Apa Videos Slides For Student Orientation
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  • Hello and welcome to these videos which cover the basics of APA Style. The videos cover -why we use APA Style -how to format an APA paper -how cite your sources using APA Style -and how to make a references list in APA Style.   APA Style is a large set of rules for formatting and organizing your writing.  There is no way to cover it all in a short video, but these videos will convey the basics and point you to where you can find more information.   At the end of the videos, there is a quiz to test what you have learned.
  • Why do we have to use APA Style? It might seem like a lot of rules, but consistent formatting allows your readers easily to find the main points of your writing and understand your ideas. If there is an agreed upon style of formatting papers, then readers can just get on with the business of reading, instead of figuring out a particular style of citations, references, layout, etc.   If you submit an article to a journal in the field of Business or Education, you will likely be required to format your text in APA style.  And, moreover, many grant makers, especially in the field of education, require proposals to be in APA Style.   Finally, it is the writing standard for Business, Education and many other of the social sciences.  You must master it to be a scholar in these fields.  Luckily, once you get a few rules under your belt, it is not that hard.  And, the rules are actually a good thing, b/c they allow you to focus on writing up your research without worrying what your margins are supposed to be or how to use commas in your referneces: it's all codified in the Manual.
  • Why do we have to use APA Style? It might seem like a lot of rules, but consistent formatting allows your readers easily to find the main points of your writing and understand your ideas. If there is an agreed upon style of formatting papers, then readers can just get on with the business of reading, instead of figuring out a particular style of citations, references, layout, etc.   If you submit an article to a journal in the field of Business or Education, you will likely be required to format your text in APA style.  And, moreover, many grant makers, especially in the field of education, require proposals to be in APA Style.   Finally, it is the writing standard for Business, Education and many other of the social sciences.  You must master it to be a scholar in these fields.  Luckily, once you get a few rules under your belt, it is not that hard.  And, the rules are actually a good thing, b/c they allow you to focus on writing up your research without worrying what your margins are supposed to be or how to use commas in your referneces: it's all codified in the Manual.
  • This video will cover how to format an APA Style paper, including fonts, margins, and spacing.   Make sure to check out the quiz at the end of the series to test your knowledge of this and other APA Style topics!
  • The basic rules for formatting an APA Style paper are these:   You should only use Times New Roman, size 12, for text.   You should double-space the entire paper, including the title, all text, block quotes, references, and captions for figures.   Your margins should be 1 inch all around.   You should indent the first line of paragraphs .5 inch.   And, finally, you should align the text left and leave the right side ragged.
  • This video will cover what the main sections of an APA Style paper are and how to paginate those sections.   Make sure to check out the quiz at the end of the series to test your knowledge of this and other APA Style topics!
  • The main sections of APA Style Papers are:   -title page -abstract -introduction -method -results -discussion -references -appendices   Each paper you write for JIU might not have all of these sections, but sections must appear in this order.  Make sure to ask your professor about what sections he or she requires to be in your papers.   You APA publication manual has an extended discussion of all of these sections, and when you have a chance, you should read more closely about what each section should entail.
  • The first page of your paper should be the title page.  Nothing else but the title-page information should appear on this page.   The second page of your paper should be the abstract.  The abstract is a short but comprehensive summary of the contents of your article.   The third page of your paper should be the beginning of your text.    And then your references list begins on a new page after the last page of text.   Finally, each table and figure, if your paper has them, begins on their own new pages.   And, each appendix, if your paper has them, begins on their own new pages.
  • This is an example of what your title page should look like.   There is a running header on the title page, which is a shortened version of your title.  This appears on all pages of your paper.  But note that the phrase "running head" only appears on the title page.   The title is centered in the top half of the page, in bold face type.   Underneath, on three different lines, are your name, your school, and the date the paper was submitted.   Note that the entire page is double-spaced, as should all of your text be.
  • This is an example of what your Abstract page should look like.   Note the running head in the upper left-hand corner which will appear on all of your pages.   Note also that the word "Abstract" is centered at the top of the page, but it is not in bold-face type.   Finally, note that the text is double-spaced, as all text in your APA Style papers should be.   
