Cyber Laws In Pakistan


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  • Hi, I really find your slides useful would you mind explaining me point no 38 on page 15/40, so far what i have understand is that it refers to all subject who in any manner have committed cyber crime right?
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  • its very useful thank you so much for this informative information ....:)
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  • have gone through the slides which are quite useful. However, few things need explanation i.e the admissibility of electronic evidence. could you please quote instances in which cases ended up in conviction on bases on such evidence.
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  • please if u find the related documents/links forward it to me on,

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  • It is a useful document, but I m unable to find my required dtails in it. I m donig MS leading to PhD thesis in mechanismsof protection of personal healthcare information captured by sensors and wirelessly transmitted to have an integreted system of patient monitoring in hospitals or in homes etc without the trouble of patients to have visits to healthcare professionals.

    I m studing at NUST Pakistan, and I have to defend the said research from the persoective of my own country. As I know an act of HIPPA in USA has been passed to protect the personal healthcare information of a patient.

    Is there any law in Pakistan to protect personal healthcare information of a patient? or in near future such law will be inacted to insure protection of healthcare information?

    Kindly refere me to the said information, so that I may positively defend my research in front of my committee. I will be greatly thankful to you for that.
    NUST Pakistan
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Cyber Laws In Pakistan

  1. 1. Cyber Laws in Pakistan Presenting By: Taha Mehmood
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Cyber Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber laws in Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Transaction Ordinance 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Electronic Crimes Bill 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT and Telecom professional salaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Storage Seriousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cyber Crime <ul><li>Activity in which computers or networks are a tool, a target, or a place of criminal activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber crime also stated as any use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Committing fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stealing identities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violating privacy </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>It is also include traditional crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable the illicit activity. </li></ul><ul><li>As the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment, and government. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber crime has grown in importance. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail account of a Federal Minister is hacked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit cards frauds reach to an alarming level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visiting CEOs of Multinational Companies gets threatening E-mails. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial institutions are the favourite targets of Cyber criminals --- worstly effecting the technological progress in the area of e –Commerce. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cyber Laws <ul><li>The legal issues related to use of communications technology, particularly &quot;cyberspace&quot;, i.e. the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an intersection of many legal fields, like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyber laws is an attempt to apply laws designed for the physical world to human activity on the Internet </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cyber Laws in the World <ul><li>Electronic Commerce Act (Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Transactions Act (UK, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Transactions Ordinance (Hong Kong) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology Act (India) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Communication Technology Act Draft (Bangladesh) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cyber Laws in Pakistan <ul><li>There are different law are promulgated in Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>These laws not only deal with crime of Internet </li></ul><ul><li>These deal with all dimensions related to computer & networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of them are most known. </li></ul><ul><li>They are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Transaction Ordinance 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic / Cyber Crime Bill 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Electronic Transaction Ordinance 2002 <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Electronic Transactions Ordinance (ETO), 2002, was the first IT-relevant legislation created by national lawmakers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A first step and a solid foundation for legal sanctity and protection for Pakistani e-Commerce locally and globally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laid the foundation for comprehensive Legal Infrastructure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is heavily taken from foreign law related to cyber crime. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pre-ETO 2002 <ul><li>No recognition of electronic documentation </li></ul><ul><li>No recognition of electronic records </li></ul><ul><li>No recognition of evidential basis of documents/records </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to authenticate or identify digital or electronic signatures or forms of authentication </li></ul><ul><li>No online transaction could be legally binding </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Data & Forensic Evidence not covered. No Rules </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 43 sections in this ordinance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It deals with following 8 main areas relating to e-Commerce. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of Electronic Documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Signature regime and its evidential consequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web Site & Digital Signatures Certification Providers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stamp Duty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attestation, notarization, certified copies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Important Sections are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36. Violation of privacy information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gains or attempts to gain access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to any information system with or without intent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to acquire the information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gain Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisonment 7 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Rs. 1 million </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>37. Damage to information system, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alter, modify, delete, remove, generate, transmit or store information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to impair the operation of, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or prevent or hinder access to,information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>knowingly not authorised </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisonment 7 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Rs. 1 million </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>38. Offences to be non-bailable, compoundable and cognizable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All offences under this Ordinance shall be non-bailable, compoundable and cognizable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>39. Prosecution and trial of offences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Court inferior to the Court of Sessions shall try any offence under this Ordinance. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Post ETO 2002 <ul><li>Electronic Documentation & Records recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic & Digital forms of authentication & identification given legal sanctity </li></ul><ul><li>Messages through email, fax, mobile phones, Plastic Cards, Online recognized. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Electronic/Cyber Crime Bill 2007
  18. 18. Overview <ul><li>“ Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance, 2007″ is in force now </li></ul><ul><li>It was promulgated by the President of Pakistan on the 31st December 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>The bill deals with the electronic crimes included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic forgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized access to code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber stalking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber Spaming </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>It offers penalties ranging from six months imprisonment to capital punishment for 17 types of cyber crimes </li></ul><ul><li>It will apply to every person who commits an offence, irrespective of his nationality or citizenship. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives exclusive powers to the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) to investigate and charge cases against such crimes. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Punishments <ul><li>Under this law there are defined punishment for the offence. </li></ul><ul><li>Every respective offence under this law has its distinctive punishment which can be imprisonment or fine. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 10 Million Life Cyber terrorism ----- 10 Pornography 3 Lac 3 Spoofing 50,000 6 months Cyber Spamming 3 Lac 3 Cyber stalking 5 Lac 5 Defamation 5 Lac 5 Malicious code 3 Lac 3 Unauthorized access to code 3 Lac 3 Misuse of Device 7 Lac 7 Electronic Forgery 7 Lac 7 Electronic Fraud 3 Lac 3 System Damage 3 Lac 3 Data Damage 3 Lac 3 Criminal Data Access 3 Lac 3 Criminal Access Fine Imprisonment (years) Offence
