Current Situation of Urban Railways
              in Japan
           ―    focused on Commuter Railways           ―




  ...
contents
Ⅰ.Outline of urban railways in Japan
 1.Features
 2.Changes and developments

Ⅱ.Current situation of commuter rai...
Ⅰ.Outline of urban railways in Japan
 1.Features
 2.Changes and developments




                                       3
Changes in urban railway development
  【Prewar era ~the middle of 【 High growth period ~
          the 1950s】             ...
Urban railway construction scheme in Japan




     The master plan for        The recommendation by the transport policy ...
The current situation of urban railways (Tokyo Metropolitan area )
 Construction situation related to recommendation No.18...
Development of urban railways in the Tokyo Metropolitan area
1200
       (km)
                            Private         ...
Ⅱ.Current situation of commuter railways
 1.Current situation in Metropolitan areas
 2.Issues of commuter transportation i...
Urban railway transportation in Metropolitan Areas
Railways in three major metropolitan areas

                           ...
Urban railways play an important role in passenger transport
                                                      Mode sh...
World-wide comparison of land passenger transport
Comparison of the facilities share rate of land passenger transport reve...
Urban railways play an important role in Metropolitan Areas

Share of railways in urban passenger transport

 Railways acc...
Urban railways play an important role in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Comparison of commuter transport of the major ci...
Subway network in the Tokyo Metropolitan area




                                                14
Transport capacities of subways in the Tokyo Metropolitan area
Tokyo Metro Company                    ○ Examples of transp...
Railway network in the Tokyo Metropolitan area


                                         Tsukuba

         Omiya




 Tak...
Transport capacities of the East Japan Railway company (JR-E)

JR-East
・Length: 7,526.8 km
・Lines: 70
・Stations: 1,703
・Pa...
Congestion rate in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

      (%)
230
220
210
200
190
180                                         ...
Target congestion rate

       100%                     150%                   180%                         200%          ...
Measures for reducing congestion


○ Transport capacity-building by:
 ・increasing the number of trains in operation
  (imp...
The features of commuter cars (1)
Cars with six doors




Cars with retractable seats
           (peak time)             (...
The features of commuter cars (2)

Wider Cars




   E209 system                        E233 system (wider)


      Capaci...
Bringing cars with assigned seats into Commuter Trains


   Shounan Shinjkuku Line




              横浜




              ...
Expansion of mutually connected operations ①
(Tokyo Metropolitan Area)       1970                                         ...
Expansion of mutually connected operations ②



                     Length of mutually connected operations              ...
Expansion of mutually connected operations ③

                久喜                                                          ...
Expansion of mutually connected operations (case 1)
Keisei & Hokuso line- Asakusa line – Keisei line
                     ...
Expansion of mutually connected operations (case 2)

Limited express “Romancecar”                                         ...
Ⅲ.Basic policy for future development
 1.Promotion of barrier-free stations
 2.Elimination of “Non-opening level crossings...
Promotion of barrier-free stations

  Eliminating differences in floor-levels
           with elevators, etc.             ...
Continuous grade separation project(JR Chuo line)

     Before




     After (artist’s impression)




                  ...
Changes in level crossings
       Before the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Railway Crossings in 1961,
       the ...
Changes in Series grade separation

             Grade separation has been increasing since 1975 in line with
            ...
Promotion of the continuous grade separation project

Situation

・ “Non-opening level crossings” are closed
over 40 min pe...
Distribution of non-opening level crossings in Tokyo



  JR Chuo line
Mitaka - Tachikawa




                            ...
Continuous grade separation project(JR Chuo line, Mitaka - Tachikawa)

Section                                            ...
Reducing travel time




                     Detour



                   Transfer                            Linkage
Det...
Reducing travel time (example)
Building link lines to utilize existing urban railway network
      Linkage from Nishiya to...
Strengthen collaboration with other transportation & urban development

1. Purpose
Promoting utilization, and upgrading   ...
Collaboration- Case of urban railway station and public service
       Hospital located above a station

