Comma usage


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Comma usage

  1. 1. Comma Usage How do you use commas, and how can they add detail to your writing?
  2. 2. Nouns in Direct Address <ul><li>Often used to name the person you are speaking to </li></ul><ul><li>Usually used with dialogue, but not always </li></ul><ul><li>Comma needed after if it is at the beginning of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Comma needed before and after if it is in the middle of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Comma needed before if it is at the end of the sentence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nouns in Direct Address <ul><li>Rachel put that book away. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very old Kate. </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful Chelsea when you turn the pages. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Appositive <ul><li>Adds detail about a noun or pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Can be one word or a short phrase </li></ul><ul><li>It comes right after the noun or pronoun it is modifying </li></ul><ul><li>Same comma rules as with nouns in direct address </li></ul>
  5. 5. Appositive <ul><li>The classroom off to the right was very large. </li></ul><ul><li>The desks all 30 of them needed repair. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Appositives—expand this sentence using one! <ul><li>The students had a busy day. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dialogue <ul><li>Commas are needed when characters are speaking to each other (dialogue). </li></ul><ul><li>There are three basic patterns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joe said, “We are late.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We are,” Joe said, “very late.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We are late,” said Joe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How late are we?” asked Mary. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Dialogue <ul><li>Stephanie stated “My favorite story is Heidi.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ My favorite story is Heidi” Stephanie stated. </li></ul><ul><li>“ My favorite story” Stephanie stated “is Heidi.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why do you like it” asked Mike. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Compound Sentence <ul><li>Need the comma and a coordinating conjunction to separate two simple sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Can separate using just a semi-colon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The music is loud, so we asked them to turn it down. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Compound Sentence <ul><li>The computer is old so we need a new one. </li></ul><ul><li>Many programs don’t work on it and it is very frustrating. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Complex Sentence <ul><li>Comma is needed after a dependent clause when it comes at the beginning of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since we were early, we were seated right away. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We were seated right away since we were early. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Complex Sentence <ul><li>Even though we covered the plants they still died from the cold. </li></ul><ul><li>They still died from the cold even though we covered the plants. </li></ul><ul><li>While you studied we watched TV. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Items In A Series <ul><li>Comma needed to separate 3 or more items listed or written together </li></ul><ul><li>Commas needed between each item and before the conjunction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We ate pizza, breadsticks, and a salad for dinner. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Items In A Series <ul><li>She read magazines short stories and poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>She also liked baseball basketball and football. </li></ul><ul><li>We ran to the track bounced the ball and rushed back to the bleachers. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Prepositional Phrases at the beginning of a sentence <ul><li>You need a comma with prepositional phrases when they are used at the beginning of a sentence </li></ul>
  16. 16. Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>In the summer we usually go to the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>We like to ride in the golf cart. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the four of us we really enjoy playing putt-putt. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interjections or Onomatopoeia at the beginning <ul><li>Wow We are excited about the game! </li></ul><ul><li>Crruunnch the CD was crushed under her feet. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Transition Words at the beginning <ul><li>Finally we will finish this review. </li></ul><ul><li>However I do hope it helped you. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words please study. </li></ul>