Modernism And The First World War
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Modernism And The First World War

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Modernism And The First World War

Modernism And The First World War

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    Modernism And The First World War Modernism And The First World War Document Transcript

    • Modernism And The First World War Mehdi Hassanian esfahani (GS22456) Modernism and Beyond (BBL5106) Mr. Rohimmi Noor January 2009
    • Introduction The period of the World War One, which took place between July 28th, 1914 and November 11th, 1918 may seem short in the history of human being or art, but its influence on technology, politics, people, their lifestyles and art was so huge that the war was called The Great War of all the history. A part of this effect was on literature. World War One changed people and their point of views; writers changed their subjects and their literary techniques, readers changed their expectations and changed their taste. Peter Childs explains that “class system was rocked by trade unions and the Labour party; beliefs in King and Country, patriotism and duty were betrayed by the carnage of the war; the strength of patriarchy was challenged as women went to work outside the home and the suffrage movement gained hold … [as a result] it became absurd to celebrate noble ideas like human dignity in art, or blithely to assert a belief in human progress” (20). The following essay, as an assignment (and not a research paper on war poetry), discusses the third chapter of Modernism by Steven Matthews (published by Oxford Brookes University, UK: 2004) regarding the influence of War on literature of war time, and also its impact on after-war period. The book Modernism would be considered the main text, or the framework and I will not cite it every time, unless there is an emphasis on it. [2]
    • Literature and the First World War The Great War between Central Powers (including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria) and Allies or Entente Powers (including the Russian Empire, France, the British Empire, Italy, the Empire of Japan, and the United States) started in July 1914. The progress of war implied that there wouldn’t be a soon ending for it and the mass slaughter (and technology of reaching this aim) should be planned for. The result was over 40 million casualties (including about 20 million dead). Thousands and thousands who did not died in fronts, suffered from shell-shock, which haunted them in their post-war lives. This instigated radical incident, changed the form and content of literary texts in English. Matthews explains that American émigrés like T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound insisted and used their innovative literary techniques they have experienced in the previous years, but changed the subject matter. They moved from highly concerns about aestheticism, to the nature of ‘civilization’ which the war was fought for to preserve. Fears about cultural degeneration and ‘civilization’ (as opposed to barbarism) were the keywords of literary reviews at that time. War brought the requirement of stylistic and formal change in the works of emerging English novelists, including D. H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf. [3]
    • Wyndham Lewis was the one who first pointed out the romance of war. Perhaps the resemblance of the nature of the pastoral landscape in France in which the fighting was taking place, and that of certain milder landscape in the south of England was the reason that the scene at the Front was, therefore, a relatively familiar one to the soldiers in the early stages of war, and the reason that writers worked initially in a Romantic or a post-Romantic style. Lewis recalls in his autobiographical Blasting and Bombardiering (1937) that “… we plunged immediately into the romance of battle. But all henceforth was romance. All this culminated, of course, in the scenery of the battlefields, like desolate lunar panoramas” (114). Edmund Blunden, remembering his experience of the battle of Ypres, states that he cannot, as a writer, distinguishes between the incidents, sights, faces, and words to narrate only some of them, perhaps the most important ones, as if the ability of the artist to select materials, and to order them into coherence is lost in the shock of the events. He would refute the appropriateness of Lewis’s idealizing term ‘romance’, but he would not deny that art was irrevocably altered (local, limited, incoherence) by the conflict. It is worth noting that the style of Lewis’s Blasting and Bombardiering is founded upon his belief that modern art is similar to the war. He insists that instead of thinking of the influences of the war just-finished on the art, one should demonstrate (and concern about) what a war-about-to-start (i.e. [4]