The new Tokyu hos...
Case of commercial facility in a subway station
Echika(Tokyo Metro)




  ・Powder   room              ・Wine   bar/bistro

...
Narita airport access railway
○New line construction (Inba Nihon Idai to Narita Airport: 19.1㎞) &
 Hokuso line improvement...
Distance / Travel time between city center and airport in other countries

                             90
               ...
Improvement of access between central Tokyo and Narita / Haneda Airports
                                                 ...
Current Shinkansen network
    ○ The priority of each project is decided based on an
     “Agreement Between the Governmen...
Digital ATC (D-ATC)
     D-ATC
     New efficient train control system that transmits a distance signal to trains via the ...
Digital ATC (D-ATC)
     D-ATC
     New efficient train control system that transmits a distance signal to trains via the ...
Symposium on International Experiences in the Development of Regional Commuter Rail Systems




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Japan

  1. 1. Current Situation of Urban Railways in Japan ― focused on Commuter Railways ― Kenji INOUE Director for Planning and Coordination, Urban Railway Division, Railway Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), Japan 1
  2. 2. contents Ⅰ.Outline of urban railways in Japan 1.Features 2.Changes and developments Ⅱ.Current situation of commuter railways 1.Current Situation in Metropolitan Areas 2.Issues of Commuter transportation in Tokyo Metropolitan area Ⅲ.Basic policy for future development 1.Promotion of barrier-free stations 2.Elimination of “Non-opening level crossings” 3.Enhancement of the convenience with existing lines 4.Upgrade of Station areas 5.Enhancement of airport access function 2
  3. 3. Ⅰ.Outline of urban railways in Japan 1.Features 2.Changes and developments 3
  4. 4. Changes in urban railway development 【Prewar era ~the middle of 【 High growth period ~ the 1950s】 the 1990s】 【 2000s 】 ・Establishment of a ・Cope with increasing ・Improvement of existing stocks business model that commuter demands →Reducing travel times、less ensures profitability though ・Expansion of Network congestion、more transfer the profit gained from non- →New line construction, convenience, etc. core business (1910s) quadrupling tracks, etc. ・Access to the trunk transport network, including airports, Subsidizing new line construction Shinkansen The railway enterprise through the combined operation- (Recommendation No.18 of the companies constructed construction scheme Council for Transport Policy) the urban railways A system that made use of national by themselves government subsidies, financial Innovative Methods for functional investment and loans, etc., and reduced separation of railway infrastructure Ensuring the profitability of the infrastructure construction costs of railway construction and operation railway business through companies was established. development of : ・Residences. The start of the national government ・Construction of connecting lines ・Commercial facilities railway construction subsidy between existing stocks and department stores along system. ・Upgrade of stations as transport nodes lines ・A government-affiliated financial agency began to provide low interest Spread to all major urban areas loans to private railways in major cities ↓ (1920s) ・Interest subsidies for subways etc. The Urban Railway ↓ ・Subsidies for railway construction Improvement Law enterprises. 4
