ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
Assignment # 3 Question
You are required (1) to convince an M.D. of an organization of...
 Climate, management practices, workgroup and departmental functioning, job
satisfaction and the quality of work life of ...
MODEL: I will use the FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS model to convince the M.D.

FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS MODEL:

Force Field Analysisis...
Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation that are pushing in a particular direction;
they tend to initiate a ...
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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE

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solution of questions:
You are required (1) to convince an M.D. of an organization of the importance of an organizational diagnosis before attemp¬ting certain organizational reforms. How would you ap¬proach this matter and which arguments will you use, and (2) which arguments will you use to convince him of the necessity of the diagnosis being based on a model?

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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE

  1. 1. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE Assignment # 3 Question You are required (1) to convince an M.D. of an organization of the importance of an organizational diagnosis before attempting certain organizational reforms. How would you approach this matter and which arguments will you use, and (2) which arguments will you use to convince him of the necessity of the diagnosis being based on a model? FIRSTLY, I will tell the M.D of the organization about the importance of organizational diagnoses that why organizational diagnoses are important before attempting organizational reforms. 1) IMPORTANCE OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNISIS: Organizational Diagnosis is an essential step in every initiative of change, and with ever changing environment in which flexibility and creativity are proving to be key values, most managers are interested in questions regarding the nature of organizational process and structure, human relations, and nature of change. Organizational diagnosis is an exercise attempted to make an analysis of organization. And analysis of its structure, subsystems and processes in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of its structural components and processes and use it as a basic for developing plans to improve and /or maximize the dynamism and effectiveness of the organization. Diagnosis gives the state of the organization or one or more of its subsystems and points out the scope for improvements that could be made for achieving organizational effectiveness Organizational Diagnosis helps organizations identify the “gaps” between “what is” and “what ought to be.” Once we gain a shared vision of the desired state, we can partner in an effort to identify barriers and work toward solutions. Organizational diagnosis, involves “diagnosing,” or assessing, an organization’s current level of functioning in order to design appropriate change interventions. MORE I will convince the M.D by telling him the advantages of organizational diagnoses before attempting organizational reforms. The advantages are as follow: Advantages of Diagnosis  It identifies the core organisational problemsand needs and ensures that interventions (programmes, changes, new systems, etc.) are based on these identified problems and needs.  It provides employees with the opportunity to bring their perceptions and attitudes to the attention of management in an objective way.  It can give management a comprehensive picture as well as in-depth information on the organisation’s well-being in terms of factors such as:
  2. 2.  Climate, management practices, workgroup and departmental functioning, job satisfaction and the quality of work life of employees, and the extent to which employees are empowered and committed.  It can lead to employee involvement in problem identification and it sets the scene for participation in problem-solving. It is therefore an exceptionally effective way to encourage participation, ownership and commitment. CONVENCING THE M.D: Organizations need to survive in a competitive and rapidly changing environment, thus they are confronted with challenges and uncertainty in their actions and need to be capable of adapting to new situations and environments in order to “survive” – remain competitive and be effective. In such cases, change is not only inevitable but it is necessary, so how change processes are planned and then implemented is vital to the development of modern organizations. Organizational change can be defined as a state of transition between the current state and a future one, towards which the organization is directed. This means that when talking about change we are referring to a process through which the organization goes, more simply from state A to state B, with the desire for improvement. Organizational change can also be seen as a sort of innovation meaning a technology, a product or a practice used by the members of an organization for the first time, regardless of whether it has already been used by other organizations or not. 2) CONVINCING THE M.D ABOUT ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSES BASED ON MODEL: Organizational Diagnosis must be analyzed as part of a bigger process of change or part of an organizational development process. It is neither proper nor efficient to isolate or to use Organizational Diagnosis independently. In most cases, Organizational Diagnosis is seen as the first step taken in a broader organizational change attempt. The results of a diagnosis usually lead to a statement about the functioning of the organization. In addition, it must include a set of recommendations meant to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Uses of Organizational Models: An organizational model is a representation of an organization that helps us to understand more clearly and quickly what we are observing in organizations. Many ways in which organizational models are useful: 1. 2. 3. 4. Models help to enhance our understanding of organizational behavior. Models help to categorize data about an organization. Models help to interpret data about an organization. Models help to provide a common, short-hand language. The model provides a systematic way to collect data on the organization and to understand and categorize the data.
  3. 3. MODEL: I will use the FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS model to convince the M.D. FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS MODEL: Force Field Analysisis a model for analyzing and managing organizational problems and it is a method for listing, discussing, and evaluating the various forces for and against a proposed change. When a change is planned, Force Field Analysis helps you look at the big picture by analyzing all of the forces impacting the change and weighing the pros and cons. By knowing the pros and cons, you can develop strategies to reduce the impact of the opposing forces and strengthen the supporting forces. Forces that help you achieve the change are called "driving forces." Forces that work against the change are called "restraining forces."These driving forces, such as environmental factors, push for change within the organization while the restraining forces, such as organizational factors (e.g., limited resources or poor morale), act as barriers to change.Force Field Analysis can be used to develop an action plan to implement a change. To understand the problem within the organization, the driving forces and restraining forces are first identified and, hence, defined. Goals and strategies for moving the equilibrium of the organization toward the desired direction can then be planned. The model relies upon the change process, with the social implications built into the model (e.g., disequilibrium is expected to occur until equilibrium is reestablished). The general goal of this model is to intentionally move to a desirable state of equilibrium by adding driving forces, where important, and eliminating restraining forces, where appropriate. These changes are thought to occur simultaneously within the dynamic organization. Driving Forces
  4. 4. Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation that are pushing in a particular direction; they tend to initiate a change and keep it going. In terms of improving productivity in a work group, pressure from a supervisor, incentive earnings, and competition may be examples of driving forces. Restraining Forces Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. Apathy, hostility, and poor maintenance of equipment may be examples of restraining forces against increased production. Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces. In our example, equilibrium represents the present level of productivity, as shown below. Equilibrium This equilibrium, or present level of productivity, can be raised or lowered by changes in the relationship between the driving and the restraining forces. Forces for change include: Internal forces for change External forces for change A general sense that the business could “do better” Desire to increase profitability Reorganization to increase efficiency Natural ageing and decline in a business (e.g. machinery, products) Conflict between departments The need for greater flexibility in organizational structures Concerns about ineffective communication, de-motivation or poor business relationships Increased demands for higher quality and levels of customer service Uncertain economic conditions Greater competition Higher cost of inputs Legislation & taxes Political interests Ethics & social values Technological change Globalization Scarcity of natural resources Changing nature and composition of the workforce Managers are often in a position in which they must consider not only output but also intervening variables and not only short-term but also long-term goals. It can be seen that force field analysis provides framework that is useful in diagnosing these interrelationships.Organizational Diagnosis as a general, whole system evaluation process rather than a specific sub-unit focused one

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