Lecture 7 Integrating ICTs into your teaching

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Lecture 7 Integrating ICTs into your teaching

  1. 1. Dr Megan Poore Planning for teaching. Megan.Poore@canberra.edu.au Effective technology integration 6705 Enhanced Learning in Professional Contexts
  2. 2. Overview • Principles of effective integration • TPACK • Online considerations • Educational design
  3. 3. Tweet this lecture: #6705elpc
  4. 4. PART I A MODEL FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
  5. 5. Technology integration I.Foundation of learning theories II.Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) III.Technology Integration Planning (TIP) IV.Essential conditions for integration Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston
  6. 6. I. Theoretical foundations Two models •Directed •Constructed Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston. Ch 2.
  7. 7. Directed (stimulus-response) •Knowledge exists outside the human mind •Learning happens when knowledge is transmitted to people and then stored in their heads •Learning can only be inferred by observed behaviours •Behaviour is shaped by ‘reinforcement’ Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston. p. 35
  8. 8. Applications for teaching •Appropriate when students need guidance and structure (as opposed to minimal supervision) to direct their learning •Designed to address accountability and quality assurance Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston. pp. 38, 43
  9. 9. Applications for teaching 1.State objectives and break them down into steps 2.Provide hints or cues that guide students to desired behavior. 3.Use consequences to reinforce the desired behavior. Anon. n.d. Instructional development timeline. Learning theory. Available at http://my- ecoach.com/project.php?id=12152&project_step=30139 Accessed 10 March 2010.
  10. 10. Constructed (experience) •Knowledge is constructed by humans •Learning is a process of constructing new ideas based on prior knowledge or experience •Learning is therefore a change in understanding or meaning; it is a cognitive process Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston. p. 35
  11. 11. Applications for teaching •Abstract or complex concepts •Appropriate when you want to encourage collaboration or to allow alternative ways of showing competence •Good for hands-on, problem-solving activities •Help students to think on their own Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston. pp. 42, 43
  12. 12. Applications for teaching 1.Pose ‘good’ problems, i.e., realistically complex and personally meaningful 2.Create group learning activities 3.Model and guide the knowledge construction process McGovern, Charlotte. n.d. Instructional development timeline. Learning theory. Available at http://my-ecoach.com/project.php?id=12152&project_step=30139 Accessed 10 March 2010.
  13. 13. DIRECTED CONSTRUCTIVIST Teaching • Individualised work • Group-based, co-operative work and learning • Goals and objectives same for all • Global goals: problem-solving, critical methods • Transmission of knowledge thinking • Structured sequences of activities • Different for each student • Traditional materials, e.g., lectures, • Learners generate own knowledge skills, worksheets through experiences • Non-traditional materials Assessment • Traditional (e.g., multiple-choice, • Non-traditional (e.g., wikis, blogs, short-answer tests) with expected group products, videos, portfolios) responses with self-grading, rubrics Instructional • Accountability • Higher-level skills needs • Quality assurance • Co-operation • Individualisation • Increase relevancy • Convergent thinking • Divergent thinking Criticisms • Topics taught in isolation • Different demonstrations of • Learning is repetitive/predicatable understanding make accountablility • Students don’t solve novel difficult problems • Time-consuming • Students may not transfer skills to real-life Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston. pp. 44
  14. 14. Anyone want to share or comment?
  15. 15. II. TPACK ... is an understanding of the interactions of •Knowledge about technology •Knowledge about pedagogy •Knowledge about content You need to understand these things in isolation and together to design effective learning experiences Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 49
  16. 16. III. Technology Integration Planning 6 Phases: 1.What is my TPACK? 2.Detemine relative advantage: why? 3.Skills, learning outcomes 4.Best teaching strategies, methods, activities 5.Essential conditions for this to work 6.Evaluate, revise, improve Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 50-62
  17. 17. Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 51
  18. 18. 1. What is my TPACK? 1.What is my TK, PK and CK? 2.Where do I sit on the TPACK continuum? Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 50-62
  19. 19. 2. Relative advantage 1.What is the problem I am addressing? 2.Focus on edcational purpose, not technologies 3.Is there a sufficient relative advantage? Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 50-62
  20. 20. 3. Outcomes and assessment 1.What do I want my students to achieve? 2.What are the best ways for them to achieve that? Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 50-62
  21. 21. 4. Teaching methods 1.Directed or constructivist? 2.Group work or individual? 3.Single subject or interdisciplinary? Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 50-62
  22. 22. 5. Educational environmet 1.Equipment, media, software, materials 2.Special needs of students 3.Time 4.Support materials 5.Privacy, safety 6.Policies Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 50-62
  23. 23. 6. Evaluate and improve 1.Were the objectives achieved? 2.What do students say? 3.What will improve results? Technical skills, scheduling, teaching methods? Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, p. 50-62
  24. 24. IV. Essential conditions •Shared vision for technology integration (planning, budgets, PD, curriculum, currency) •Empowered leaders •Standards and curriculum support •Required policies (internet use, ethical use, equity policies, copyright) Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, pp 62-66
  25. 25. IV. Essential conditions •Access to hardware, software for sustainability (funding, facilities, sustainability) •Skilled personel and PD (training, modelling, mentoring) •Technical assistance Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, pp 62-66
  26. 26. IV. Essential conditions •Appropriate teaching and assessment (matching teaching strategy with assessment) •Engaged communities Robyler, Margaret D. and Aaron H. Doering. 2010. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Fifth edition. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, pp 62-66
  27. 27. Anyone want to share or comment?