  5. 5. Urban railway construction scheme in Japan The master plan for The recommendation by the transport policy council urban railway construction (Tokyo metropolitan area: No.18) (Osaka metropolitan area: No. 8) etc. The railway is constructed by railway enterprises provided permission by the Railway Business Act and support system by national governments Transport policy council The council was installed in the MLIT, based on an act on the establishment of the MLIT. According to consultations with the Minister of the MLIT, the council’s mission is to investigate and deliberate the important matters of the transport policy, and give opinions and statements to each minister concerned. 5
  6. 6. The current situation of urban railways (Tokyo Metropolitan area ) Construction situation related to recommendation No.18* ①Nippori-Toneri Liner (opened March 30, 2008) 〔*Recommendation No.18 by the Council for Transport Policy, January 27, 2000〕 ②Yokohama Green Line ① Nippori-Toneri Liner (opened March 30, 2008) Nippori~Minumadai-Shinsui Park ③Fukutoshin Line Ikebukuro~Shibuya ③Fukutoshin Line (opened on 14th Jun.2008) The Construction Situation as of April 1, 2009 (km) ② Yokohama Green Line Still-not const. Under-const. In operation Length Hiyoshi~Nakayama A1 Line 280 40 60 148 181 Existing Line A 路線 A 路線 11 (To be completed by 2015) 288 61 79 (100%) (100%) (14%) (22%) (64%) (21%) (27%) (51%) A1 Line A2 Line 169 155 15 0 0 A2 Line A路線 2路線 A2started by 2015) (To be 167 152 15 (100%) (100%) (91%) (9%) (0%) (91%) (9%) (0%) B Line B Line 203 203 203 00 0 0 Already opened B路線 B路線 (To be discussed) (100%) (100%) (0%) (0%) (100%) (0%) (0%) Total 653 658 397 417 9375 148 181 計 (100%) (63%) (14%) (23%) (61%) (12%) (28%) 6
  7. 7. Development of urban railways in the Tokyo Metropolitan area 1200 (km) Private 56km Quadrupling tracks JR 162km 1000 New transport system 119km New line JR 171km 800 Construction Private 276km Urban 301km 600 400 200 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 (FY) 2005 7
  8. 8. Ⅱ.Current situation of commuter railways 1.Current situation in Metropolitan areas 2.Issues of commuter transportation in Tokyo Metropolitan area 8
  9. 9. Urban railway transportation in Metropolitan Areas Railways in three major metropolitan areas Population Area (million) (km2) Central Tokyo 8.7 622 (Tokyo Met.) (12.9) (2,188) 【Greater Tokyo】 【35.1】 【13,368】 Taipei 2.6 272 (Taiwan) (22.9) (35,915) 500km Passengers Route Length carried (km) (million/year) Osaka Met. area (Within 40km of Osaka Station) Tokyo Met. area Tokyo area 2,369 13,575 (Within 50km of Tokyo Station) Nagoya area 924 1,136 Nagoya Met. area Osaka area 1,469 4,790 (Within 40km of Nagoya Station) The 3 areas 4,762 19,501 Japan 27,641 22,689 (Reference) TRTC 66 316 9
  10. 10. Urban railways play an important role in passenger transport Mode share of domestic passenger transport. 100 (%) Recent situation (2005) 90 Railway ・Railway 27.7% 80 Private car intersected railway in 1979. ・Private car 59.9% 70 ・Airplane 5.9% 60 単位:千人 ・Bus 6.2% 50 40 Private Car 30 Airplane Ship 20 Bus 10 0 % 昭和25 1955 1950 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 平成2 7 12 15 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 年度 Changing number of railway passengers (Unit: 1000 people) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 National 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 -- 2 5 5 0 7 5 10 0 12 5 15 0 17 5 20 0 22 5 25 0 3 Major Metropolitan Areas Others 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 197555 昭和 35 40 45 50 1980 60 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 平成 7 12 15 30 2 10
