless Consulting- Temptations, Risks and Limits of the Profession, Chichester: John Wiley<br />De Haan, E. (2006) ‘Fearless listening: the hidden factor behind the power of fearless consulting’ 360°The Ashridge Journal, Autumn: 20- 25 (available online at: http://www.ashridge.org.uk/Website/)<br />Deleuze, G. (1980) Nomadic Thought: Isabelle Eberhardt and the Colonial Project Cultural Critique, No. 17 (Winter, 1990-1991), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press pp. 151-176 (Lecture Notes, University of Leicester, Prof. Kaulingfreks, R. , Lecture 1:2010)<br />Deleuze and Guattari (1980), "Introduction: Rhizome" from ‘A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia’, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press <br />Evers and Menkhoff (2004) ‘Expert knowledge and the role of consultants in an emerging knowledge-based economy’ Human Systems Management (23:123–135)<br />Fincham,R. and Clark, T. (2002), ‘Introduction: The emergence of critical perspectives on consulting’, Blackwell, Oxford<br />Foucault, M. (1983), Fearless Speech Los Angeles: Semiotext (e) <br />Kafka F. (1931) Great Wall of China (referenced from Lecture Notes, University of Leicester, Prof. Kaulingfreks, R. , Lecture 1:2010)<br />Kaulingfreks, R. 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