Research problem, hypothesis & conceptual frameworkPresentation Transcript
RESEARCH PROBLEM, HYPOTHESIS & CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK Meghana Sudhir
Formulation of the research problem and developing hypothesis are key preliminary steps in the research process. A problem is a question posed for solutions.
Sources of problems
There are three main sources for locating a problem or topic.
Experience : The nurses’ every day experience provides a rich supply of problems for investigations. For the beginning researchers in particular experience is often the most compelling source for topics .
Sources of problems:
Nursing literature: Ideal for research project; often come from reading the nursing literature.
The beginning nurse researcher would project from regularly reading the nursing research journal ;
may help the investigator to familiarize with the wordings of research problems and active conduct of research studies.
Sources of problems:
Theory : The third major source of problems lies in the
theoretical system and conceptual schemes which have been
developed in nursing and other related disciplines. If a
researcher decides to base a research project exclusively on a
theory, deduction from the theory must be developed.
Levine’s (1969) conceptual frame work on nursing which
Seley’s (1956) theory of adaptations to stress.
Steps in Developing and Refining Research Problems
Selecting a topic
Narrowing the topic
Evaluating research problem
The development of a research problem is essentially a creative process dependent upon imagination, insight and ingenuity. Developing and Refining Research Problems
Developing and Refining Research Problems
Researchers generally begin with an interest in some broad topic area such as pain management, family communication patterns, self-care patterns of elders or management of urinary incontinence.
Developing and Refining Research Problems
Usually the research focuses on the dependent variable of the study, the variable that will be predicted or explained through its relationship to the independent variable.
Brainstorming with teachers, advisors or colleagues may provide valuable feedback that helps the researcher to focus on a specific problem area.
Criteria for Evaluating Research Problems
Significance of the problems
Researchability of the problem
Feasibility of the problem
Time and timing
Availability of subjects
Cooperation of others
Facility and equipment
Experience of the researcher
Statement of the Research Problems
Statement of the Research Problems
A good statement of the problems should serve as a guide to the researcher in the course of designing the study
The Statement should identify the key variables in the study, specify the nature of the population being studied and suggest the possibility of empirical testing.
The Final Problem Statement
A problem may be written in
Problem Statements in Declarative Form Research focus Problem statement Effect of relaxation on anxiety and dyspnea in patients with COPD Comparison of anxiety: Symptomatoloy among Cambodian refugee adolescents before and after resettlement in the United States Effect of heart transplantation on psychosocial functioning This study investigates the effect of relaxation on anxiety and dyspnea in patients with COPD (Gift, Moore,& Soeken, 1992) Anxiety symtomatology in cambodian refugee adolescents before and after settlement in the United States had been compared (Mueck and Sasse, 1992) The study examines the effect of heart transplantation on psychosocial functioning (Bohachick et al., 1992)
Problem Statement in Interrogative Form Research focus Problem statement Factors that influence adaptation of preadolescents and adolescents with diabetes Effect of group therapy on cognitive functioning and depression in elderly nursing home residents Spiritual health, coping responses, and devastating physical illness What are the influences of age, coping behaviour and self care on psychological, social and physiological adaptation in preadolescents and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Grey Cameron and Thurber 1992) What is the effect of group therapy on cognitive functioning and depression in elderly nursing home residents (Abraham Neundorfer, Currie, 1992) What role does spiritual health play in the coping responses of patients to devastating physical illness (Mickley, Socken and belcher 1992
Formulation of objectives
The purpose must always indicate the focus of the study.
It is specific but it may be more or less comprehensive,
the purpose must indicate exactly what the investigator intends to do to answer the questions.
It should include how data are to be collected or what is observed
and the setting of the study.
Statement of the problem
“ A study to compare the knowledge and practice of post natal mothers regarding neonatal care from selected urban and rural settings of Bangalore”.
To assess the knowledge of postnatal mothers regarding the neonatal care
To describe the practices followed in their family regarding neonatal care
To determine the association between knowledge and practices of neonatal care
To determine association of knowledge with selected variable
To compare the knowledge and practice of neonatal care between urban and rural mother
Clarifying the objectives
(a). Focus on objective one
Knowledge of postnatal mothers regarding neonatal care, breast feeding, cord care, prevention of infection and maintenance of warmth
(b). Focus on objective two
Practice of family regarding neonatal care
(c). Selected characteristic of respondent
Age, Religion, Education, Occupation, Type of family, Income etc.
A hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between two or more variables.
A hypothesis thus translates a quantitative research question in to a precise prediction of expected outcomes.
The hypothesis is an important part of the scientific
method and research studies.
Characteristics of a good hypothesis
Directly related to the research problem
Represents a single unit or subject of the problem
Factually or theoretically based
States relationship between variables
Sets the limits of the study
Stated in such a form that it can be accepted or rejected
A hypothesis is composed of an independent variable
(cause) and a dependent variable (effect)
The derivation of hypothesis There are two types of developing hypothesis Induction Deduction - Constitute the intellectual machinery involved in deriving hypothesis.
Inductive hypothesis is a generalization based on observed relationships.
Researchers observe certain patterns, trends or associations among phenomena and then use the observations as a basis for predictions.
