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  • 1. Document Camera<br />21050251386840Handbook<br />Presented to the Mt. Diablo Unified School District<br />By: Megan Gerdts <br />Touro University California – Graduate School of Education<br />December 2010<br />4819650-466725-133350-419100Table of Contents<br />Section 1: Introduction and Background<br />
    • Purpose of this handbook
    • 2. How to use this handbook
    • 3. Types of document cameras
    Section 2: Goals of this Handbook <br />Pedagogy<br />Student Engagement<br />Section 3: Document Camera basics<br />
    • Anatomy of an Elmo document camera
    • 4. Functions
    • 5. Student Engagement
    Section 4: Activities and Lesson Plans<br />
    • Introduction to Activities
    • 6. Table of Activities
    Section 5: Helpful websites<br />Section 6: Suggested Readings<br />Section 7: Harris and Hofer’s Activity Type Tables<br />235267513335<br />502221558420Section 1: Introduction and Background<br />Purpose of This Handbook<br />-876301251585Technology is a mainstay in our lives. We use it to communicate with each other, navigate our surroundings, and much more. As technology has evolved, so have the uses for technology in the work place. Having a laptop used to be considered a luxury in the business world. Now, many companies offer all of their employees a laptop as a standard practice. Business presentations have become much more sophisticated with the use of LCD projectors. What used to be given to you on a paper handout is now presented in color with animation using presentation software such as PowerPoint. All of this innovation in the business world has finally begun to take hold in our education system.<br />When finances permit, classroom teachers have moved away from overhead projectors to using document cameras or interactive whiteboards. While these technologies have to offer many opportunities, most school districts don’t have the money to train their teachers how to successfully integrate the technology once it is purchased. Unfortunately, this often leads to technology that simply collects dust because teachers don’t know how to use it. Sometimes, however, teachers take the initiative to learn the basics and can use the technology in a technology-focused lesson. This is a good way to expose students to technology, however, it isn’t the most effective way to teach specific content knowledge. Successful integration requires the teacher to know what types of activities and technology best facilitate the delivery of specific content. <br />The purpose of this handbook is to provide the necessary information about document cameras in order for teachers to successfully integrate the technology into their classrooms. There is a difference between using technology and successfully integrating technology. We will go into more detail on that when we discuss the pedagogy behind technology integration. <br />How To Use This Handbook<br />This handbook was created in order to assist teachers in selecting appropriate technologies for use with specific activities. This technology selection is based on the learning outcomes that you desire your students have. Using the Activity Type tables (see Appendix) created by Judi Harris and Mark Hofer, you can determine what kind of activity you are planning and which type of technology would best support that activity. Ultimately, this technology should work with the activity to enhance the delivery of your lesson and increase student learning.<br />In addition to Harris and Hofer’s tables, I have included a table that can be used specifically with document cameras. It provides activity and lesson plan ideas that are focused on science content. It is important to understand the pedagogy behind Harris and Hofer’s work before an attempt is made at using the tables.<br />Types of Document Cameras<br />Document cameras are a fairly new technology and are also known as “document readers” or “digital visual presenters”. While there are many brands of document camera, the one that is marketed and used extensively in schools is made by the company Elmo USA. Below are some common document cameras.<br /> <br />Elmo TT-02RX – used extensively in classroomsEpson DC-11 new technology, released September 2010<br /> <br />Lumens DC265Samsung UF-130ST – a very high end model<br />Although there are many different brand names and features available, a document camera has some basic features that are standard. Document cameras have a camera lens that usually has zoom capabilities. The lens and lens arm are often moveable and allow the user to view objects from different angles.<br />Section 2: Goals of This Handbook<br />Pedagogy<br />While there are many teaching methods and best practices incorporated into teacher preparation programs, technology related pedagogies are often taught sparingly. Most teacher preparation programs teach students how to use specific technologies, but not how to effectively integrate those technologies. Students can learn information from a teacher using an overhead projector or whiteboard. However, depending on the learning outcomes that the teacher has selected, he/she could use technologies that would best assist in achieving those learning outcomes. This learning theory, researched by Judi Harris and Mark Hofer, suggests that there are specific technologies that best accompany specific activity types.<br />TPACK – Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge<br />49244251878330TPACK is the knowledge that teachers need to have when they are planning and delivering instruction. When many teachers plan a lesson, they use their content knowledge to plan what they are going to teach. Pedagogical knowledge is used to plan how the lesson will be delivered. Lee Shulman did many years of research on pedagogical content knowledge. This is the knowledge of how to effectively deliver a specific kind of content using sound pedagogy and teaching strategies that are appropriate for the student population that is being taught. His research was used and validated, but when technology became a reality, it was clear that technology would add another layer of knowledge added to the framework. Mishra and Koehler spent many years researching the interrelationships between technology, content, and pedagogy. Using their TPACK diagram from http://tpack.org, you can see that the areas where knowledge types overlap, there is a new kind of knowledge. For example, you have to know the content in social studies to teach a lesson, but you also use pedagogical knowledge to figure out what the best delivery of that content would be. This new knowledge area would be called pedagogical content knowledge.<br />Source: http://tpack.org<br />While there is training available in how to use specific kinds of technology, there is little training available for how to effectively integrate technology into your lessons. Not all types of technology are appropriate for teaching students specific science content, for example. What technologies work best with each type of activity is the work of Judi Harris and Mark Hofer.<br />Activity Types<br />50958751833245In general, teachers view technology as a tool or way to enhance their pre-planned content lesson. In the planning stage of a lesson, many teachers first select the content and lesson activities and then choose the technology that will enhance the lesson. While this is the approach that Harris and Hofer ascribe to, Mishra and Koehler prefer that teachers first select the technology to be used and then select the activities and content to be addressed. Teachers could use technology in a much more effective manner by considering the research presented by Judi Harris and Mark Hofer, as well as the research done by Mishra and Koehler. <br />What is an activity type? It is something that teachers use daily, but probably haven’t put much thought into actually naming it. An activity type is what the students will actually be doing in the learning process. You may be studying social studies content in your classroom. As part of the process, students are reading non-fiction text with a partner. This “partner reading”, Harris and Hofer named it, is an activity type that describes that action of the student. While there are many activity types that teachers use regularly, activity types that are standards-based and involve the integration of technology, are the focus of Harris and Hofer’s work. Harris and Hofer are researching and identifying the technologies and activity types that work best together for the maximum learning to occur. <br />9525642620In the social studies content area, for example, Harris and Hofer have identified forty-two activity types. Harris and Hofer broke these activity types into two categories: activities in which students are obtaining and building knowledge and ones where students are demonstrating what they have learned. In demonstrating what they have learned, students can express what they have learned in convergent knowledge expression where the teacher desires that students have a specific understanding of a concept and has a specific outcome in mind. In divergent knowledge expression, students are demonstrating their individual understanding of specific content knowledge in their own creative way. Please refer to the Appendix for the activity type tables created by Harris and Hofer for science, social studies, language arts, and math.<br />Teaching Strategies that Engage All Learners<br />In creating this handbook, my purpose is to provide information to make document cameras easy-to-use and to give you some lesson ideas for science that can be used immediately. I realize that each grade level has specific needs, so in preparing this to be a one-size-fits-all handbook, you may have to do some modifying to make a lesson work well for your group or students. <br />Section 3: Document Camera Basics<br />Anatomy of a Document Camera<br />Most document cameras have the same basic functions, with some of the more fancy models offering more magnification or higher resolution pictures. For the sake of continuity, I will be using an Elmo Document Camera Model TT-02RX. This model is used extensively in schools and is marketed heavily as teacher friendly. A diagram of its main features is included below.