  11. 11. World-wide comparison of land passenger transport Comparison of the facilities share rate of land passenger transport reveals that the railway transport share of Japan far exceeds that of major European countries. Railway transport share by country Railway 29.5% Japan Private car Bus 63.9% 6.6% (FY 2005) Railway Railway 7.0% Railway Bus 10.7% 9.2% Bus 6.3% Bus 5.2% 6.4% UK Germany France Private car Private car Private car 86.6% 84.4% 84.1% (FY 2006) (FY 2006) (FY 2006) 11
  12. 12. Urban railways play an important role in Metropolitan Areas Share of railways in urban passenger transport Railways account for nearly 50% of transport in the 3 major metropolitan areas. 自家用車 Private car Railway 鉄道 40.6% 40.6% 49.8% 49.8% Bus バス 6.7% 6.7% ハイヤー 20 billion passengers/year Taxi 53 million passengers/day タクシー 2.9% 2.9% 12
  13. 13. Urban railways play an important role in the Tokyo Metropolitan area Comparison of commuter transport of the major cities in the world Railways account for nearly 74% of commuter transport in the Tokyo Metropolitan area 0% 50% 100% 鉄道 Railway Tokyo 東京 74% バス Bus 自動車 car Private New York ニューヨーク 43% 二輪車 Motorbike & Bike 徒歩 Walk London ロンドン 52% その他 etc 13
  14. 14. Subway network in the Tokyo Metropolitan area 14
  15. 15. Transport capacities of subways in the Tokyo Metropolitan area Tokyo Metro Company ○ Examples of transport capacities and congestion rates for the Tokyo Metro Company ・Length: 195.1 km ・Lines: 9 Line name Train cars Transport Congestion ・Stations: 179 × capacity rate(%) ・Passengers: 6.2 million/day Train/hour (passengers) Ginza 6×30 18,240 168 Hibiya 8×28 28,224 164 Tozai 10×27 38,448 199 Chiyoda 10×29 39,872 173 Bureau of Transportation Tokyo Metropolitan Government ・Length: 109.0 km ○ Transport capacities and congestion rates ・Lines: 4 Line Name Train cars Transport Congestion ・Stations: 98 × capacity rate (%) ・Passengers: 2.3 million/day (passengers) Train/hour Asakusa 8×23 22,080 133 Mita 6×19 15,960 164 Shinjuku 8.5×16 19,040 173 Oedo 8×19 14,820 178 15
  16. 16. Railway network in the Tokyo Metropolitan area Tsukuba Omiya Takao Narita Airport Tokyo Chiba Haneda Airport Yokohama Length of all lines Kamakura in Tokyo Met. Area: 2,369 km 16
  17. 17. Transport capacities of the East Japan Railway company (JR-E) JR-East ・Length: 7,526.8 km ・Lines: 70 ・Stations: 1,703 ・Passengers: 16.9 million/day ○ Examples of transport capacities and congestion rates for the East Japan Railway company Line name Train cars Transport Congestion × capacity rates (%) (passengers) Train/hour Tokaido 13×19 34,348 191 Yamanote 11×25 40,700 205 Chuo (Rapid) 10×30 44,000 198 Keihin-Tohoku 10×26 36,400 209 Sobu (Local) 10×26 38,480 206 17
  18. 18. Congestion rate in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (%) 230 220 210 200 190 180 171 170 160 163 150 140 130 126 120 110 Congestion rate :混雑率 100 :輸送力(指数:50年度=100)(Index: 1975=100) Transport capacity 90 :輸送人員(指数:50年度=100) Passengers (Index: 1975=100) 80 1975 80 85 88 93 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Fiscal Year 18
  19. 19. Target congestion rate 100% 150% 180% 200% 250% Although uncomfortable Whenever the train A newspaper can be physical contact is made, shakes, people lean over, Full capacity is A newspaper can be read, but only if it is things the size of weekly movement is impossible, reached. opened and read folded magazines, for example, and neither hands nor comfortably. can read with some effort. legs can be moved. ● Target for reducing congestion (Target year: 2015) The 3 major Metropolitan areas — Less than 150% in all sections. Tokyo area — Less than 150% on average, and no more than 180% in all sections. 19