  28. 28. PART II ONLINE CONSIDERATIONS
  29. 29. Tweet this lecture: #6705elpc
  30. 30. 3 ways of doing online •Administration •Content delivery •Education
  31. 31. Where online succeeds •Interactivity •Collaboration •Multi-media resources •Just-in-time learning •Problem-solving •Administration •Embedded learning support •Resource collections
  32. 32. Online teaching strategies •Student-centred tasks •Facilitation and moderation •Problem-based learning •Collaborative learning •Peer review and evaluation Kearsley, Greg and Robert Blomeyer. 2004. Preparing K-12 teachers to teach online. Available at http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/TeachingOnline.htm. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  33. 33. Considerations •When to run online classes •When to combine online with face-to-face •When to use specific media •When to use tech in the classroom, but not remotely Kearsley, Greg and Robert Blomeyer. 2004. Preparing K-12 teachers to teach online. Available at http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/TeachingOnline.htm. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  34. 34. Considerations •Time (often underestimated; start with smaller projects) •Access to support •Student internet access and skill levels •Student willingness •Students’ bandwidth and download restrictions •How will this add real value? University of Tasmania. n.d. Going online. Available at http://tlo.calt.utas.edu.au/about/ whatis_otl.aspx. Accessed 14 October 2008.
  35. 35. Requirements of you •Technical skills •Sound educational reasons •Sound pedagogy •Copyright and IP compliance •Commitment University of Tasmania. n.d. What's required of you. Available at http://tlo.calt.utas.edu.au/ about/requirements.aspx. Accessed 14 October 2008.
  36. 36. Facilitation You will need to: •Give timely and meaningful feedback •Construct engaging learning tasks •Provide motivation •Ensure students interact •Encourage critique and reflection Kearsley, Greg and Robert Blomeyer. 2004. Preparing K-12 teachers to teach online. Available at http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/TeachingOnline.htm. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  37. 37. Your role •Team-player •Instructor •Co-ordinator •Teacher •Educational designer •Graphic designer •Tech support Hanna, Donald E., Michelle Glowacki-Dudka, and Simone Conceição-Runlee. 2000. 147 Practical Tips for Teaching Online Groups: Essentials of Web-based Education. Atwood Publishers
  38. 38. Student requirements •Quality/speed of computer access •Browsers, plug-ins, software •Print-outs: download time, printing costs •Consider making alternative formats available •Positive attitude towards all forms of learning University of Tasmania. n.d. Student needs and requirements. Available at http:// tlo.calt.utas.edu.au/about/student_requirements.aspx. Accessed 14 October 2008.