  • This is an example of what your Introduction page should look like.   Note the running head at the top of the page.   Note also that there is no heading called "Introduction."  Instead, by its very placement, it is obvious that this is the introduction to your paper, so you only need to put the title of your paper at the top.  Note that the title is not in bold face type...it is in regular Times New Roman.   Finally, note that the text is all double-spaced.   
  • Finally, this is an example of what your References list should look like.  We will take a closer look at how to make a References list in a later video.  But, for now, please note tthat the References list always begins on a new page.  Do not put your references immediately after the end of your text on the same page as your text. Also note the running head at the top of the paper. The word "References" is centered and in bold face at the top of the page. Finally, note that the references list is double-spaced both within and between references, and that that all lines of the reference are indented .5 inch, except the first line.
  • This video will cover how to do headings in APA Style papers.     Make sure to check out the quiz at the end of the series to test your knowledge of this and other APA Style topics!
  • Headings in APA Style papers denote the sub sections of your paper and make your paper easier to read.   This is a copy of the table of headings in the APA Manual.  When you use APA Style headings, you must use the format specified in the manual.  They are numbered on this table, but would not be in actual use.   Take a closer look at the headings styles and note that Level 1 is centered, Level 2 is flush left, and Levels 3-5 are indented.    Note also that Levels 1-4 are in bold face type, but Level 5 is not (it is italicized).  Level 4 is also italicized.   Please also note that in Levels 1-2, you capitalize the first letter of all words in the heading.  But, in Levels 3-5, you only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the heading.    Finally, please also note that Levels 3-5 end with a period.   It sounds like a lot of rules, doesn't it?  But it's actually not.  With the table in front of you, which you can find in section 3.02 of your publication manual it's actually fairly straightforward.   In the next slide, we'll look at some examples of headings, but before we move on, please note that headings are handled in a new way in the 6th edition than in the 5th.  That means that the 5th edition is no longer a guideline for how to do your headings.
  • Let's look at an example of what we mean by headings.  In this example, let us pretend we are looking at the population of students who participated in a study we conducted.  In our outline, we might subdivide the students like this:   First, our two main groups are Elementary School Students and High School Students.   Second, we subdivide each type of school into Girls and Boys.   Third, we subdivide each gender by grade, for example, Grade 1, Grade 2, etc.   Fourth, We subdivide each grade into high achievers and low achievers.   And fifth, we subdivide each achievement level into the topics they study, such as Mathematics and Reading.   For each level, we would need to use a different heading to present the information in our paper.  You would refer to table 3.02 in your publication manual to see how each heading should be formatted.    In reality, there would be text in between each heading, explaining the significance of the subdivision.    Also, in reality, you probably wouldn't use five levels of headings in one paper, but they are there if you do need to.
  • Here are the basic rules for using headings:   -Use headings numerically, without skipping any levels. -the title of your paper does not count as a heading -Do not make a heading called "Introduction" -As in making an outline, all headings of equal importance are given the same heading level. -Also, as in making an outline, using only as many heading levels as needed. -If a section can be dividied into two or more sections, assign each subsection a heading. -For more information about headings and how to use them, see section 3.02 of your APA publication manual.
  • This video will cover the basic format of citations in APA Style papers.   Citations are how you credit a source that you used with the text of your paper.    Make sure to check out the quiz at the end of the series to test your knowledge of this and other APA Style topics!
  • Citations are how you show whose works influenced your writing and how to find those sources in your list of references.   You need to cite anything that has influenced your writing, even if you paraphrased (that is, you do not quote directly) the author's words.   As you do research, take careful notes of the sources you use and the pages where information came from.  That way, when you write your paper, you will be able to credit the sources where your ideas came from and avoide unintentional plagiarism.   We will cover some basic examples of how to do citations in this video, but please consult table 6.1 of your APA Publication Manual for further and more complicated examples.
  • To insert a citation in your text, include the author's last name and the source's year of publication.  The name and year must always be right next to each other (or touch, as we like to say).  This is very important.  This is what is called the "author-date" method of crediting your sources.  And, as long as the name and date are touching (that is, they're right next to each other), there are actually a few different ways you can format the citation.   Let's look at a few examples.  In these examples, let's pretend we used a source by an author named "Smith" that was written in 2003.  If we paraphrased (that is, if we did not quote directly) Smith's work, we might write:   -"Smith (2003) found that business leaders often..."  Note that the year is enclosed in parentheses.   Or we might write:   -"Business leaders often make difficult ethical decisions (Smith, 2003)."  In this case, because the citation appears at the end of the sentence, put both the author's name and the year in parentheses, separated by a comma.   Finally, we might write:   "In 2003, Smith's seminal study of business leaders found that..."  In this case, the year and author's name are touching, but we don't need to put them in parentheses because they're part of the actual text of our paper.
