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  1. 1. Overview ofSupercomputers Presented by: Mehmet Demir 20090694 ENG-102
  2. 2. Table of Contents Introduction What are They Used For How Do They Differ From a Personal Computer? Where Are They Now Main Parts of Supercomputers Processor Types Conclusion References
  3. 3. Supercomputers The category of computers that includes the fastest and most powerful (most expensive) ones available at any given time. Designed to solve complex mathematical equations and computational problems very quickly.
  4. 4. What are They Used For Climate prediction & Weather forecasting
  5. 5. What are They Used For (cont.) Computational chemistry Crash analysis Cryptography Nuclear simulation Structural analysis
  6. 6. How Do They Differ From aPersonal Computer Cost  range from $100,000s to $1,000,000s Environment  most require environmentally controlled rooms Peripherals  lack sound cards, graphic boards, keyboards, etc.  accessed via workstation or PC Programming language  FORTRAN
  7. 7. History Seymour Cray (1925-1996)  Developed CDC 1604 – first fully transistorized supercomputer (1958)  CDC 6600 (1965), 9 MFlops  Founded Cray Research in 1972 (now Cray Inc.)  CRAY-1 (1976), $8.8 million, 160 MFlops  CRAY-2 (1985)  CRAY-3 (1989)
  8. 8. Early Timeline of Supercomputers Period Supercomputer Peak speed Location1943-1944 Colossus 5000 characters per second Bletchley Park, England1945-1950 Manchester Mark I 500 instructions per second University of Manchester, England 20 KIPS (CRT memory) Massachusetts Institute of Technology,1950-1955 MIT Whirlwind 40 KIPS (Core) Cambridge, MA 40 KIPS1956-1958 IBM 704   12 kiloflops 40 KIPS1958-1959 IBM 709   12 kiloflops1959-1960 IBM 7090 210 kiloflops U.S. Air Force BMEWS (RADC), Rome, NY1960-1961 LARC 500 kiloflops (2 CPUs) Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, California 1.2 MIPS1961-1964 IBM 7030 "Stretch" Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico ~600 kiloflops 10 MIPS1965-1969 CDC 6600 Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, California 3 megaflops1969-1975 CDC 7600 36 megaflops Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, California 100 megaflops (vector),1974-1975 CDC Star-100 Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, California ~2 megaflops (scalar) 80 megaflops (vector), Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico1975-1983 Cray-1 72 megaflops (scalar) (1976)
  9. 9. Where Are They Now List released twice a year Scores based on Linpack benchmark Solve dense system of linear equations Speed measured in floating point operations per second (FLOPS)
  10. 10. Architectures - SMP Symmetric Shared- Memory Multiprocessing (SMP)  Share memory  Common OS  Programs are divided into subtasks (threads) among all processors (multithreading)
  11. 11. Architectures – MPP Massively Parallel Processing (MPP)  Individual memory for each processor  Individual OS’s  Messaging interface for communication  200+ processors can work on same application 1. A large retailer wants to know how many camcorders the company sold in 3. Each sub-query is assigned to a specific processor in the system. To 1998, and sends that query to the MPP system. allow this to happen, the database was previously partitioned. For 2. The query goes out to one of the processors which acts as the example, a sales tracking database might be broken down by month, and coordinator, it breaks up the query for optimum performance. For example, it could break the query up by month; this “sub-query” each processor holds data for one month’s worth of sales information. 4. The responses to the queries are returned to a processor to be coordinated—for then goes to all the processors at the same time. example, each month is added up 5. Final answer is returned to the user.
  12. 12. Architectures – Clustering Grid computing Many servers connected together Relies heavily on network speed Easily upgraded with addition of more servers
  13. 13. Processor Types Vector processing  Expensive  NEC Earth Simulator Scalar processing Grid computing  Based on off the shelf parts (ordinary CPUs)
  14. 14. BlueGene/L IBM MPP (massively parallel processing) #1 on top500 as of November 2004 32,768 processors (700Mhz) 70.72 Teraflops (trillions of FLOPS) Runs linux DNA, climate simulation, financial risk Cost more than $100 million
  15. 15. BlueGene/L System Layout 2 Processors  Node communication  Mathematical calculations
  16. 16. BlueGene/L Compute Card
  17. 17. BlueGene/L Node Board
  18. 18. BlueGene/L Cabinet
  19. 19. Some of the Others #2 - Columbia (NASA, USA) – 51.87 TFlops #3 - Earth Simulator (Japan) – 35.86 TFlops #4 - MareNostrum (Spain) – 20.53 TFlops #5 - Thunder (USA) – 19.94 TFlops
  20. 20. The Future
  21. 21. References 004.asp tag=fd_lede2_hed ware_overview.pdf s/hardware/server/story/0,10801,43504, ml