“I have a document camera. Now, what can I do with it?!” <br />–Elementary School Teacher<br />Megan Gerdts<br />Touro University – California, Mare Island, Vallejo, CA 94592<br />OPTIONALLOGO HERE<br />Document Camera Activities Table<br />Introduction<br />Literature Review<br /> Our lives have been transformed by new technology. It is no surprise that technology has made its way into the classroom. Teachers are using document cameras, computers, LCD projectors, and digital cameras to teach students everything from reading strategies to science lessons on polymers. With this influx of technology has risen the problem of a lack of professional development. Many teachers lack the skills and desire to effectively use technology in preparing and delivering standards-based lessons. Without proper training and lesson design strategies, teachers are unable to effectively use the technology provided.<br /> An elementary school in the San Francisco Bay Area recently purchased document cameras for the teachers. Many teachers were excited, while others were hesitant to use them. Document cameras, like many other technologies, can be used to teach content, however there are certain activities that work better than others in presenting specific kinds of material. <br /> The first part of this master’s project was to create a handbook for teachers that provided specific activities using a document camera. These activities were researched-based and provided concise ideas that teachers could easily implement. The activities were to be modeled in staff development trainings and the handbook distributed to teachers.<br /> The second part of this master’s project included providing websites that offered document camera implementation ideas. These websites were included in the handbook.<br />There is a lot of research surrounding technology in education, however, much of it does not address proper implementation of technology in the classroom. Research also supports the idea that students learn more when the concepts are presented using appropriate technology (Taylor, Casto & Walls, 2007). The key in the research by Taylor, et al. is that the teacher must use appropriate technology for the activity that is planned. Many teacher preparation programs “prepare” teachers by introducing many different technologies and software, but lack the training in how to properly use the technology within sound research.<br /> The research done by Mishra and Koehler (2006) presented a framework called Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) by which teachers can learn to plan and implement technology effectively. They took Shulman’s research on pedagogy and content knowledge and extended it to include technology (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The research established that teachers must have specific knowledge about technology, pedagogy, and content. Where these knowledge areas meet is a new area of knowledge that teachers must learn. The figure below is a representation of TPACK.<br />Literature Cited<br />Elmo document camera photograph - http://salestores.com/elmo1304digi.html<br />Elmo teacher camera photo - http://www.elmo.co.jp/doc-cam/case/testimonial/000051.html<br />http://sitemaker.umich.edu/ccampbell/student_teaching_placement<br />http://www.brighthub.com/education/k-12/articles/82871.aspx?image=103157<br />TPACK diagram – http://tpack.org<br />Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009). Instructional planning activity types as vehicles for curriculum-based TPACK development. In C. D. Maddux, (Ed.). Research highlights in technology and teacher education 2009 (pp. 99-108). Chesapeake, VA: Society for Information Technology in Teacher Education (SITE).<br />Harris, J., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393-416.<br />Mishra, P., Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.<br />Taylor, L., Casto, D., Walls, R. (2007). Learning with versus without technology in elementary and secondary school. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 798-811.<br />Factors That Influence Technology Integration<br />Acknowledgements<br />Harris and Hofer’s (2009) research used TPACK as a starting point. They determined that specific technologies worked best when teachers were presenting certain types of lessons. Harris, Mishra, and Koehler (2009) gave extensive examples of technologies that were compatible with specific activities. Suppose a teacher wanted students to create a narrative writing about an event in the past. The technologies that Harris found to be most compatible with that activity are word processors and concept mapping software. <br />Contact Information<br />http://www.umesd.k12.or.us/techlinks_100ideas<br />http://www.timbedley.com/articles/article05.htm<br />http://www.georgetownisd.org/ccorner/technology/Projectors/ImpactingInstructionwithDocumentCamerasandProjectors.pdf<br />http://www.luidia.com/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/58_Ways_Teachers_Doc_Cam.pdf<br />http://www.edutopia.org/elmo-tickles-student-writers<br />
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