  • This video will cover how to format citations in APA Style papers when you are either citing more than one source and/or more than one author.     Make sure to check out the quiz at the end of the series to test your knowledge of this and other APA Style topics!
  • When you cite two or more works together, list the citations as they appear in your list of references.    Let's take a look at a few examples:   Example 1: -"Two studies (Anderson, 2007; Smith, 2003) found that..."  Note that here the two different works are listed within parentheses, separated by a semi-colon.  The work by Anderson comes first, becuase it appears first in the reference list, before the work by Smith.  Note also that the author-date method is used here, meaning that the author and publication date are physically next to each other on the page (that is, they're touching).  That is proper APA style for citations.   Example 2: "Training materials are available (Department of Education, 2003, 2008).  In this case, there is just one author (the Department of Education), but there is more than one publication by that author being cited.  In this case, you would list the years chronologically, as they would appear in the reference list.   Example 3: "Ov er the past decade, Smith (2005a, 2005b, 2008) published many studies on business leadership."  Note here that we are citing three works by the same author, and that two of those works were published in the same year, 2005.  In this case, we put an "a" or "b" next to the date (and we do so in the references list, too), to designate which works by Smith we used.  Note also that, as always, the author's name and year in the citation are right next to each other on the page, that is, they are touching, which is the proper way of making a citation in APA Style.   For further information about how to do citations, and more examples, please see table 6.1 in your APA publication manual.  
  • When you cite sources that have more than one author, there are some special rules for writing out the citaiton in APA Style.   Some of these rules are;   -For a work with 6 or more authors, use the first author's last name, then the phrase "et al." which means "all the rest" in Latin.  For example: - ...(Smith et al., 2004) .  Note that there is a period after "al" and that there is then a comma and a space before the date).   -For a work with 5 or fewer authors, list all of the authors the first time you make a citation.  So, for example: "...(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2009).  All authors are listed because there are only 5 authors.   -However, the second and subsequent times you cite a source with THREE or more authors, then you would use "et al." just as you did for a work with 6 or more authors.   Does this sound confusing?  It's actually all spelled out in table 6.1 in your APA publication manual, which you should consult before doing a citation with multiple authors.
  • This video will cover how to format citations in APA Style papers when you quote directly from your source (that is, you copy word-for-word an author's words and then need to attribute those words to the author).   Make sure to check out the quiz at the end of the series to test your knowledge of this and other APA Style topics!
  • If you quote an author's work directly, add page numbers to the citation.    Here is the first example [read quote and citation].  In this first example, after the quotation, the citation in parentheses says (White-Smith & White, 2009, p. 261).  Note that the citation is in proper APA author/date format, meaning the authors' names and date are next to each other in the citation.  Then, after the name and date, there is a comma, a space, then the page number, preceded by a "p" to let the reader know you're listing a page number (and not anything else, like another date, for example).  If you were quoting from more than one page, you would list "pp." instead of just "p."   Another way of doing a direct quote is like this: [read quote and citation]  Note that in this case, the writer has made the authors' names part of the text.  The publication date goes immediately after the authors' names, and then the page number the quote came from goes at the end of the quote in parentheses and preceded by a "p."
  • If you have a direct quote that is 40 words or more, omit the quotation marks around the quote and display the quote as a freestanding block of text (that is, a "block quote"), and indent the quote .5" from the left margin of the paper.   Here is an example:   [read quote]   Note here that, just as for a regular direct quotation, the authors' names go at the end of the quote, followed by the year of publication, and then the page number.  However, please note that when you make a block quote, you do  NOT put a period at the end of the sentence outside of the second parenthese.