<br />1417320754380Zoom and Auto-focus DialCamera lensIllumination lamp switchCamera columnSD Card slotOperating Panelstage <br />Functions<br />From a teacher’s perspective, a document camera opens up the door to enormous opportunity. While before, you had to make overheads of any document that you wanted the students to see, now you can put anything on the stage of the document camera and all students can see it.<br />Some common activities in which document cameras play a huge roll:<br />Science demonstrations are done on the stage so that all students can see the action close up<br />All books are now big books when you put them on the stage and zoom in<br />All math practice books are interactive when students can come up to the white board or document camera and demonstrate how they solved a problem<br />Maps that were once difficult to share are now large enough for all students to see and use interactively<br />Choral reading becomes easy to set up when all students can see the words on the document camera<br />Science vocabulary comes to life when you can use real objects to demonstrate what a word means or what a word is<br />19050796290Most of the activities mentioned above, use the document camera’s capability of providing a color image that can be enlarged for all students to see. However, document cameras are more than just a glorified overhead projector. The beauty of document cameras is that you can use them to present or explain a process. Students can follow your direction in reading a paragraph, for example. In addition, you can demonstrate how to write a certain letter in cursive because your students will be able to watch your hand movements and follow along. The “live-action” ability to demonstrate an activity sets document cameras ahead of overhead projectors and other technologies. <br />4914900172085Student Engagement<br />One of the many magnificent reasons that a document camera is wonderful technology to have in a classroom is that it is very engaging. This generation of learners is tech savvy and is used to learning and interacting on a screen. Whether it is a video game, Facebook, or a Kindle, today’s students have become accustomed to reading from a screen and interacting with other people via the internet and text messaging. <br />One of the important things that teachers focus on when they are teaching is student engagement. When students are engaged, they learn and are more apt to get excited about the material being presented. There are many simple activities with document cameras that teachers use often to engage learners. Students can come up to the document camera and demonstrate a concept or problem solving skill. At the elementary level, students are always very excited to “be the teacher”. If you project 4514850790575your document camera image onto a white board, your students may use the white board as a writing surface. If, for example, you are teaching students how to write a specific letter, you can have multiple students come to the white board and practice tracing and writing. In solving math problems, you can project the problems that the students were working on and have students demonstrate how they solved a specific problem. When the students have completed a homework assignment, you can have different students bring their homework up and place it on the stage to explain certain problems or show what they wrote.<br />Section 4: Activities <br />Activities for Use with Document Cameras<br />In creating this handbook, I felt that it would be beneficial to include some specific ideas for using a document camera in your classroom. While many of these activities can be used in similar ways across the curriculum, I have decided to focus on science and provide activities that can be done in most elementary grades. Keep in mind that this is not a prescription for how the document camera must be used, but rather a suggested use that you can change to suit your students and/or classroom.<br />The table is broken into four parts: direct instruction, assessment, inquiry, and problem based activities. All activities are focused on the science content area.<br />Category of ActivityActivity NameActivity DescriptionDirect InstructionShow It!Use the document camera to demonstrate a new concept or explain a new idea.Work it OutWork out science and math problems on the document camera with the lens zoomed so that all students can clearly see the process that you went through to solve the problem. You can take a still image of your work to save for later use.Decode ItUsing the “cover it” feature… you can cover part of the text and practicing reading portions of it together. You can also sound out words and discuss the meanings.Test PrepUse the document camera to review STAR test released questions and discuss them.Dissect ItStudents can follow along as you dissect a flower or other specimen. 1Read AlongWhen reading a science textbook or non-fiction book, place it up on the document camera so that all students can see it and follow along. Directed DrawingLead the students in a directed drawing of plant parts, life cycles, etc. using the document camera. Students can follow along easily and zooming in allows them to see what you are drawing easily.What’s that?Display pictures or diagrams for students to discuss and/or learn about.Tools and ManipulativesDisplaying tools and manipulatives on the document camera stage, allows students to learn and see what you do with specific items and how to use them effectively. 2Live SpecimenPut a live specimen up on the document camera. Students can observe or sketch the item. You can also take a picture and save it for a test or study guide later. 3Read the NewsPut a newspaper article or section of the newspaper on the stage and read the article, point out the elements of the article, discuss the title and its purpose, look at paragraph structure, use it as a model for writing an article on their own. 1Zoom In!Use the zoom feature to show the students a specimen close up… tadpoles, salmon eggs, plant parts, etc. 4All About Me!Students bring in something that represents them self and use the document camera to give the class a close view of the object without having to pass it around. This can be used as a public speaking assessment. Measure ItUse the document camera to teach students how to properly use a ruler. With color, play-by-play action, students will learn much more quickly. 4Big Book!Use a book on the stage as a model for reading left to right, words, spacing, indentation, punctuation… the possibilities are endlessNote-Taking GuideUse the document camera to teach your students how to take notes on a specific type of information. You can have the text available that you are taking notes from.ExperimentUse the document camera to walk the students through the steps of a hands-on experiment or process.3What’s the Word?Use vocabulary cards from science program and enlarge the picture.Inquiry3-D DemoAllowing all students to view an item can take a while if you decide to pass it around… putting it up on the document camera and rotating/flipping it, can save lots of time and allow all students an up close view. What is it?Work on observation skills… have students write down or share as many observations as they can about an object, plant, insect, etc.What works?Using a student work sample, have students give feedback regarding writing, lab work, sentence structure, letter formation, etc. Test ReviewReview test questions by placing the test on the stage and discussing answers – students discuss with a partner what they answered and whyDemonstrationDo a science demonstration on the stage so that all students have a close up view of what is happening.AssessmentStudent ModelsUse student work as a model for writing correct lab reports and/or following instructions on a specific assignment. Homework CheckSelect three students to bring their homework and put it up on the document camera. Homework is discussed and/or checked from those three students work. Mistakes are corrected and students turn in homework after the last student presents his/her work. This holds students accountable to do their BEST on homework because theirs might be selected to be put up on the document camera. All About Me!Students bring in something that represents them self and use the document camera to give the class a close view of the object without having to pass it around. This can be used as a public speaking assessment. Diagram ItPut a saved image or object on the stage and have students answer questions about different parts of the image or functions of specific parts.What’s the Temperature?Put a thermometer on the stage and zoom in. Have students practice reading the thermometer, figuring out differences between temperatures, and discuss Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. 3Cloze TestPut a cloze passage on the stage and students write the words on their paper that fit in the blanks.Report PresentationStudent chooses part of his/her report to share with the class and discuss.Problem SolvingYou Be the Teacher!Students become the teacher and explain, using their own work, how they came to an answer. Step By StepUse the “cover up” feature to select one problem at a time to solve and discuss. You can create a step by step problem and have the students do each step as you show it to them by moving the cover down.Predicting OutcomesPose a problem, show a picture, read a passage on the stage… then have students predict what will happen, what comes next, how to solve the problem, etc.<br />Section 5: Helpful Websites<br />The following websites offer a plethora of lesson plans, document camera ideas, engagement strategies and much more! I’ve included the URL of each website and a short description of what I found to be helpful and/or useful.<br />http://www.elmousa.com/files/ShowMeGreatLessons!.pdf<br />This website is hosted by Elmo, the document camera maker. It includes a case study that Karina Clemmons of Orange County did to encourage teachers to use their document cameras. She created 95 pages worth of lessons with detailed descriptions of how to use the document camera in the context of teaching a specific lesson. Ms. Clemmons even included pictures to show the reader how she set things up and how she carried out specific activities using her document camera.