    • Modernism) can do to art. Even though, he claims that war has succeeded in bringing about the end of war itself: ‘it altered the face of our civilization. It left the European nations impoverished, shell-shocked, discouraged and unsettled. It is the time, when T. S. Eliot changes his key essays to questioning the civilization which had suffered four years of World War One. He asks, furthermore, what ‘civilization’ is in fact, if it can lead to such devastation between notions. His style changes as well. Bradshaw believes that the title of The Waste Land (1922) refers to the mass destruction, to the slaughter which was enormous in size and “like never before, [had ever] large parts of Europe been subjected to [such a] methodical destruction” (69), which as Cunningham added in his book, “sounded the death knell for the world of settled values” and “made a mockery of patriotic slogans” (559). In the 1921 essay of Eliot, Matthews observes that, he established his ideal poetry as one in which ideas and physical sensations are united, where ‘there is a direct sensuous apprehension of thought or a recreation of thought into feeling’. Eliot, additionally, praises James Joyce’s (and Yeats’s) use of the ‘mythical method’ of writing, which brings “artistic order to the chaos of modern life” (Childs, 100) and suggests a continuous parallel between contemporary and antiquity. Eliot implies that the shapelessness of history (or as Blunden says, its ‘incoherence’) can hope only to be partially restored through literary means which bridges such gaps or dissociations. [5]
    • At the same time, the same tension can be observed in the sequence of poems by Ezra Pound. This sequence created the poet’s farewell to England, before moving to Paris in early 1920s. His war poem, Hugh SelwynMauberly, published in 1919, used, according to Bradbury, “fractured forms to express his enraged reaction to the war, and explore the spectacle of a once-great artistic culture destroyed through commercialism and nationalism, producing a collapsed civilization” (7). Life and Contacts and E. P.’s Ode for His Choice of Burial Place are the other notable ones which imply that the cost of human life on the battlefields in France was not worth it. Pounds conclusion, as Matthews states “seem to be that civilization from the perspective of England has achieved little – certainly not enough to warrant the sacrifice of ‘the best’, including some of his best friends” (68). British poets who served at the fronts (also called the war poets), experienced a huge change in the form and the content of their poetry. They had found smooth rhythm of Romantic or post-Romantic style suitable, but it was before the brutal alienating realities of newly technologies modern warfare. Sassoon was one of the first poets, who described the after-war situation and wounded, disabled soldier who cannot return to their previous lives. His language “is deliberately anti-Romantic in its rejection of conventional poetic diction in favor of sharp and biting colloquialism” (Carter, 332). [6]
    • As an example, we may find in Sassoon’s Break of Day, ‘a distinct sense of the literal dislocation enforced upon the individual by the war, the destruction of all remnants of benevolent experience.’ The poet, here, asks for an Edenic place (an ideal peaceful place) which is colorful in opposition to the gray and brown barren landscapes of battlefields. According to Matthews, “Much of the power of these poems of the First World War comes from the dramatization of such contrasts. These are contrasts between England and the Front, between the assumed radiant past and the horrific present, between pastoral and the ‘angry guns’, between hitherto-held beliefs and the grasped-out questionings of faith of the dying” (71). Shocking and realistic war poetry of Wilfred Owen, influenced by his friend Sassoon and his first hand experience of war, was also in contrast with the heroic patriotic verses written by earlier. His realistic view of war resulted in disillusionment which became the “spirit of frivolity to him, and caused “bitterness and cynicism about anything connected with military glory” (Cunningham, 559). Even the title of his most famous work, Dulce et Decorum Est (meaning ‘it is sweet and right to die for one’s country’) is ironic, when it starts by some grotesque opening lines: ‘Bend double, like old beggars under sacks, / knocked- [7]
    • kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge…’ His detail of a gas attack discloses the hellishness and evilness of war, as at the end of the poem, the reader is convinced that the title was ‘the old lie’. Earlier war poetry, like Rupert Brooke’s The Soldier, was written from another point of view, to encourage the reader and glory the sacrifice of soldiers at the fronts. Carter quotes the first part of The Soldier, as “If I should die, think only this of me / That there’s some corner of a foreign field / That is forever England”, and explains that at the beginning of World War One, “the characteristic response to it was that to serve in the war was a matter of duty” (331). But again this tradition it changed by soldier/poets like Owen, who according to Carter, “came to see it … as a duty to warn of the horrors of war and to ask why political rulers allowed such mass destruction to continue for so long” (332). Combat stress reaction (in the pas commonly known as shell-shocked) was a problem of during and after war period. Childs goes through the clinical view and indicates its importance in psychology (Freudian analysis) and literature of the time. He points out Mrs. Dalloway as an example in which a shell-shocked is described whose marriage is destroyed by the conflict and who eventually commits suicide. Owen’s compassion to victims of shell-shocked, who were once his friends as he was a soldier and was killed in the battlefield, [8]