  • Finally, how do you quote material from an online source that does not have pagination like a print article or book does?  What you do is count the paragraphs in the source and list a paragraph number in place of a page number.   Here is an example:   [read quote].  In this case, the quote came from paragraph one of the source, so instead of listing the page number, you would list the paragraph number, preceded by "p-a-r-a."    If the source has many paragraphs, and is also subdivided into Sections, it helpful for your reader if you also list the section that the text came from.  Here is an example:   [read text]   Note here that in the citation, before listing the paragraph number, you also list the section name, in this case, the section's name is "Definition."  Note also that you list the section name before you list the paragraph number, and that you separate the two with a comma.   For further information about how to use paragraph numbers and sections instead of page numbers, please see section 6.05 of your publication manual.

Apa Videos Slides For Student Orientation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Basics of APA Style
  • 2.
      • Standards for organizing and presenting research in the social sciences, including Business & Education.
      • A set of rules for scholarly writing, including layout, citations and references, and writing style.
      • Overseen by American Psychology Association since 1929, now in its 6th Edition.
    What is APA Style?
  • 3.
      • Consistent formatting allows your readers easily to understand your ideas.
      • Journals and grant makers require it.
      • You must master it to be a scholar.
    Why Use APA Style?
  • 4.
      • It is important to be familiar with its contents, and to refer to it often.
      • Now in its 6 th edition. What's new to the 6 th edition?
      • APA Style Website: http://www.apastyle.org/
    APA Publication Manual
  • 5. Fonts, Margins, & Spacing in APA Style Papers
  • 6.
      • Font: Use only Times New Roman, size 12, for text.
      • Double-space the entire paper, including text, titles, block quotes, references, and figure captions.
      • Margins: 1 inch all around.
      • Indent the first line of paragraphs .5 inch.
      • Align the text left and leave the right ragged.
    Formatting an APA Paper
  • 7. Main Sections of APA Style Papers
  • 8.
      • Title Page
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Method
      • Results
      • Discussion
      • References
      • Appendices
    Main Sections of APA Style Papers
  • 9.
      • Pagination
            • Page 1: Title page
            • Page 2: Abstract
            • Page 3: Beginning of text
      • References begin on a new page after the last page of text.
      • Each table and figure starts on a new page.
      • Each appendix begins on a new page.
    Pagination in APA Style
  • 10. Title Page
  • 11. Abstract
  • 12. Introduction
  • 13. References
  • 14. Headings in APA Style Papers
  • 15. Headings
  • 16. Elementary School Students Girls      Grade one.      High achievers.      Math.      Reading.      Low achievers.      Grade two. Boys      Grade one.      Grade two. High School Students Headings
  • 17.
      • Use headings numerically, without skipping levels.
      • Title of paper does not count as a heading.
      • Do not make a heading called Introduction.
      • All headings of equal importance are given the same heading level.
      • Use only as many headings levels as needed.
      • If a section can be divided into two or more sections, assign each subsection a heading.
      • Section 3.02 of the APA Publication Manual has more information about headings.
    Headings
  • 18. Citations in APA Style: Basic Format
  • 19.
      • Citations show whose work you used and how to find it in your references list.
      • Cite anything that influenced your writing, even if you paraphrased the author's words.
      • Take careful notes of the sources you use.
      • No plagiarism (even unintentional).
      • Table 6.1 in the APA Publication Manual has examples of how to do citations.
    Citations
  • 20.
    • To insert a citation in your text, include the author's last name and year of publication. Name and year must always “touch.”
        • Smith (2003) found that business leaders often make difficult ethical decisions.
        • Business leaders often make difficult ethical decisions (Smith, 2003).
        • In 2003, Smith's seminal study of business leaders found that they often make difficult ethical decisions.
    Citations
  • 21. Citations in APA Style: Multiple Sources and Authors
  • 22.
    • When you cite two or more works together, list the citations as they appear in the reference list.
        • Two studies (Anderson, 2007; Smith, 2003) found that business leaders wrestle with hard decisions.
        • Training materials are available (Department of Education, 2003, 2008).
        • Over the past decade, Smith (2005a, 2005b, 2008) published many studies on business leadership.
    • Table 6.1 in the APA Publication Manual has more  examples of how to do citations.
    Citations
  • 23.
    • There are special rules when works have multiple authors.
      • For a work with 6 or more authors, use the first author's
      • last name then “et al.”
          • … (Smith et al., 2004).
      • For a work with 5 or fewer authors, list all the authors the first time you make a citation.
            • … (Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2009).