<br />http://www.averusa.com/presentation/lesson_plan.asp<br />4248150594995This site, hosted by AverMedia, a document camera maker, offers lessons for specific content areas. You can click on a content area and lessons are made available to you.<br />http://www.edutopia.org/elmo-tickles-student-writers<br />This is an encouraging story of how a teacher used a document camera to enhance and transform the writing program in her classroom. Her students were engaged in writing and desiring to improve their writing technique using feedback from peers.<br />http://t4.jordan.k12.ut.us/t4/images/margo/101%20ways%20booklet.pdf<br />This booklet was created by the technology department in the Kennewick School District in Kennewick, WA. It offers some basic benefits of using document cameras and then provides a list of 101 activities and lessons that a teacher can do with his/her students. It is a very informative booklet!<br />http://t4.jordan.k12.ut.us/t4/content/section/8/37/<br />The Jordan School District offers many resources from project templates and lesson plans to helpful websites. They offer links to Jeopardy games, online rubrics, book project templates, technology integration ideas, and much more!<br />http://www.georgetownisd.org/ccorner/technology/Projectors/ImpactingInstructionwithDocumentCamerasandProjectors.pdf<br />This is an amazing site that is organized by subject area. Each subject area has links to different websites that can be used to support your teaching. Many of the websites are interactive and something that would be useful to use with your class. At the bottom of the site, there are lists of activities that you can do with a document camera that are broken down by subject area.<br />http://www.luidia.com/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/58_Ways_Teachers_Doc_Cam.pdf<br />Luidia, another maker of document cameras, offers a list of 58 ways that you can use a document camera in your classroom. This is an easy-to-use list with some useful ideas!<br />http://www.umesd.k12.or.us/techlinks_100ideas<br />http://www.umesd.k12.or.us/techlinks<br />Umetilla-Morrow Education Service District, in Oregon, offers a succinct list of 100 ways to use document cameras (top link).<br />The second URL refers you to their “Techlinks” page where they have compiled a number of websites that are helpful to teachers of all different grade levels and subject areas. It is well-organized by grade level and subject area. <br />http://schoolweb.psdschools.org/laurel/pdf/101%20Ways%20Teachers%20Use%20Document%20Cameras.doc<br />This is a Word document with a list of document camera uses. It is similar to the one provided by the Kennewick School District. Many of the activities are easy to implement and straight forward.<br />http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/gadgets.html<br />Discovery Education provides some useful links to websites related to different kinds of technology. All of the sites deal with implementation of different technologies in the classroom such as digital cameras, podcasting, and document cameras.<br />http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/<br />This site was created by Judi Harris and Mark Hofer as a reference guide for planning activities based on their research with activity types.<br />http://www.tpack.org<br /> This is the website created to help people understand TPACK and how to use it. <br />Section 6: Suggested Readings<br />Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009). Instructional planning activity types as vehicles for curriculum-based TPACK development. In C. D. Maddux, (Ed.). Research highlights in technology and teacher education 2009 (pp. 99-108). Chesapeake, VA: Society for Information Technology in Teacher Education (SITE).<br />Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record 108(6), 1017-1054.<br />Appendix: Activity Type Tables<br />Science Learning Activity Types1, 2 <br />Of the thirty-eight science activity types that have been identified to date, twenty-seven are focused upon helping students build their knowledge of science concepts and procedures. Seventeen of the knowledge-building activity types emphasize conceptual learning and ten of these involve procedural knowledge employed in science learning. Eleven of the activity types describe activities that facilitate students’ knowledge expression. The three sets of activity types (conceptual knowledge building, procedural knowledge building, and knowledge expression) are presented in the tables that follow, including compatible technologies that may be used to support each type of learning activity. <br />Conceptual Knowledge Building Activity Types <br />As the table of activity types below shows, teachers have a variety of options available to assist students in building science conceptual knowledge. <br />Table 1: Conceptual Knowledge Building Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Read Text Students extract information from textbooks, laboratories, etc.; both print-based and digital formats Web sites, electronic books, online databases View Presentation/ Demonstration Students gain information from teachers, guest speakers, and peers; synchronous/asynchronous, oral or multimedia Presentation software, document camera, video Take Notes Students record information from lecture, presentation, group work Word processor, handheld computer, wiki View Images/Objects Students examine both still and moving (video, animations) images/objects; print-based or digital format Video, document camera, digital microscope, digital camera, Web sites Discuss Students engage in dialogue with one or more peers or the entire class; synchronous/asynchronous Discussion board, email, chat, videoconferencing, interactive white board Do a Simulation Students interact with live or digital simulations that demonstrate science content Curriculum software, Web-based simulations, personal/student response systems Explore a Students gather information/conduct Web search engines Blanchard, M. R., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Science learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/ScienceLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />Suggested citation (APA format, 6th ed.): <br />“Science Learning Activity Types” by Margaret R. Blanchard, Judi Harris and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. <br />Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net <br />Topic/Conduct background research background research using print-based and digital sources Study Students study terminology, classifications, test review, etc. Web sites, quiz software/Web sites, wikis Have an Evocative Experience Students observe phenomena that raises scientific questions from physical objects, organisms, or digital media Video, digital microscope, document camera, software Distinguish Observations from Inferences Students distinguish directly observed sensory input from inferences requiring background knowledge SmartBoard, document camera, video, audio recording Develop Predictions, Hypotheses, Questions, Variables Students develop, think about predictions, & select pertinent hypotheses, testable questions, and variables Word processor, SmartBoard, Inspiration, wiki Select Procedures Students choose relevant instruments and methods to test questions Probeware, digital stirrer, video, audio recorder, digital camera, digital timer, graphing calculator Sequence Procedures Students sequence the order of procedures to collect relevant data Simulation, curriculum software, word processor Organize/Classify Data Students create a structure to organize data collected Database, spreadsheet, Inspiration Analyze Data Students describe relationships, understand cause-and-effect, prioritize evidence, determine possible sources of error/discrepancies, etc. Spreadsheet, TinkerPlots, Inspire Data, graphing calculator, statistical software Compare Findings with Predictions/ Hypotheses Students evaluate their findings in light of their hypotheses Spreadsheets, TinkerPlots, InspireData Make Connections between Findings & Science Concepts/Knowledge Students link their findings to concepts in the text/research publications Web search engines <br />Procedural Knowledge Building Activity Types <br />In science classrooms, building conceptual knowledge frequently requires that students use materials and “process” skills (Millar & Driver, 1987) as they develop scientific knowledge. The essential features of classroom inquiry promoted by the National Science Education Standards often engage students in procedures and the use of scientific equipment (NRC, 2000). We term this kind of understanding procedural knowledge, as detailed in the table below. <br />Table 2: Procedural Knowledge Building Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Learn Procedures Students learn how to safely and appropriately handle equipment Video, document camera Practice Students practice using equipment, software, measuring, testing what they have designed, etc. Web-based software or software tutorials, probeware, document <br />camera Prepare/Clean Up Students organize equipment or information for writing Document camera, projector Generate Data Students generate data (e.g. heart rate, cooling water temperatures) by manipulating equipment or animations Software, graphing calculators, probeware, digital balance Collect Data Students collect data with physical objects or simulations Graphing calculators, video, audio, digital cameras, digital microscopes, web-based data sheets Compute Students calculate results from data Scientific calculator, spreadsheet Observe Students make observations from physical or digital experiences Document camera, WebCams, digital/video cameras, digital microscopes Collect Samples Students obtain samples/items to study (soil, bird songs, video footage) Digital cameras, videos, audio recorder Do Procedures Students run trials or otherwise carry out steps to investigations (e.g. use electronic balance) Simulation, curriculum software Record Data Students record observational and recorded data in tables, graphs, images, lab notes Spreadsheet, word