  20. 20. Measures for reducing congestion ○ Transport capacity-building by: ・increasing the number of trains in operation (improving signal equipment etc.) ・quadrupling tracks ・increasing the numbers of train cars (longer trains) ○ Car improvements: ・ wider ・ six doors on one side ・ retractable seats 20
  21. 21. The features of commuter cars (1) Cars with six doors Cars with retractable seats (peak time) (off-peak time) 21
  22. 22. The features of commuter cars (2) Wider Cars E209 system E233 system (wider) Capacity/car: 140 → 148 (+8) 22
  23. 23. Bringing cars with assigned seats into Commuter Trains Shounan Shinjkuku Line 横浜 23
  24. 24. Expansion of mutually connected operations ① (Tokyo Metropolitan Area) 1970 1980 1990 久喜 2008 年(平成20 年) 2008 新松戸 津 千葉中 央 24
  25. 25. Expansion of mutually connected operations ② Length of mutually connected operations Ratio of mutually connected operations (Tokyo Metropolitan Area) as of September in Tokyo Metropolitan Area 1000 922 900 各年の12月末現在の相直延長を表す。 As of December each year Total: 2,400km (ただし、2008年は9月30日現在) (But for 2008, as of September) 800 Mutually connected operations : 920km 700 相 直 Length ( 600 延 535 長 500 426 38% (km) k 400 m 62% ) 300 249 200 100 0 1970 1980 1990 2008 Other: 1,480km Year 年代 25
  26. 26. Expansion of mutually connected operations ③ 久喜 2008 新松戸 新京成線 東葉高速鉄道 津 千葉中央 Length of mutually connected operations (Tokyo Metropolitan Area) 1000 922 900 As of December each year 800 (But for 2008, as of September) Length (km) 700 600 535 500 426 400 300 249 200 100 0 1970 1980 1990 2008 Year 26
  27. 27. Expansion of mutually connected operations (case 1) Keisei & Hokuso line- Asakusa line – Keisei line Inba Nihon Idai “Through Service” from Narita Airport to Central Tokyo, Keisei Ueno Haneda Airport & Yokohama Narita Airport Shinbashi Nishi Shinagawa Magome Haneda Airport Yokohama Shin Zushi Misakiguchi Uraga 27
  28. 28. Expansion of mutually connected operations (case 2) Limited express “Romancecar” Started in March 2008 runs on Metro lines Chiyoda line Kita Senju New model, which can run on Metro lines, Shinjuku was introduced to connect the Odakyu line Yurakucho line and the Chiyoda & Yurakucho lines. Yoyogi Uehara Shin Kiba Karakida Machida “Romancecar” running on a Metro line. New model Hon Atsugi Commuter train runs on business days Hon Atsugi→Kita Senjyu (1 train) Kita Senju→Karakida (1 train) Otemachi→Hon Atsugi (2 trains) Odawara Sightseeing train runs on holidays Kita Senju⇔Hon Atsugi (1 round trip) Hakone yumoto Kita Senju⇔Hakone Yumoto (2 round trips) ー29ー 28
  29. 29. Ⅲ.Basic policy for future development 1.Promotion of barrier-free stations 2.Elimination of “Non-opening level crossings” 3.Enhancement of the convenience with existing lines 4.Upgrade of station areas 5.Enhancement of airport access function 29
  30. 30. Promotion of barrier-free stations Eliminating differences in floor-levels with elevators, etc. Platform doors Strongly promoting the barrier-free concept Promoting platform doors and platform in stations that over 5,000 passengers use a screen doors to increase the safety of all day. people in stations, including the visually Principle under the barrier-free law impaired By FY 2010, at almost stations that over 5,000 passengers use a day: i) differences in floor-levels should be eliminated with by setting elevators or escalators in stations that have levels with over 5 m difference in height, and ii) fall-prevention equipment should be installed, including platform doors, platform screen doors & Braille floor tiles Eliminating differences in levels at about Set in 432 station ( as of Mar 2009) 2,200 stations as of March 2009 (79%), ※Braille tiles were installed at almost all among approx. 2,800 stations that over 5,000 stations passengers use a day Achievement 100% Platform screen door Platform door 90% (Nakano Sakaue Station) (Komagome Station) 80% 79% 70% 60% 67% 63% 50% 56% 49% 40% 44% 39% 30% 29% 33% 20% 10% 0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 H12末 H13末 H14末 H15末 H16末 H17末 H18末 H19末 H20末 30