      • But, the 2nd (and subsequent) time you cite a source with 3 or more authors, use “et al.”
    Citations
  • 24. Citations in APA Style: Direct & Block Quotations
  • 25.
    • If you quote an author's work directly, add page numbers to the citation.
            • “ Principals successful at implementing school change initiatives often have a clear vision to guide themselves and their schools toward their goals” (White-Smith & White, 2009, p. 261).
            • White-Smith and White (2009) argue that, “In particular, we need to understand how principals make decisions about responding to multiple accountability sources . . .” (p. 261).
    Citations
  • 26.
    • If a direct quote is 40 words or more, omit the quotation marks and display it as a freestanding block of text (a “block quote”) .5 inch from the left margin. Double-space the entire quotation. Punctuation goes before the citation.
        • The role of the leader emerges as a relevant factor in
        • the assessment of job characteristics, especially in
        • regards to the leader’s ethical conduct in the
        • workplace. This study thus offers potential insights
        • relevant to job design components, thereby pointing
        • toward new directions for future research and
        • theoretical development. (Piccolo, Greenbaum, Den
        • Hartog, & Folger, 2010, p. 274)
    Citations
  • 27.
    • How do you quote online sources with no pagination?
        • Hall, Strangman, and Meyer (2009) argue that “...differentiated instruction applies an approach to teaching and learning that gives students multiple options for taking in information and making sense of ideas” (para. 1).
        • “ Differentiated instruction is a process to teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class” (Hall, Strangman, & Meyer, 2009, Definition section, para. 1).
    • See Section 6.05 of the APA Publication Manual.
    Citations
  • 28. References in APA Style: Basic Format
  • 29.
      • The reference list helps readers find the sources you used. It must be as accurate and complete as possible.
      • All works cited must be in the reference list, except personal communications and classical works.
      • Do not add a reference if you did not cite it in your paper.
      • Chapter 7 of the APA Publication Manual covers how to do the reference list.
    References List
  • 30.
    • All references have:
            • Author name (or names)
            • Publication date
            • Title of the work
            • Publication data
            • DOI or URL, if there is one
    • Pay close attention to the order of the elements of the reference, for these must always be presented consistently.
    References List
  • 31.
      • The references list starts on a new page at the end of the main text of your paper, before any appendices.
      • Put references in order by authors' last names.
      • Only list initials for the first and middle name of an author. For example, “Author, A. A. & Author, B. B.”
      • Indent all lines of the reference, except the first, .5 inch.
      • Double-space the references list, both within and between references.
    References List
  • 32.
      • Capitalization: For article and books, type title in “sentence-case” capitalization. For journal titles and conference names, use “title-case” capitalization
      • Italicize the journal title and volume number
      • Include the issue number in parentheses if the journal is paginated by issue
      • Do not put a period at the end of the DOI or URL
      • If you list a URL, do not list a retrieved date unless the content of the webpage is potentially unstable.
    References List
  • 33. References List
  • 34. References in APA Style: What is a DOI?
  • 35.
      • What is a DOI?
        • A unique identifier for a source.
        • Not all sources have them yet.
        • Usually near the copyright information. Often on the first page of an article.
        • Looks something like this: 10.3102/0034654309332560
        • CrossRef can help: www.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery/
    References List
  • 36. References List
  • 37. References in APA Style: Commonly Used Sources
  • 38.
    • For scholarly writing, the most commonly used sources are:
        • Journal articles
        • Books
        • Chapters in edited books
        • Conference papers
        • Websites
    References List
  • 39. Journal article Komai, M. & Stegeman, M. (2010). Leadership based on asymmetric information. RAND Journal of Economics, 41 (3) , 35-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1756- 2171.2009.00089.x References List
  • 40.
    • Entire book
    • Hirschey, M. (2009). Managerial economics (12th ed.).
      • Florence, KY: South-Western Cengage Learning.
    References List
  • 41. Chapter in an edited book Hart, S. N. (1993). Children's rights in a civilized society. In M. A. Jensen & S. G. Goffin (Eds.), Visions of entitlement: The care and education of America's children (pp. 85- 134). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. References List
  • 42. Webpage with no author How standardized testing damages education. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.fairtest.org/facts/howharm.htm References List
  • 43. Basics of APA Style Quiz