processor, database, handheld computer, tablet computers <br />Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />While in many cases teachers may want their students to express similar understandings of course content, at other times they will want to encourage students to develop and express their own understandings of a given topic. The following eleven knowledge expression activity types afford students opportunities to share and further develop current understandings of concepts, procedures, and relationships. <br />Table 3: Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Answer questions Students respond to teacher, peer, written, or digitally posed questions Curriculum software, word processor, quiz software, Web sites, discussion boards Write a Report Students write a laboratory or research report Word processor, presentation software, video, wiki, podcast Do a Presentation or Demonstration Students present or demonstrate laboratory or research findings, or other course learning (e.g. a system of the human body) Presentation software, video, document camera, podcast, video, moviemaking software Take a Quiz or Test Students respond to questions on a test or quiz Curriculum software, word processor, quiz software, Web sites, student response <br />systems Debate Students discuss opposing viewpoints embedded in science content knowledge, linked to ethics, nature of science, personal preferences, politics, etc. Videoconferencing, discussion board, personal/student response system Develop or Build a Model Students physically or digitally create models to demonstrate content knowledge, conduct experiments, etc. (e.g. cell model, rubber band car) Modeling software, drawing tools, Inspiration Draw/Create Images Students physically or digitally draw or create images (from labs, observations, etc.) Drawing software, digital camera, image editing software Concept Mapping Students participate in or develop graphic organizers, semantic maps, etc. Inspiration/Kidspiration, interactive whiteboards, drawing software Play a Game Students participate in games; group or individual; digital or physical; original or pre-made. Curriculum software, personal/student response systems, web-based games Develop a Game Students develop a physical or digital interactive game Word processor, web authorizing tool, videogame development software (e.g. MIT Media Lab) Create/Perform Students create and/or perform a script, rap, song, poem, collection, invention, exhibit, etc. Video, audiorecorder, digital camera, YouTube, document camera, word processor, moviemaking software, wiki, web authorizing software, presentation software <br />References: <br />Millar, R. & Driver, R. (1987). Beyond Processes. Studies in Science Education, 14, 33-62. <br />National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. <br />Mathematics Learning Activity Types1, 2 <br />The purpose of presenting an activity types taxonomy for mathematics is to introduce the full range of student learning activities for teachers to consider when building lessons that strive to effectively integrate technology, pedagogy, and content. In doing so, we attempt to scaffold teachers’ thinking about how to best structure their learning activities, best support those activities with educational technologies, and to spark their creativity during instructional planning. <br />Essentially, these mathematics activity types are designed to be catalysts to thoughtful and creative instruction by teachers. We have conceptualized seven genres of activity types for mathematics that are derived from the NCTM's process standards. To encourage active engagement by all students, these activity types are expressed using active words (verbs) to represent the pursuit of a dynamic and student-centered learning environment. Many of these words are drawn directly from the NCTM standards. Each of the seven genres is presented in a separate table that names the activity types for that genre, briefly defines them, and then provides some example technologies that might be selected by a teacher while undertaking each activity. <br />The "Consider" Activity Types <br />When learning mathematics, students are often asked to thoughtfully consider new concepts or information. This request is a familiar one for the mathematics student, and is just as familiar to the teacher. Yet, although such learning activities can be very important contributors to student understanding, the "Consider" activity types also often represent some of the lower levels of student engagement, and typically are manifested using a relatively direct presentation of foundational knowledge. <br />Table 1: The "Consider" Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Attend to a Demonstration Students gain information from a presentation, videoclip, animation, interactive whiteboard or other display media Powerpoint, iMovie, YouTube, podcasts, videoconferencing, or other display media Read Text Students extract information from textbooks, or other written materials, in either print or digital form Electronic textbooks, websites (i.e. the Math Forum), informational .pdfs <br />1 <br />Suggested citation (APA format, 6th ed.): Grandgenett, N., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Mathematics learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: <br />http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/MathLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />2 “Mathematics Learning Activity Types” by Neal Grandgenett, Judi Harris and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. <br />Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net. <br />Discuss Students discuss a concept or process with a teacher, other students, or an external expert Ask-an-expert sites (e.g., Ask Dr. Math), online discussion groups, videoconferencing Recognize a Pattern Students examine a pattern presented to them and attempt to understand the pattern better Graphing calculators, virtual manipulative sites (e.g., the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives), spreadsheets Investigate a Concept Students explore or investigate a concept (such as fractals), perhaps by use of the Internet or other research-related resources Web searching, informational databases (Wikipedia), virtual worlds (Second Life), simulations Understand or Define a Problem Students strive to understand the context of a stated problem or to define the mathematical characteristics of a problem Web searching, concept mapping software, ill-structured problem media (i.e. Jasper Woodbury) <br />In the learning of mathematics, it is often very important for a student to be able to practice computational techniques or other algorithm-based strategies, in order to automate these skills for later and higher-level mathematical application. Some educational technologies can provide valuable assistance in helping students to practice and internalize important skills and techniques. This table provides some examples of how technology can assist in these important student practice efforts. <br />Grandgenett, N., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Mathematics learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/MathLearningATs-Feb09.pdf<br />The "Practice" Activity Types <br />Table 2: The "Practice" Activity Types <br />Grandgenett, N., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Mathematics learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Do Computation Students undertake computation-based strategies using numeric or symbolic processing Scientific calculators, graphing calculators, spreadsheets, Mathematica Do Drill and Practice Students rehearse a mathematical strategy or technique, and perhaps uses computer-aided repetition and feedback in the practice process Mathblaster drill and practice software, online textbook supplements, online homework help websites (WebMath). Solve a Puzzle Students carry out a mathematical strategy or technique within the context of solving an engaging puzzle, which may be facilitated or posed by the technology Virtual manipulatives, Web-based puzzles (magic squares), brainteaser Web sites (CoolMath) <br />The "Interpret" Activity Types <br />In the discipline of mathematics, individual concepts and relationships can be quite abstract, and at times can even represent a bit of a mystery to students. Often students need to spend some time deducing and explaining these relationships to internalize them. Educational technologies can be used to help students investigate concepts and relationships more actively, and assist them in interpreting what they observe. This table displays activity types that can support this thoughtful interpretation process, and gives some examples of the available technologies that can be used to support forming the interpretations. <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Pose a Conjecture The student poses a conjecture, perhaps using dynamic software to display relationships Dynamic geometry software (Geometer’s Sketchpad), widgets (Explore Learning), e-mail Develop an Argument The student develops a mathematical argument related to why they think that something is true. Technology may help to form and to display that argument. Concept mapping software (Inspiration), presentation software, blogs, specialized word processing software (Theorist), e-mail Categorize The student attempts to examine a concept or relationship in order to categorize it into a set of known categories Database software (Microsoft Access), online databases, concept mapping software, drawing software Interpret a Representation The student explains the relationships apparent from a mathematical representation (table, formula, chart, diagram, graph, picture, model, animation, etc.) Data visualization software (Inspire Data), 2D and 3D animations, video (iMovie), Global Positioning Devices (GPS), engineering visualization software (MathCad) Estimate The student attempts to approximate some mathematical value, by further examining relationships using supportive technologies Scientific calculator, graphing calculator, spreadsheets, student response systems (Clickers) Assisted by technology as needed, the Digital cameras, video, Interpret a Phenomenon Mathematically student examines