  31. 31. Continuous grade separation project(JR Chuo line) Before After (artist’s impression) 31
  32. 32. Changes in level crossings Before the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Railway Crossings in 1961, the number of level crossings was increasing in line with the extending railway. After the enforcement, the number began to decrease. Now: approximately 36,000 crossings in total (half the peak number) Number of level crossing (1,000) Private company 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2004 32
  33. 33. Changes in Series grade separation Grade separation has been increasing since 1975 in line with motorization. Now, the over 40% of all crossings use grade separation. Number of grade separation crossings Ratio of grade separation crossings Ratio of Grade separation (1,000) Level crossings Grade separation crossings 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2003 33
  34. 34. Promotion of the continuous grade separation project Situation ・ “Non-opening level crossings” are closed over 40 min per hour at peak times ◇Regional ratio ・About 600 in Japan (half are in Tokyo, 98% are in 3 metropolitan areas Others:2% Issues Non-opening level crossings cause chronic Other metropolitan traffic congestion/accidents. areas:31% Approx. Tokyo:47% Solution 600 Osaka:20% Continuous grade separation project Elevating rail lines to eliminate level crossings. 34
  35. 35. Distribution of non-opening level crossings in Tokyo JR Chuo line Mitaka - Tachikawa Railway lines Grade separation Non-opening level crossings 35
  36. 36. Continuous grade separation project(JR Chuo line, Mitaka - Tachikawa) Section Effect of crossing at Koganei street ○Peak time (AM 8:00 – 9:00) ○one day Tachikawa Mitaka Closed:14 hrs Closed: 56 min Blocked traffic :44,436 cars The problem is resolved Scheme Cost:180 billion yen Period: 1999 to 2011 Operator Central government : Local government 15%(※) 1:1 (※)It depends on the financial capacity of the local government (ranges from 10% to 15%) 36
  37. 37. Reducing travel time Detour Transfer Linkage Detouring to a distant Travel times are reduced transfer is necessary through building link lines 37
  38. 38. Reducing travel time (example) Building link lines to utilize existing urban railway network Linkage from Nishiya to Hiyoshi ○Project cost: about 264 billion yen ○Period: 2006 to 2018 Shinjuku Tokyo Shibuya Meguro Shinagawa Tokyu Toyoko line Odakyu Odawara Line Denen Chofu JR Tokaido Line Linkage JR Yokosuka line Hiyoshi JR Tokaido freight line Shin Yokohama Sotetsu line Nearby Yokohama Uzawa sta. Futamatagawa Ebina Nishiya Yamato Yokohama Sotetsu Izumino line 〔Travel time〕 before⇒ after (cut time) 〔transfer time〕 Futamatagawa – Meguro 54min⇒38min (16min) 〔2⇒0〕 Yamato – Shin Yokohama 42min⇒19min (23min) 〔1⇒0〕 38
  39. 39. Strengthen collaboration with other transportation & urban development 1. Purpose Promoting utilization, and upgrading 2.Plan a transportation node with matching (1)Project cost:13 billion yen buildings and bus terminal around the (2)Construction period : 2005 to 2012 station Sannomiya To JR・Hankyu・ Transfer of (Hanshin line) Metro traffic volume Bus terminal Existing Path To JR・port liner New path Barrier free Trigger to new urban development Expansion of platform New ticket gate 39
