There are three main sources for locating a problem or topic.
Experience : The nurses’ every day experience provides a rich supply of problems for investigations. For the beginning researchers in particular experience is often the most compelling source for topics .
Problem Statements in Declarative Form Research focus Problem statement Effect of relaxation on anxiety and dyspnea in patients with COPD Comparison of anxiety: Symptomatoloy among Cambodian refugee adolescents before and after resettlement in the United States Effect of heart transplantation on psychosocial functioning This study investigates the effect of relaxation on anxiety and dyspnea in patients with COPD (Gift, Moore,& Soeken, 1992) Anxiety symtomatology in cambodian refugee adolescents before and after settlement in the United States had been compared (Mueck and Sasse, 1992) The study examines the effect of heart transplantation on psychosocial functioning (Bohachick et al., 1992)
Problem Statement in Interrogative Form Research focus Problem statement Factors that influence adaptation of preadolescents and adolescents with diabetes Effect of group therapy on cognitive functioning and depression in elderly nursing home residents Spiritual health, coping responses, and devastating physical illness What are the influences of age, coping behaviour and self care on psychological, social and physiological adaptation in preadolescents and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Grey Cameron and Thurber 1992) What is the effect of group therapy on cognitive functioning and depression in elderly nursing home residents (Abraham Neundorfer, Currie, 1992) What role does spiritual health play in the coping responses of patients to devastating physical illness (Mickley, Socken and belcher 1992
Through deductive reasoning, a researcher can develop hypotheses based on general theoretical principles. Deductive reasoning have as a starting point theories that are applied to particular situations.
Simple hypothesis is a hypothesis that expresses an expected relationship between one independent and one dependent variable.
Complex hypothesis is a prediction of a relationship between two (or more) independent variables and two (or more) dependent variables. Complex hypotheses some times are referred to as multivariate hypotheses because they involve multiple variables.
To make research findings meaningful and generalizable.
Efficient mechanisms for drawing together accumulated facts, sometimes from separate and isolated investigations.
Guide a researcher’s understanding of not only the what of natural phenomena but also the ‘why’ of their occurrence.
Theories provide a basis for predicting the occurrence of phenomena.
Prediction, in turn, has implications for the control of the phenomena.
Help to stimulate research and the extension of knowledge by providing both direction and impetus.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Imogene King 1981 Open Systems Model Personal systems, interpersonal systems, and social systems are dynamic and interacting, within which transactions occur. Doornbos (2000) based her framework on King's model; she tested the prediction that family stressors, coping, and other factors affected family health with young adults with serious mental illness.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Madeline Leininger 1991 Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality Caring is a universal Phenomenon but varies transculturally Raines and Morgan (2000) studied the culturally grounded meanings of the concept of comfort, presence, and involvement in the context of the childbirth experience of black women and white women.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Myra Levine 1973 Conservation Model Conservation of integrity contributes to maintenance of a person’s wholeness. Deiriggi and Miles (1995) based their study of the effects of waterbeds on heart rate in preterm infants on Levine's concept of conservation.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Betty Neuman 1989 Health Care Systems Model Each person is a complete system; the goal of nursing is to assist in maintaining client system stability. Brauer (2001) described common patterns of person environment interaction in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, based on Neuman’s model.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Margaret Newman 1994 Health as Expanding Consciousness Health is viewed as an expansion of consciousness with health and disease parts of the same whole; health is seen in an evolving pattern of the Whole in time, space, and movement. Endo and colleagues (2000) Used Newman’s theory to study pattern recognition as a caring partnership between nurses and families of ovarian cancer in Japan.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Dorothea Orem 1985 Self-Care Model Self-care activities are what people do on their own behalf to maintain health and Well- being; the goal of nursing is to help people meet their own therapeutic self-care demands. Anderson (2001) explored, with a sample of homeless adults, the relationship between self- care, self-care agency, and well-being.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Rose Marie Rizzo Parse 1992, 1995 Theory of Human Becoming Health and meaning are co- created by indivisible humans and their environment; nursing involves having clients share views about meanings. Mitchell and Lawton (2000) studied how diabetic patients experienced the consequences of personal choices about living with restrictions, and discussed the emerging concepts within Parse's theory.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Martha Rogers 1970, 1986 Science of Unitary Human Beings The individual is a unified whole in constant interaction with the environment; nursing helps individuals achieve maximum well- being within their potential. Using Rogers’ framework, Bays (2001) explored the phenomenon of hope and associated factors in older patients who had experienced a stroke.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Sr Callista Roy 1984, 1991 Adaptation Model Humans are adaptive systems that cope with change through adaptation; nursing helps to promote client adaptation during health and illness. Roy’s Adaptation Model provided the framework for John's (2001) study of whether perceptions of quality of life change over time in adults who receive curative radiation therapy.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Jean Watson 1999 Theory of Caring Caring is the moral ideal, and entails mind-body- soul engagement with one another. Using Watson's 10 carative factors, Baldursdottir and Jonsdottir (2002) studied the importance of nurse caring behaviors as perceived by patients receiving care at an emergency department.