a mathematics related phenomenon (such as velocity, acceleration, the Golden Ratio, gravity, etc.) computer-aided laboratory equipment, engineering visualization software, specialized word processing, robotics, electronics kits Table 3: The "Interpret" Activity Types <br />The "Produce" Activity Types <br />When students are actively engaged in the study of mathematics, they can become motivated producers of mathematical works, rather than just passive consumers of prepared materials. Educational technologies can serve as excellent “partners” in this production process, aiding in the refinement and formalization of a student product, as well as helping the student to share the fruits of their mathematical labors. The activity types listed below suggest technology-assisted efforts in which students become “producers” of mathematics-related products. <br />Table 4: The "Produce" Activity Types <br />Grandgenett, N., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Mathematics learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/MathLearningATs-Feb09.pdfGrandgenett, N., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Mathematics learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/MathLearningATs-Feb09.pdfActivity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Do a Demonstration The student makes a demonstration on some topic to show their understanding of a mathematical idea or process. Technology may assist in the development or presentation of the product. Interactive whiteboard, video (YouTube), document camera, presentation software, podcasts Generate Text The student produces a report, annotation, explanation, journal entry or document, to illustrate their understanding. Specialized word processing (Math Type), collaborative documents (Google docs), blogs, online discussion groups Describe an Object or Concept Mathematically Assisted by the technology in the description or documentation process, the student produces a mathematical explanation of an object or concept Logo graphics, engineering visualization software, concept mapping software, specialized word processing, Mathematica Produce a Representation Using technology for production assistance if appropriate, the student develops a mathematical representation (table, formula, chart, diagram, graph, picture, model, animation, etc.) Spreadsheet, virtual manipulatives (digital geoboard), spreadsheets, Inspire Data, concept mapping software, graphing calculator Develop a Problem The student poses a mathematical problem that is illustrative of some mathematical concept, relationship, or investigative question Word processing, online discussion groups, Wikipedia, Web searching, e-mail <br />The "Apply" Activity Types <br />The utility of mathematics in the world can be found in its authentic application. Educational technologies can be used to help students to apply their mathematics in the real world, and to link mathematical concepts to real world phenomena. The technologies essentially become students’ assistants in their mathematical work, helping them to link mathematical concepts to the reality in which they live. <br />Table 5: The "Apply" Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Choose a Strategy The student reviews or selects a mathematics related strategy for a particular context or application. Online help sites (WebMath, Math Forum), Inspire Data, dynamic geometry/algebra software (Geometry Expressions), Mathematica, MathCAD Take a Test The student applies their mathematical knowledge within the context of a testing environment, such as with computer-assisted testing software. Test-taking software, Blackboard, survey software, student response systems Apply a Representation The student applies a mathematical representation to a real life situation (table, formula, chart, diagram, graph, picture, model, animation, etc.). Spreadsheet, robotics, graphing calculator, computer-aided laboratories, virtual manipulatives (algebra tiles) <br />The "Evaluate" Activity Types <br />When students evaluate the mathematical work of others, or self-evaluate their own mathematical work, they utilize a relatively sophisticated understanding of mathematical concepts and processes. Educational technologies can become valuable allies in this effort, assisting students in the evaluation process by helping them to undertake concept comparisons, test solutions or conjectures, and/or integrate feedback from other individuals into revisions of their work. The following table lists some of these evaluation-related activities. <br />Grandgenett, N., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Mathematics learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/MathLearningATs-Feb09.pdf<br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Compare and Contrast The student compares and contrasts different mathematical strategies or concepts, to see which is more appropriate for a particular situation. Inspiration, Web searches, Mathematica, MathCad <br />Table 6: The "Evaluate" Activity Types <br />The "Create" Activity Types <br />When students are involved in some of the highest levels of mathematics learning activities, they are often engaged in very creative and imaginative thinking processes. Albert Einstein once suggested that “imagination is more important than knowledge.” It is said that this quote represents his strong belief that mathematics is a very inventive, inspired, and imaginative endeavor. Educational technologies can be used to help students to be creative in their mathematical work, and even to help other students to learn the mathematics that they already know. The activity types below represent these creative elements and processes in students’ mathematical learning and interaction. <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Teach a Lesson The student develops and delivers a lesson on a particular mathematics concept, strategy, or problem. Presentation software, interactive video, video, podcasts Create a Plan The student develops a systematic plan to address some mathematical problem or task. Concept mapping software, collaborative writing software, MathCad, Mathematica Create a Product The student imaginatively engages in the development of a student project, invention, or artifact, such as a new fractal, tessellation, or other creative product. Word processor, animation tools, MathCad, Mathematica, Geometer Sketchpad Create a Process The student creates a mathematical process that others might use, test or replicate, essentially engaging in mathematical creativity. Computer programming, robotics, Mathematica, MathCad, Inspire Data, iMovie Table 7: The "Create" Activity Types <br />Grandgenett, N., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). Mathematics learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/MathLearningATs-Feb09.pdfTest a Solution The student systematically tests a solution, and examines whether it makes sense based upon systematic feedback, which might be assisted by technology. Scientific calculator, graphing calculator, spreadsheet, Mathematica, Geometry Expressions Test a Conjecture The student poses a specific conjecture and then examines the feedback of any interactive results to potentially refine the conjecture. Geometer Sketchpad, statistical packages (e.g/, SPSS, Fathom), online calculators, robotics Evaluate Mathematical Work The student evaluates a body of mathematical work, through the use of peer or technology-aided feedback. Online discussion groups, blogs, Mathematica, MathCad, Inspire Data <br />K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types1, 2 <br />Teaching K-6 literacy is a complex instructional task that requires knowledge of how children learn to read and write. The K-6 literacy learning activity types identified here attempt to simplify the complexity of teaching a child to read and write by subdividing these processes into manageable learning activities that effectively integrate technology, pedagogy and content. This list of literacy learning activity types is offered as a preliminary organizational structure to help scaffold teachers’ thinking about how one might design engaging literacy learning activities that challenge young learners to read and write. <br />As one begins to think about all of the reading knowledge, skills and strategies that are included in teaching elementary literacy, it is easy to become a bit overwhelmed. Although there are several organizational structures that could be used to arrange this information into learning activity types, keeping the categories simple and related directly to the essential components of reading and writing seems most appropriate for primary grade levels. Thus, the K-6 literacy learning activity types focus on helping students develop two very important learning processes: reading and writing. There are also several subcategories within these two categories of activity types that address specific skills or strategies that are required in teaching children to read and write. <br />The Reading Process Activity Types <br />Successful readers thoroughly understand the processes involved in reading. The Reading Process activity types are divided into six subcategories that promote the processes involved in learning to read. Elementary children are typically taught specific literacy skills and strategies that they can use before they begin to read, while they read and after they read. Therefore the first three subcategories include: Pre-Reading activity types, During-Reading activity types, and Post-Reading activity types. Additional subcategories also must be included in this list because more skills are critical to the reading process and the development of good readers. These subcategories are components common to most beginning reading programs, and include Vocabulary activity types, Comprehension activity types, and Fluency activity types. <br />Each subcategory of the Reading Process activity types is presented in a separate table below that names the activity type, defines it, then suggests some technologies that might be used to support the particular type of learning activity named. <br />1 Suggested citation (APA format, 6th ed.): <br />Schmidt, D., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). K-6 