  40. 40. Collaboration- Case of urban railway station and public service Hospital located above a station The new Tokyu hospital was built Community medical facility above the Ookayama station of Community involvement the Tokyu Oimachi and Meguro lines. ○Installing anti-vibration devices to enable safe medical activities 40
  41. 41. Case of commercial facility in a subway station Echika(Tokyo Metro) ・Powder room ・Wine bar/bistro 41
  42. 42. Narita airport access railway ○New line construction (Inba Nihon Idai to Narita Airport: 19.1㎞) & Hokuso line improvement(Keisei Takasago to Inba Nihon Idai: 32.3km) ○Constructor & Operator: Narita Rapid Rail Access Co., Ltd & Keisei Electric Railway Co., Ltd ○Project cost: 126 billion yen (Subsidy: 45 billion, Contribution: 26 billion, Investments: 20 billion, Loan: 35 billion) ※Subsidy scheme: the subsidy for airport access railway (Central/Local government: one third each ) ○Opens in FY 2010 Inba Nihon Idai Komuro Narita Keisei Takasago Airport Chiba Newtown rail Narita Airport Rapid Rail Nippori (operator) (operator) Keisei Ueno Hokuso line Narita Rapid Rail Access (operator & infrastructure) (operator) Tokyo Keisei Electric Railway (infrastructure) Shinagawa Reduced travel time (Nippori to Narita Airport) Kiekyu Kamata Before: about 51 min ⇒After: about 36 min Haneda Airport 42
  43. 43. Distance / Travel time between city center and airport in other countries 90 国内アクセス鉄軌道 Airport access railway in Japan Seoul(Incheon) 80 海外アクセス鉄軌道 Airport access railway in other countries 70 Longer time 大阪(関空・南海) Tokyo(Narita) 東京(成田・JR) 60 所要時間 (min) 日暮里(成田・京成) Nippori (Narita) Travel time (分) 50 新大阪(関空・JR) Longer time Shin Osaka(Kanku) Milano 40 ミラノ(マルペンサ) ソウル(金浦) Seoul(Gimpo) Nanba(Kanku) ローマ(レオナルド・ダ・ビンチ) Rome ロンドン(ガトウィック) 名古屋(中部国際) Nagoya London (Gatwick) 30 パリ(シャルル・ド・ゴール) Paris クアラルンプール Kuala Lumpur Hamamatsucho (クアラルンプール) Shinagawa 浜松町(羽田・モノ) Shanghai 香港(チェク・ラップ・コック) (Haneda) London Oslo 20 (Haneda) オスロ(ガルデモエン) シドニー 品川(羽田・京急)仙台(仙台)Sendai Sydney ロンドン(ヒースロー) London (Heathrow) (シドニー) Copenhagen コペンハーゲン(カストロップ) 10 シンガポール(チャンギ) チューリッヒ(クローテン) Zurich Singapore 上海(浦東) Shanghai フランクフルト Frankfurt (フランクフルト) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Direct distance (km) 直線距離(㎞) 43
  44. 44. Improvement of access between central Tokyo and Narita / Haneda Airports Scheduled to be opened in 2010 Kuko dai ni biru 空港第2ビル Keisei Linkage 短絡線整備 Takasago 京成高砂 Narita Rapid Rail Access 成田新高速鉄道 Nippori 日暮里 成田空港 Narita Airport 京成上野 Keisei Ueno 押上 Oshiage Keisei line 京成本線 Tokyo 東京 短絡線の整備イメージ After the improvement (Not to scale) Oshiage 押上 泉岳寺 Sengakuji Tokyo 東京 Narita Express JR成田エクスプレス Shinagawa 品川 Kiekyu Kamata 京急蒲田 Sengakuji 泉岳寺 品川 Shinagawa Targeted travel time (under consideration) Narita – Haneda around 50 min 羽田空港 Airport Haneda Tokyo – Narita around 30 min Tokyo – Haneda around 20 min Through-service between Narita and Haneda (current) Keihin Electric Express line⇔Asakusa line⇔Keisei line ※Limited express between Inchon and Gimpo : 28min Distance Travel time (earliest) Trains/day Haneda → Narita 90.6km 1h47m (scheduled speed:51km/h) 5 ※Narita/Haneda limousine:75min (44-51 busses / day) Narita → Haneda 2h2m (scheduled speed:45km/h) 2 44