  39. 39. Design principles and strategies 1.Choose meaningful learning contexts •i.e., connection between the learning and the purpose for which the learning was intended Oliver, Ron. 2000. When teaching meets leaning: Design principles and strategies for web- based learning environments that support knowledge construction. Conference Paper, ASCILITE 2000 conference, Coffs Harbour. Available at www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/ ron_oliver_keynote.pdf. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  40. 40. Design principles and strategies 2. Choose learning activities ahead of the content •i.e., the context demands a purpose and the purpose demands a learning task •How can you replicate a real- life activity? •The content is not an end in itself Oliver, Ron. 2000. When teaching meets leaning: Design principles and strategies for web- based learning environments that support knowledge construction. Conference Paper, ASCILITE 2000 conference, Coffs Harbour. Available at www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/ ron_oliver_keynote.pdf. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  41. 41. Design principles and strategies 3. Choose open-ended and ill-structured tasks •i.e., capacity to explore, inquire, reflect •Tasks should have different interpretations and solution processes Oliver, Ron. 2000. When teaching meets leaning: Design principles and strategies for web- based learning environments that support knowledge construction. Conference Paper, ASCILITE 2000 conference, Coffs Harbour. Available at www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/ ron_oliver_keynote.pdf. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  42. 42. Design principles and strategies 4. Make the resources plentiful •Allow students to explore, inquire, derive own meaning •Provide different perspectives Oliver, Ron. 2000. When teaching meets leaning: Design principles and strategies for web- based learning environments that support knowledge construction. Conference Paper, ASCILITE 2000 conference, Coffs Harbour. Available at www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/ ron_oliver_keynote.pdf. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  43. 43. Design principles and strategies 5. Provide supports for learning •Scaffolding •Peer support, collaborative and co- operative settings •FAQs, web links, info Oliver, Ron. 2000. When teaching meets leaning: Design principles and strategies for web- based learning environments that support knowledge construction. Conference Paper, ASCILITE 2000 conference, Coffs Harbour. Available at www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/ ron_oliver_keynote.pdf. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  44. 44. Design principles and strategies 6. Use authentic assessment tasks •Tasks must relate to assessment •Also, provides more accurate measure of performance Oliver, Ron. 2000. When teaching meets leaning: Design principles and strategies for web- based learning environments that support knowledge construction. Conference Paper, ASCILITE 2000 conference, Coffs Harbour. Available at www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/ ron_oliver_keynote.pdf. Accessed: 14 October 2008.
  45. 45. IT considerations •Bandwidth •Access •Platform (Mac or PC?) •Download limits •Back-up options •Terms of service •Privacy
  46. 46. Screen design considerations •Use only basic fonts •Do not use textured backgrounds •Make essential links available from any page •Limit the amount of text on the screen •Better to ‘chunk’ material than have long scrolls
  47. 47. Anyone want to share or comment?
  48. 48. PART III EDUCATIONAL DESIGN
  49. 49. Tweet this lecture: #6705elpc
  50. 50. Educational design basics •Learning outcomes •Constructive alignment •Assessment rubrics
  51. 51. Constructive alignment 1.Determine learning outcomes. Use active verbs. 2.Learning activities to help students achieve the learning outcomes. 3.Resources that will help students complete the activities successfully. 4.Assess the learning outcomes
  52. 52. wow!
  53. 53. Learning outcomes •Inform your teaching design, strategies, and methods •Link directly to your assessment tasks •Help determine teaching content •Guide students in their study
  54. 54. Learning outcomes •Bloom’s taxonomy is really useful in helping you develop learning outcomes
  55. 55. Assessment rubrics •Essential tool for communicating to students exactly what it takes for them to succeed at different grade ranges. •They are formative and used ahead of the task Reference
  56. 56. Advantages of rubrics •Lay out expectations •Students become better judges of own work •Force you to clarify your criteria •Promote student awareness •Provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and areas in need of improvement. Kennesaw State University. n.d. Assessment rubrics. Available at http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/ intech/rubrics.htm. Accessed 13 March 2010.
  57. 57. Anyone want to share or comment?
  58. 58. Let’s check our Twitter feed! yay!
  59. 59. Summing up •You need a sound pedagogy before integrating ICT into your teaching •Use the TPACK model to help you plan, integrate and refine •Use good educational design basics: constructive alignment, learning outcomes, assessment rubrics
  60. 60. Thanks for coming!
  61. 61. Image references Connecting puzzle. http://www.sermonators.com/wp-content/uploads/ connecting_puzzle_11_30_08_pc_pro_me.jpg Keyboard http://sustainabilityninja.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/feature-images/sustainable- technology-gadgets.jpg Nickolodeon monsters http://maximum1.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/aaahh-real-monsters- aaahh-real-monsters-1486196-1024-768.jpg Constructive alignment http://elearning.heacademy.ac.uk/weblogs/pathfinder/wp-content/ uploads/ConstructiveAlignment1.JPG Online http://www.reputationmanagementfirm.com/iStock_000005808627Small.jpg Bloom’s taxonomy http://blogs.wsd1.org/etr/files/blooms_taxonomy.jpg Learning outcomes http://ctl.byu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/learningoutcomes.gif Compass http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/ Compass_Rose_English_North.svg/300px-Compass_Rose_English_North.svg.png Smiley face http://southernfriedblog.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/smiley-face.jpg All other images are copyright- and royalty-free
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