literacy learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William <br />and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/K<br />6LiteracyLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />“K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types” by Denise A. Schmidt, Judi Harris and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. <br />Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net. <br />The Pre-Reading Activity Types <br />The goal of the pre-reading activity types is to prepare students for reading and to activate their prior knowledge before they read. <br />Table 1: The Pre-Reading Activity Types <br />The goal of the during-reading activity types is to develop readers who check their understanding as they read, integrating their new understanding with existing knowledge. <br />The During-Reading Activity Types <br />Schmidt, D., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). K-6 literacy learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/K6LiteracyLearningATs-Feb09.pdf Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Develop Alphabetic Knowledge Students name the letters of the alphabet and recognize the letter symbols in print Educational software (e.g. Bailey’s Bookhouse), Read•Write•Think, Digital Alphabet Books, LeapFrog Tag Books, Gamequarium (online) Develop Phonemic Awareness Students hear, identify and manipulate sounds in words Educational software (e.g., JumpStart Phonics), Living Books, podcasting, Gamequarium (online), Read•Write•Think Develop Decoding Skills Students learn the connections between letter patterns and the sounds they represent Educational software (e.g., Reader Rabbit Series), Reading Pen, Interactive whiteboard, Gamequarium (online), Read•Write•Think Introduce Vocabulary Students are introduced to and learn unfamiliar key words before they read Educational software (e.g., Clifford the Big Red Dog Series, I Spy), Read•Write•Think, Reading Pen, interactive whiteboard Activate Prior Knowledge Students think about what they already know about the topic prior to reading Multimedia software, word processing, concept mapping software, Web-based video streaming, student response systems (“clickers”) Make Predictions Students make predictions about text that will be read Multimedia software, word processing, Web-based video streaming, student response systems (“clickers”) <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Read Aloud Students actively listen to an oral reading of a book Storyline Online, BookFlix, e-books, educational software (e.g., WiggleWorks), podcast, Leap Frog Tag Books Think Aloud Students say out loud what they are thinking while reading Storyline Online, BookFlix, e-books, video creation software Guided Reading Students learn how to think about text by reading in small groups, engaging in discussion, and completing a mini-lesson/learning activity e-books, BookFlix, WiggleWorks Directed Listening/Thinking Activity (DL-TA) Students predict and respond to a story while the teacher reads Storyline Online, BookFlix, e-books, WiggleWorks, podcast, Student response systems (clickers) Directed Reading/Thinking Activity (DR-TA) Students make predictions about a story and then read to confirm or reject their predictions Storyline Online, BookFlix, e-books, WiggleWorks, podcast, student response systems (“clickers”) Discussion Students discuss text being read with the teacher, other students or another individual Blogs, wikis, online discussion groups Whole Class Literature Study Students participate in a literature study that includes reading aloud/along, whole-class/smallgroup discussions, and whole-class mini-lessons e-books, Storyline Online, BookFlix, WiggleWorks, podcast Literature Circles Students choose their own books, form small-groups and meet regularly to read and discuss the books Storyline Online, BookFlix, e-books, blogs, wikis, online discussion groups, podcast Reader’s Workshop Students participate in mini-lessons to teach reading strategies, spend time reading independently, and then meet to share, discuss and reflect Storyline Online, BookFlix, e-books, blogs, wikis, online discussion groups, podcast Book Clubs Students read books, take part in peer-led discussions, and participate in a community sharing session Storyline Online, BookFlix, e-books, blogs, wikis, online discussion groups, podcast Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) Students read silently for a designated period of time (10-30 minutes) e-books, podcast, Storyline Online, BookFlix, Independent Reading Students make their own book choices, set independent reading goals and read for extended period of time e-books, podcast, Storyline Online, BookFlix, <br />Table 2: The During-Reading Activity Types <br />The Post-Reading Activity Types <br />The goal of the post-reading activity types is to assess students’ interpretation and comprehension of the text that was read. <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Summarizing Students summarize or paraphrase the major points of a story after reading it Timeliner XE, Read•Write•Think, video creation software, podcast, comic creation software, video sharing sites Retelling Students tell what they remember about a story Timeliner XE, drawing software, video creation software, podcast, comic creation software Sharing Students share information with others about books they have read or heard Video creation software, podcast, video sharing sites Visualizing Students use images and visual imagery to recall what they remember about a story Drawing software, word processing, image editor, digital photography, Read•Write•Think, comic creation software, interactive whiteboard Discussing Students discuss favorite parts or elements of a story Blogs, wikis, online discussion groups Drawing Conclusions Students use written or visual clues to figure out something that is not directly stated in the reading Word processing, educational simulation software (e.g., Decisions, Decisions), video creation software, multimedia software. comic creation software, interactive whiteboard Evaluating Students form opinions, make judgments, and develop ideas after reading Read•Write•Think, word processing, multimedia software, student response systems (“clickers”) Quizzing/Testing Students take a quiz or test about a story or a selection of text they read Integrated learning system (e.g., Accelerated Reader), online quiz software, student response systems (“clickers”) Creating Projects/Artifacts Students create a project or artifact as a culminating activity that illustrates what they have learned comic and/or video creation software, drawing software, multimedia software, iPhoto, podcast, Read•Write•Think, video sharing sites Table 3: The Post-Reading Activity Types <br />Schmidt, D., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). K-6 literacy learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/K6LiteracyLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />The Vocabulary Activity Types <br />The goal of the vocabulary learning activity types is to increase the number of words that are recognized and used by a reader. <br />Table 4: The “Vocabulary” <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Vocabulary Awareness Students increase their knowledge of words by building sight vocabulary and understanding phonological and morphological patterns Read•Write•Think , educational software, drawing software, interactive whiteboard, Reading Pen Vocabulary Analysis Students build and sort words to study their patterns Word processing, educational software, Read•Write•Think, drawing software, interactive whiteboard Vocabulary Use Students study how words combine to form sentences Read•Write•Think, word processing, educational software, interactive whiteboard <br />The Comprehension Activity Types <br />The goal of the comprehension activity types is to ascertain a reader’s understanding of a passage of text. <br />Table 5: The Comprehension Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Cloze Technique Students insert words that have been omitted as they read to complete and construct meaning from text Cloze software, online “Mad Libs,” word processing, interactive whiteboard Semantic Feature Analysis Students use a grid to explore the similarities and differences among events, people, objects or ideas Spreadsheet software, word processing (tables), interactive whiteboard Graphic Organizers/Charts Students use visual and graphic organizers that illustrate relationships among facts, terms or ideas Concept mapping software, interactive whiteboard Cause and Effect Students identify how an action or event will produce a certain response to the action in the form of another event e-books, concept mapping software, educational software, interactive whiteboard Compare and Contrast Students identify how things are alike and different e-books, concept mapping software, educational software, Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboard <br />Inferences Students use clues to learn more about the story and make a conclusion or judgment based on that information e-books, educational software, interactive whiteboard Story Pyramid Students summarize a story by building a pyramid of information (e.g., describe main character, setting, state the problem) e-books, concept mapping software, word processor Picture Walk Teacher guides students through text by looking at and discussing the pictures before reading Multimedia software, iPhoto, interactive whiteboard SQ3R Students use a 5-step reading strategy (i.e., survey, question, read, recite, review) to formulate a purpose for reading e-books, word processor Reciprocal Teaching Students and teacher participate in dialogue structured by summarizing, question generating, clarifying and predicting to bring meaning to text e-books, voice recording, video creation software Reciprocal Questioning (ReQuest) Students analyze their comprehension while reading by developing questions to ask the teacher after reading a selection e-books, voice recording, word processing Point-of-View Students identify the author’s point of view and purpose e-books, educational software, digital photography Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) Students