Originated in New Orleans & reached America after WWI.
Americans identified Jazz with the urban ghetto .
Jazz reflected the modern mixture of black & white America of both rural & urban settings.
Songs, marches, dance, & spiritual music. </li></ul><ul><li>It symbolized “Americanization” of France & a culutral shift.
Provoked controversy in Europe; banned in Italy; Germans protested the presence of U.S musicians; and the archbishop of Paris banned provocative dances.
Famous Musicians: Louis Armstrong, Joshephine Baker; & James Reese Europe. </li></ul>
French Civilization <ul><li>American movies, products, and tourism, though influencial, wasnt the major link to the Americanization of France in the 1920's, Jazz was.
The early years of postwar reconstruction brought immigrants from France's African colonies for labor force and to increase population during a scare of declining numbers.
American modern influence and the primitivism of la musiqe negre threatened the culture and heritage of France.
French racial attitudes towards jazz became a debate, some embracing its rhythm, sensuality and racial qualities. Others feared it to erode France's national identity and racial degeneration.
Some French constituted listening to jazz as a step backward from civilization. </li></ul>
Rights Revolutions <ul><li>1950-1960: non-violent protestors challenged legalized racial segregation & discrimination in the southern United States & the Union of South Africa: white supremacy territorys.
The 1960 Pan-Africanist Congress launched a campaign of civil disobedience against the pass laws ended with the massacre of 69 unarmed protesters at Sharpeville.
The Sharpeville Massacre led to violence as an approach for liberation.
The American Civil Rights Movement started with the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56.
Leading to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawing Jim Crow Laws and gave blacks access to the ballot box. </li></ul>
Nonviolence <ul><li>Apartheid arose in South Africa while the rest of the world was advancing towards the acceptance of racial equality.
Nelson Mandela, leader of the South African movement to end apartheid, was a non violent protester who turned to violence after the ANC was outlawed.
Non violent movements were inspired by the works of Mahatma Gandhi who used non violent action in the struggle for Indian Independence from British control.
Martin Luther King joined the black Christian culture of his own with the Gandhian conception of non violent resistance to empower his followers and disarm the opposition of many whites. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Defiance Campaign was only successful in the matters of getting federal government on its side and utilizing the US Constitution against the outmoded states rights philosophy of the southern segregationists.
The Cold Wars ideological struggle against totalitarianism made Americans anxious to prove that democracy was color blind.
1953: South Africa declared seperate & unequal facilities its policy,
1954: Brown vs. Board of Education led to segregated schools unconstitutional. </li></ul>
Radical Feminism <ul><li>1960's: feminism was reborn after the campaign for suffrage.
The Feminine Mystique (1963) By Betty Freidan a book on post WWII stereotypes on the American “housewife”.
As women entered the workforce discrminations were made and could file complaints under the Civil Rights Act.
“ equal rights” feminism: concentrated on removing legal 7 economic barriers to equality.
The New Left, “womens liberation,” sought revolution and to change the traditions of womanhood, sexuality, and family. </li></ul>
British & American Feminism <ul><li>Feminist movements mirrored the civil rights movement of the 1960's.
British feminists: stronger ties with male socialists & trade unions.
American feminists: quicker to condemn male patriarchy as an enemy.
Both feminist groups concentrated on legal battles over economic discrimination & abortion.
The Recession caused Anglo-American politics against liberal social changes. </li></ul>