  22. 22. Sections <ul><li>Data Damage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever with intent to illegal gain or cause harm to the public or any person, damages any data, shall come under this section. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Lac </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Electronic fraud: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People for illegal gain get in the way or use any data, electronic system or device or with intent to deceive any person, which act or omissions is likely to cause damage or harm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Lac </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Electronic Forgery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever for unlawful gain interferes with data, electronic system or device, with intent to cause harm or to commit fraud by any input, alteration, or suppression of data, resulting in unauthentic data that it be considered or acted upon for legal purposes as if it were authentic, regardless of the fact that the data is directly readable and intelligible or not. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Lac </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Malicious code: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever willfully writes, offers, makes available, distributes or transmits malicious code through an electronic system or device, with intent to cause harm to any electronic system or resulting in the theft or loss of data commits the offence of malicious code. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Lac </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Cyber stalking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever with intent to harass any person uses computer, computer network, internet, or any other similar means of communication to communicate obscene, vulgar, profane, lewd, lascivious, or indecent language, picture or image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make any suggestion or proposal of an obscene nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threaten any illegal or immoral act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take or distribute pictures or photographs of any person without his consent or knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commits the offence of cyber stalking. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Spamming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever transmits harmful, fraudulent, misleading, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illegal or unsolicited electronic messages in bulk to any person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>without the express permission of the recipient, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involves in falsified online user account registration or falsified domain name registration for commercial purpose commits the offence of spamming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50,000 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Spoofing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever establishes a website, or sends an electronic message with a counterfeit source intended to be believed by the recipient or visitor or its electronic system to be an authentic source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with intent to gain unauthorized access or obtain valuable information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later, Information can be used for any lawful purposes commits the offence of spoofing. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Cyber terrorism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any person, group or organization who, with terroristic intent utilizes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accesses or causes to be accessed a computer or computer network or electronic system or device or by any available means, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowingly engages in or attempts to engage in a terroristic act commits the offence of cyber terrorism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever commits the offence of cyber terrorism and causes death of any person shall be punished with death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or imprisonment for life, and with fine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise he shall be punishable with imprisonment of ten years or with fine ten million rupees </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Opportunity for Business <ul><li>Flexible Storage </li></ul><ul><li>IT and Telecom professional salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Data Storage Seriousness </li></ul>
  31. 31. Criticism <ul><li>There are seemingly 21 ‘cyber’ issues covered in this Bill </li></ul><ul><li>It may seem to cover all aspects of the new digital era. </li></ul><ul><li>But detailed look shows quite the contrary. </li></ul><ul><li>Practically in all issues the government has gone the extra mile to reinvent a new definition, significantly deviating from the internationally accepted norms. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>There seems to be an elaborate play of words within the document </li></ul><ul><li>allow room for the regulating body (FIA) to confuse and entrap the innocent people </li></ul><ul><li>The FIA, has been given complete and unrestricted control to arrest and confiscate material as they feel necessary </li></ul><ul><li>A very dangerous supposition </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguards and Protection </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>One example of the hideous nature of the bill: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Government has literally attempted to insert a new word in the English language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The word TERRORISTIC is without doubt a figment of their imagination vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence they attempt to define the word, quite literally compounding the problem at hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have actually defined what real-life terrorism might be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But fail to explain what they mean by the word Cyber in cyber terrorism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the concern is that there happens to be no clear-cut explanation on how a Cyber Terrorism crime is committed. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Special Agency <ul><li>Federal Intelligence Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NR3C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(National Response Center for Cyber Crimes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sindh Police –Cyber Cop </li></ul>
  35. 35. NR3C <ul><li>Require any person where: </li></ul><ul><li>– reasonable technical and other assistance </li></ul><ul><li>– require any person to such decrypt information </li></ul><ul><li>• Obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>– 1 year imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>– 1 hundred thousand rupees </li></ul><ul><li>NO JUDICIAL SAFEGUARD </li></ul>
  36. 36. Top Ten Victims <ul><li>The 2007 Internet Crime Report cites the top ten countries by amount of perpetrators of online crime </li></ul><ul><li>In descending order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Facts & Figures <ul><li>Americans reported losses of US$240 million from global cyber-crime in 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A $40 million increase from 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The I3C received 206,884 complaints of online fraud in 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a decrease from the previous year’s 207,492 complaints and over 231,000 complaints in 2006. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Facts & Figures <ul><li>The United Kingdom is listed second in a report on global cyber-crime statistics, behind the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The UK Cybercrime report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There were 850,000 instances of sex crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where individuals were ‘cyberstalked’ or received unwanted sexual approaches and paedophiles grooming underage children for sex. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were 207,000 financial frauds committed last year - up more than 30 percent on a similar study in 2005 and eclipsing outstripping the 199,800 offline frauds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were 92,000 cases of identity theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>144,500 cases of hacking into another PC. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Crimes Reported in Pakistan <ul><li>A total of 57 cases have been registered under the ETO 2002 in the years 2005 & 2006. </li></ul>420 224 196 Total: 253 148 105 Others 9 2 7 Counterfeit Currencies 57 24 33 Cyber Crimes 67 30 37 Spurious Drugs 34 20 14 IPR Crimes Total 2005 2006 Offences
  40. 40. <ul><li>Thanks for Your Attention.. </li></ul>