search for answers based upon the type of question that was asked (i.e., Right there, Think and search, Author and you, On my own) e-books, online newspapers/magazines Think-Pair-Share Students talk about the content they are reading by thinking about a question or prompt, pairing up with a student to discuss and sharing their thinking with rest of class e-books, online newspapers/magazines, Web sites Story Map Students identify and map the basic elements of a story (i.e., setting, characters, problem/conflict, point of view, resolution) Concept mapping software, Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboard 3-2-1 Chart Students summarize and rethink key ideas by listing: 3 things they found out, 2 interesting things, and 1 question they still have Word processing software, spreadsheet software, concept mapping software <br />The Fluency Activity Types <br />The goal of using the fluency activity types is to improve a reader’s speed or rate of reading and his/her ability to read with expression. <br />Table 6: The “Fluency” Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Model Fluent Reading Students listen to readers who read words fluently and automatically Voice recording, podcast, video creation software, video sharing sites, educational software, Storyline Online, BookFlix Choral Reading Students read aloud as an entire group in unison Voice recording, podcast Paired Reading Student and a fluent reader read text together Voice recording, podcast, educational software Repeated Reading Student reads the text aloud with a fluent reader, then rereads the text alone Voice recording, podcast Reader’s Theater Students perform an oral reading with an audience present using a script Voice recording, video recording, podcast Radio Reading Student reads aloud a selection of text and then initiates a discussion with an audience by asking specific questions Voice recording, podcast Recitation Students present a spoken performance of a speech or piece of poetry in public Voice recording, video sharing Web sites Drama Students perform, usually by memorization, a play or story for an audience Video recording, digital storytelling, video sharing sites, podcast Storytelling Students tell stories or narratives often by improvisation or embellishment Digital storytelling, video creation software, voice recording software Debate Students hold a structured discussion by debating both sides of an issue/proposition Video recording, podcast <br />The Writing Process Activity Types <br />Good readers are good writers. The writing process activity types include five subcategories of activities that promote the processes involved in learning how to write. Elementary children are typically involved in writing programs like Writer’s Workshop and/or 6+1 Trait Writing to develop their writing skills. The three subcategories that contain activities related to the writing <br />process include pre-writin, during writing, and post-writing activity types. Two other subcategories included here contain writing conventions and writing genres activity types. <br />Each subcategory of writing process activity types is presented in a separate table below, naming each activity type, defining it, and suggesting technologies to support its use for learning. <br />The Pre-Writing Activity Types <br />The goals of learning that is structured using pre-writing activity types are to prepare students for writing and to activate their prior knowledge before they write. <br />Table 7: The Pre-Writing Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Brainstorming Students list as many topics as possible to write about Word processing, Timeliner XE, Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboard, concept mapping software Concept Mapping Students develop a visual or diagram that illustrates the relationships among concepts Concept mapping software, Timeliner XE, interactive whiteboard Storyboarding Students develop a series of panels that outline the sequence of what pictures will be seen and what audio and/or voice will accompany the pictures Concept mapping software, Timeliner XE, multimedia software, interactive whiteboard Visualizing Students create mental images before they write Drawing software, iPhoto, Read•Write•Think Freewriting Students start writing and just keep going, not worrying about style or mistakes Word processing, drawing software Journaling Students write journal entries to brainstorm topics of personal interest, to note observations and to reflect upon their thinking Word processing, blogs, wikis Listing Students generate a list of topics, phrases, and/or sentences before they begin to write Word processing, concept mapping software, interactive whiteboard Outlining Students use a formal system of planning to think about and organize their writing Word processing, concept mapping software, Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboard <br />The During-Writing Activity Types <br />The goal of the during-writing activity types is to develop writers who constantly improve their writing by revising, editing, and considering feedback from others. <br />Table 8: The During Writing Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Drafting/Composing Students write a draft of a story, putting ideas into sentences and paragraphs Word processing, SubEthaEdit, Storybook Weaver Deluxe, drawing software, video creation software, multimedia software Revising Students improve their writing by adding details, rearranging information, deleting information, and/or replacing information Word processing, drawing software, video creation software, multimedia software, collaborative word processor Editing Students correct mechanics, grammar and spelling Word processing, drawing software, video creation software, multimedia software, collaborative word processor Responding Students offer suggestions to peers for improving content, organization and clarity of writing piece Word processing, podcast, videoconference, educational software, collaborative word processor Conferencing Students meet with teachers and/or peers to discuss and evaluate a piece of writing Collaborative word processor, podcast, videoconference <br />The Post-Writing Activity Types <br />The goal of the post-writing activity types is to provide opportunities for students to share, publish, evaluate and present their final writing pieces to an audience. <br />Table 9: The Post-Writing Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Sharing Students orally share their writing with peers/others Drawing software, multimedia software, podcast, collaborative word processor Publishing Students publish their writing for peers/others Word processing, drawing software, video creation software, multimedia software, podcasting, digital storytelling,, online publishing sites, Read•Write•Think Evaluating Students evaluate writing of peers and provide feedback Word processing, blogs, online discussion groups Presentation Students combine textual and visual elements to present their writing for peers/others Drawing software, multimedia software, digital storytelling <br />Performance Students present a dramatic Drawing software, multimedia performance of their writing for software, digital storytelling, peers/others podcast <br />The Writing Conventions Activity Types <br />The goal of the writing conventions activity types is to develop writers who can enhance the readability of their writing pieces. <br />Table 10: The Writing Conventions Activity Types Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Letter/Word Formation Students write/type lowercase and uppercase letters; Students write/type words (i.e., root, prefix, suffix) Word processing, drawing software, Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboard Writing Sentences/ Paragraphs Students construct complete sentences and combine sentences to compose a paragraph (topic sentence, supporting details, closing sentence) Word processing, drawing software, interactive whiteboard Spelling Students use correct spelling when writing Word processing, educational software, Gamequarium (online), interactive whiteboard Mechanics Students use correct punctuation and capitalization when writing Word processing, Gamequarium (online), interactive whiteboard Grammar Students use formal rules about language usage including parts of speech when writing Word processing, Gamequarium (online) Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboard <br />The Writing Genres Activity Types <br />The goal of the writing genres activity types is for students to write across genres, understanding form, purpose and content for each. The activity types are listed in the table below. <br />Schmidt, D., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). K-6 literacy learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/K6LiteracyLearningATs-Feb09.pdf Table 11: The Writing Genres Activity Type Brief Description Example Technologies Descriptive Students describe people, places, objects, or events using details Word processing, Read•Write•Think, drawing software, comic creation software, multimedia software Expository/ Informative Students give information or convey an idea to another person Word processing, drawing software, comic creation software, multimedia software Narrative Students tell a story from a particular point of view Word processing, Read•Write•Think, drawing software, comic creation software, Summarizing Students analyze information and then state in their own words Word processing, multimedia software, drawing software, comic creation software,, iPhoto Persuasive Students present a case for or against a particular position Word processing, Read•Write•Think, multimedia software Technical/Procedural Students explain instructions or directions for completing a task Word processing, multimedia software Poetry Students express imaginative awareness by using repetition, meter and/or rhyme Word processing, Read•Write•Think, drawing software, comic creation software, multimedia software Creative Students express their thoughts and feelings in a unique way Word processing, Read•Write•Think, drawing software, comic creation software, video creation software, multimedia software Transactional Students write to communicate