Through deductive reasoning, a researcher can develop hypotheses based on general theoretical principles. Deductive reasoning have as a starting point theories that are applied to particular situations.
Types of Hypotheses
Simple Vs Complex Hypotheses
Simple hypothesis is a hypothesis that expresses an expected relationship between one independent and one dependent variable.
Complex hypothesis is a prediction of a relationship between two (or more) independent variables and two (or more) dependent variables. Complex hypotheses some times are referred to as multivariate hypotheses because they involve multiple variables.
Directional Vs Non-directional Hypotheses
Directional hypothesis is one that specifies not only the existence but the expected direction of the relationship between variables.
Non-directional hypothesis by contrast does not stipulate the direction of the relationship.
Research Vs Null Hypotheses
Hypotheses are sometimes classified as being either research hypotheses or null hypotheses.
Research hypotheses also referred to as substantive,
declarative, or scientific hypotheses, are statements of
expected relationships between variables
Null hypotheses or statistical hypotheses state that there is
no relationship between the independent and dependent
Hypotheses are formally tested through statistical
procedures. Researchers seek to determine through
statistics whether their hypotheses have a high
probability of being correct. However, hypotheses are never proved through hypothesis testing. Rather, they are accepted or supported .
An operational definition of a concept specifies the operations that researchers must perform to collect the required information. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Concepts are mental images or ideas relating to
phenomena or objects that share common properties.
Fact is defined as any event or phenomenon that can be
observed and on which the observer agrees.
Principles state a relationship between two facts that
may be used to explain, guide and predict action.
A theory is used in the broad sense to refer to an abstraction which summarizes and explains phenomena.
The conceptualization part of the research process might well be called the thinking part of the research while the factual part of the research process is more related to the doing aspect.
PURPOSES OF THEORIES AND CONCEPTUAL MODELS
To make research findings meaningful and generalizable.
Efficient mechanisms for drawing together accumulated facts, sometimes from separate and isolated investigations.
Guide a researcher’s understanding of not only the what of natural phenomena but also the ‘why’ of their occurrence.
Theories provide a basis for predicting the occurrence of phenomena.
Prediction, in turn, has implications for the control of the phenomena.
Help to stimulate research and the extension of knowledge by providing both direction and impetus.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Imogene King 1981 Open Systems Model Personal systems, interpersonal systems, and social systems are dynamic and interacting, within which transactions occur. Doornbos (2000) based her framework on King's model; she tested the prediction that family stressors, coping, and other factors affected family health with young adults with serious mental illness.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Madeline Leininger 1991 Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality Caring is a universal Phenomenon but varies transculturally Raines and Morgan (2000) studied the culturally grounded meanings of the concept of comfort, presence, and involvement in the context of the childbirth experience of black women and white women.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Myra Levine 1973 Conservation Model Conservation of integrity contributes to maintenance of a person’s wholeness. Deiriggi and Miles (1995) based their study of the effects of waterbeds on heart rate in preterm infants on Levine's concept of conservation.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Betty Neuman 1989 Health Care Systems Model Each person is a complete system; the goal of nursing is to assist in maintaining client system stability. Brauer (2001) described common patterns of person environment interaction in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, based on Neuman’s model.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Margaret Newman 1994 Health as Expanding Consciousness Health is viewed as an expansion of consciousness with health and disease parts of the same whole; health is seen in an evolving pattern of the Whole in time, space, and movement. Endo and colleagues (2000) Used Newman’s theory to study pattern recognition as a caring partnership between nurses and families of ovarian cancer in Japan.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Dorothea Orem 1985 Self-Care Model Self-care activities are what people do on their own behalf to maintain health and Well- being; the goal of nursing is to help people meet their own therapeutic self-care demands. Anderson (2001) explored, with a sample of homeless adults, the relationship between self- care, self-care agency, and well-being.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Rose Marie Rizzo Parse 1992, 1995 Theory of Human Becoming Health and meaning are co- created by indivisible humans and their environment; nursing involves having clients share views about meanings. Mitchell and Lawton (2000) studied how diabetic patients experienced the consequences of personal choices about living with restrictions, and discussed the emerging concepts within Parse's theory.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Martha Rogers 1970, 1986 Science of Unitary Human Beings The individual is a unified whole in constant interaction with the environment; nursing helps individuals achieve maximum well- being within their potential. Using Rogers’ framework, Bays (2001) explored the phenomenon of hope and associated factors in older patients who had experienced a stroke.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Sr Callista Roy 1984, 1991 Adaptation Model Humans are adaptive systems that cope with change through adaptation; nursing helps to promote client adaptation during health and illness. Roy’s Adaptation Model provided the framework for John's (2001) study of whether perceptions of quality of life change over time in adults who receive curative radiation therapy.
THEORIST & REFERENCE NAME OF MODEL KEY THESIS OF THE MODEL RESEARCH EXAMPLE Jean Watson 1999 Theory of Caring Caring is the moral ideal, and entails mind-body- soul engagement with one another. Using Watson's 10 carative factors, Baldursdottir and Jonsdottir (2002) studied the importance of nurse caring behaviors as perceived by patients receiving care at an emergency department.