    • is presented in his poem Mental Cases in which he directly addresses the reader and talks about this madness. Apart from poetry, war also changed fiction. The character of a shell- shocked or a disabled person was much tangible at that time. The only different is that, as Carter says, war poetry is written in trenches in the middle of a battle, but novels were composed in an after-war period. Rebecca West’s The Return of the Soldier and D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover both narrate the impact of trench experience upon those left behind at home, principally upon their gender relations. There is a same sense of remoteness in the returned soldier of both novels. West’s shell-shocked soldier suffers from a loss of memory which means that he thinks he remains in love with his first love, Margaret, rather than with his wife, Kitty. Matthews clarifies that dividing and labeling society by class definitions was another result of war, and the desire of Chris, the shell-shocked soldier, for Margaret and his ignorance toward his marriage to the middle-class Kitty is a return to the cross-class relationship his marriage had eradicated. In Lady Chatterley’s Lover, the central female character, Connie, does overlook her wounded and incapacitated ex-soldier husband for the ‘whole’ man, Mellors, the gamekeeper on Sir Clifford Chatterley’s estate. [9]
    • Matthews suggests that in Lady Chatterley’s Lover, “the tragedy of World War One is reflected by the ‘sex war’ being enacted at home. [When] in male novelist’s eye, the sense of tension between the sexes is clearly exacerbated by the new-found freedom and independence amongst women brought about amongst other things by the rise of the women’s movement in the immediate pre-war years” (81). Quoting the scene when Connie experiences and feels the sweetness of having sex with the ‘complete’ man, Bradshaw comments that this novel describes sex “as a strange union of historical forces and individual fulfillment”, where having sex with the gamekeeper “summons up a primeval past and sparks Connie’s birth as a ‘woman’” (149). In his semi-autobiographical novel Kangaroo, Lawrence describes how the war changed (and changed other things) and sums up the view that ‘It was in 1915, the old world ended’. “Picking a date of far more historical moment, the point when an entire cultural tradition seemed to end in war (Bradbury, 16)”, he writes: In the winter of 1916-16 the spirit of the old London collapsed, the city, in some way, perished, perished, perished from being a heart of the world, and became a vortex of broken passions, lusts, hopes, fears and horrors. The integrity of London collapsed, and the genuine debasement began, the unspeakable baseness of the press and the public voice. [10]
    • Most significantly, perhaps, the war brought a real change in women’s statues as they took over vital jobs vacated by men who went to the Front, particularly after the introduction of conscription, whereby men were forced to enlist for service, in 1916. Women were already increasingly taking up employment before the war, but the years 1914-18 saw over e million women working in engineering, munitions, transport and commerce, and on the land, for the first time. There was a shift from domestic service to other employment which was never to be reversed. Women suddenly found themselves independent in new ways, as the average wage for working women nearly doubled from pre-war levels. Accordingly, as Childs quotes from Lawrence, the writer’s attempt was to concentrate most fully on the theme of “woman becoming individual, self- responsible, taking her own initiative” and “establishment of a new relation … between man and woman” (142). [11]
    • Works Cited Bradbury, Malcolm. The Modern World. Ten Graet Writers. Great Britain: Penguin Books, 1989. Bradshaw, David and Kevin J. H. Dettmar. A Companion to Modernist Literature and Culture. UK: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Carter, Ronald and Malcolm Bradbury. The Routledge History of Literature in English. London: Routledge, 2001. Childs, Peter. Modernism. USA: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Lawrence and John J. Reich. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. USA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005. Matthews, Steven. Modernism. UK: Oxford Brookes University, 2004. Wyndham Lewis, Blasting and Bombardiering. London: John Calder Publishing, 1982. [12]