  45. 45. Current Shinkansen network ○ The priority of each project is decided based on an “Agreement Between the Government and the Ruling party” (Dec. 2004) Construction section based on the Agreement <Scheduled completion year> ○ Hokkaido Shinkansen FY 2015 Shin Aomori-Shin Hakodate ○ Tohoku Shinkansen FY 2010 Hokkaido line Hachinohe-Shin Aomori ○ Hokuriku Shinkansen ○Shin Hakodate-Sapporo (211km) FY 2014 Nagano-Kanazawa FY 2008 Sapporo Around Fukui station ○Shin Aomori-Shin Hakodate ○ Kyushu Shinkansen (Kagoshima 2010 FY route) (149km) Shin Hakodate Hakata-Shin yatsushiro About ten years after the license ○ Kyushu Shinkansen (Nagasaki route) was issued in March 2008 Tohoku line Takeo-Isahaya (82km) ○Hachinohe- Shin Aomori Shin Aomori Hachinohe ○Around Fukui Station Hokuriku line In operation since Dec 2002 ○Nanetsu-Tsuruga ○Kanazawa-Nanetsu ○Toyama-Kanazawa○Nagano-Toyama (31km) (86km) (68km) (170km) Morioka Kyushu line (Nagasaki route) Nigata Toyama ○Takeo-Isahaya Kanazawa Free Gauge Train (45km) (superexpress ) In operation since Oct 1997 Fukui Nagano Hakata Nanetsu ○Isahaya-Nagasaki Takasaki Takeo Tsuruga Omiya ( superexpress ) (21km)Isahaya Shin tosu Tokyo Nagasaki Osaka Legend Shin Yatsushiro In operation Kyushu line Under construction (Kagoshima route) In operation since Mar 2004 Construction started Planning (applied for construction plan) ○Hakata-Shin Yatsushiro Planning (not applied for construction plan) (130km) Current network Kagoshima Chuo 45
  46. 46. Digital ATC (D-ATC) D-ATC New efficient train control system that transmits a distance signal to trains via the track circuit rather than a speed control signal Lines installed D-ATC: JR Yamanote line, JR Keihin Tohoku line (Minami Urawa –Tsurumi), Shinjuku line (Tokyo Metro) (km/h) Traditional ATC D-ATC Speed pattern 90 (onboard device) Control under Keeping under Actual speed 60km/h 30km/h 60 Actual Automatically braking Speed control speed when actual speed -Smoothly braking signal exceeds speed pattern -Secure stop 30 Stop decelerating at under before stop point 60km/h Calculation of Speed control Stop signal (analog signal) speed pattern Decelerating Decelerating Stop Decelerating 0 90 signal 60 signal 60 signal 30 signal 0 signal Digital signal Stop point (Stop point) Transmit control signal from ground device to onboard device Transmit “stop point” from ground device to onboard device Merits ・Efficient brake control can shorten headway and travel time. ・Smooth braking can make the ride comfortable. ・Onboard device permits efficient control of trains, whose brake performance is varied— no need to change ground device. ・Latest general-purpose technology can realize a compact and low-cost ground device. 46
  47. 47. Digital ATC (D-ATC) D-ATC New efficient train control system that transmits a distance signal to trains via the track circuit rather than a speed control signal Lines installed D-ATC: JR Yamanote line, JR Keihin Tohoku line (Minami Urawa –Tsurumi), Shinjuku line (Tokyo Metro) (km/h) Traditional ATC D-ATC Speed pattern 90 (onboard device) Control under Keeping under Actual speed 60km/h 30km/h 60 Actual Automatically braking Speed control speed when actual speed -Smoothly braking signal exceeds speed pattern -Secure stop 30 Stop decelerating at under before stop point 60km/h Calculation of Speed control Stop signal (analog signal) speed pattern Decelerating Decelerating Stop Decelerating 0 90 signal 60 signal 60 signal 30 signal 0 signal Digital signal Stop point (Stop point) Transmit control signal from ground device to onboard device Transmit “stop point” from ground device to onboard device Merits ・Efficient brake control can shorten headway and travel time. ・Smooth braking can make the ride comfortable. ・Onboard device permits efficient control of trains, whose brake performance is varied— no need to change ground device. ・Latest general-purpose technology can realize a compact and low-cost ground device. 47
  48. 48. Symposium on International Experiences in the Development of Regional Commuter Rail Systems Session 3B Mr. Inoue, Kenji 48

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