ideas with each other Email, blogs, wikis, online discussion groups, Read•Write•Think <br />Social Studies Learning Activity Types1, 2 <br />Of the forty-two social studies learning activity types that have been identified to date, thirteen are focused upon helping students build their knowledge of social studies content, concepts, and processes. Twenty-nine provide students with opportunities to express their understanding in a variety of ways. Six of these knowledge expression activity types emphasize convergent learning and twenty-three of these activity types offer students opportunities to express their understanding in divergent ways. The three sets of activity types (knowledge building, convergent knowledge expression, and divergent knowledge expression) are presented in the tables that follow, including compatible technologies that may be used to support each type of learning activity. <br />Knowledge Building Activity Types <br />As the table of activity types below shows, teachers have a variety of options available to assist students in building social studies content and process knowledge. <br />Table 1: Knowledge Building Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Read Text Students extract information from extbooks, historical documents, census data, etc.; both print-based and digital formats Web sites, electronic books View Presentation Students gain information from teachers, guest speakers, and peers; synchronous/asynchronous, oral or multimedia PowerPoint, Photostory, iMovie, MovieMaker, Inspiration, videoconferencing View Images Students examine both still and moving (video, animations) images; print-based or digital format PowerPoint, Word, Photostory, Bubbleshare, Tabblo, Flickr Listen to Audio Students listen to recordings of speeches, music, radio broadcasts, oral histories, and lectures; digital or non-digital Podcasts (“Great Speeches in History,” etc.), Audacity, Garageband, Odeo, Evoca, Podcast People Group Discussion In small to large groups, students engage in dialogue with their peers; synchronous/asynchronous BlackBoard, discussion in Wikispaces, eboards Field Trip Students travel to physical or virtual sites; synchronous/asynchronous Virtual fieldtrips, Photostory to develop their own virtual tours<br />Suggested citation (APA format, 6th ed.): <br />Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />“Social Studies Learning Activity Types” by Mark Hofer and Judi Harris is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work <br />at activitytypes.wmwikis.net <br />Simulation Students engage in paper-based or digital experiences which mirror the complexity of the real world Civilization, Revolution!, Fantasy Congress Debate Students discuss opposing viewpoints; formal/informal; structured/unstructured; synchronous/asynchronous BlackBoard, discussion in Wikispaces, e-boards Research Students gather, analyze, and synthesize information using print-based and digital sources Digital archives, Google Notebook, Inspiration to structure Conduct an Interview Face to face, on the telephone, or via email students question someone on a chosen topic; may be digitally recorded and shared Audacity, MovieMaker, iMovie, digital camera Artifact-Based Inquiry Students explore a topic using physical or virtual artifacts Digital archives Data-Based Inquiry Using print-based and digital data available online students pursue original lines of inquiry CIA World Factbook, Thomas, census data, Excel, Inspire Data Historical Chain Students sequence print and digital documents in chronological order Bubbleshare, Photostory, Moviemaker Historical Weaving Students piece together print and digital documents to develop a story Word, Scrapblog, Google Pages, Historical Scene Investigation (HSI) Historical Prism Students explore print-based and digital documents to understand multiple perspectives on a topic Wikispaces, Google Pages, Inspiration using links Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />Teachers are able to determine what students have learned by reviewing their “performances of understanding” (Wiske, 1998) --students’ expressions of knowledge related to the learning goals targeted. Opportunities for students to express their knowledge can be incorporated during a unit of study (as part of formative assessment) or at the conclusion of a unit (as a summative assessment). At times, social studies teachers deem it appropriate for all students to come to a similar understanding of a course topic. This kind of understanding is expressed by engaging in convergent knowledge expression activites, as detailed in the table below. <br />Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />While in many cases teachers may want their students to express similar understandings of course content, at other times they will want to encourage students to develop and express their own understandings of a given topic. The following 21 divergent knowledge expression activity types afford students opportunities to each share their unique understanding of a topic or concept. They are subdivided into learning activities that are written, visual, conceptual, product-oriented, and participatory. <br />Table 2: Convergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Answer Questions Students respond to questions using traditional question sets or worksheets, or through the use of an electronic discussion board, email or chat Inspiration, Word, BlackBoard, e-boards Create a Timeline Students sequence events on a printed or Timeliner, Photostory, <br />electronic timeline or through a Web page or multimedia presentation Word, Bubbleshare Create a Map Students label existing maps or produce their own; print-based materials or digitally PowerPoint, Google Earth Complete Charts/Tables Students fill in teacher-created charts and tables or create their own in traditional ways or using digital tools Word, Inspiration, PowerPoint Complete a Review Activity Students engage in some form of question and answer to review content; paper-based to game-show format using multimedia presentation tools PRS systems, Jeopardy (or other games) on PowerPoint, survey tools like SurveyMonkey Take a Test Students demonstrate their knowledge through paper-based, traditional format to computer-generated and scored assessments scantron forms Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />Table 4: Visual Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Write an Essay Students compose a structured written response to a prompt; paper and pencil or word processed; text-based or multimedia Word, Inspiration, Wikispaces (to track contributions from multiple authors) Write a Report Students author a report on a topic in traditional or more creative format using text or multimedia elements Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Google Pages Generate an Historical Narrative Using historical documents and secondary source information, students develop their own story of the past ord, Wikispaces or Google Docs (to track contributions from multiple authors), blogs Craft a Poem Students create poetry, paper and pencil or word processed; text-based or multimedia Photostory, Moviemaker, iMovie, PowerPoint, VoiceThread Create a Diary Students write from a first-hand perspective about en event from the past; paper and pencil or digital format Blogs, Word, Google Docs, Google Pages Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Create an Illustrated Map Students use pictures, symbols, graphics to highlight key features in creating an illustrated map Google Earth, PowerPoint Create a Picture/Mural Students create a physical or virtual image or mural Paint, Photoshop Draw a Cartoon Students create a drawing or caricature using a paper and pencil or digital format Comic Creator, DFILM video, digital cameras Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />Table 3: Written Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Develop a Knowledge Web Using teacher or student created webs, students organize information in a visual/spatial manner; written or digital format Inspiration, PowerPoint, Word, Imagination Cubed Generate Questions Students develop questions related to course material/concepts Word, Wikispaces or Google Docs (to track contributions from multiple authors) Develop a Metaphor Students devise a metaphorical representation of a course topic/idea Wikispaces (to track contributions), Inspiration Table 5: Conceptual Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Produce an Artifact Students create a 3D or virtual artifact Imaging tools Build a Model Students develop a written or digital mental model of a course concept/process Inspiration, PowerPoint, InspireData Design an Exhibit Students synthesize key elements of a topic in a physical or virtual exhibit Wikispaces, PowerPoint, Scrapblog, Bubbleshare Create a Newspaper/News Magazine Students synthesize course information in the form of a periodical; print-based or electronic Word, Letterpop, Scrapblog Create a Game Students develop a game, in paper or digital form, to help other students learn content Word, Puzzlemaker, imaging tools, Web design software Create a Film Using some combination of still images, motion video, music and narration students produce their own movies Photostory, Moviemaker, iMovie Table 6: Product-Oriented Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br />Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Do a Presentation Students share their understanding with others; oral or multimedia approach; synchronous or asynchronous PowerPoint, Photostory, Moviemaker, iMovie, Audacity Engage in Historical Role Play Students impersonate an historical figure; live, video-taped, or recorded Moviemaker, iMovie, Audacity, digital camera Do a Performance Students develop a live or recorded performance (oral, music, drama, etc.) Photostory, Moviemaker, iMovie, Audacity Engage in Civic Action Students write government representatives or engage in some other form of civic action Web, email, videoconferencing Table 7: Participatory Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types <br /> Hofer, M., & Harris, J.(2009, February). Social studies learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/SocialStudiesLearningATs-Feb09.pdf <br />