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Keeping up:     Dr Megan Poore                               meg@meganpoore.comEducating the mobile learner
Intro• Thanks for inviting me to St Mary’s to talk  about mobile learning.• It’s a stunning campus and I’ve been  made to ...
Intro• Love coming to Perth.• Although I live in Canberra, I’m from  South Australia originally, so flying to  the other si...
Intro• I’ve called my talk ‘Educating the  mobile learner’ because, really,  students these days are already mobile.• They...
Intro• They’re already sharing experiences,  observations, discoveries naturally  through mobile devices (mainly phones).•...
Overview• Current trends in  electronic media usage• Basics of mobile  learning• Examples of use• Pedagogy and  challenges...
Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
PART ICURRENT TRENDS
Trends (Intro)• First, let’s get an overview of young  people’s electronic media usage• This will just give us a sense of ...
Time on electronic media/dayACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. Aust...
Current media usage Patterns • TV is a constant • Early childhood: TV and DVD • Games usage peaks with 8-11 year olds • In...
Current media usage Patterns • Managing TV, DVD and gaming use   more difficult to manage for younger   children • Managing...
Parental attitudes • Managing electronic media use   becomes more difficult as kids get   older • Many parents are happy wi...
Parental attitudes Having said that, however ... • Some parents do not want more   involvement in electronic media activit...
Trans to mobile phone stats • That’s general electronic media usage • What about mobile phone usage in   particular? • Che...
ACMA. 2009.Click and connect: Young Australians’ use of online social media02: Quantitative research report Report. Availa...
Mobile phone usage    • Younger kids: not important    • Becomes more important as kids get      olderACMA. 2009.Click and...
Mobile phone usage • 75 % of 12-14 year olds use a mobile   phone • 90 % of 15-17 year olds use a mobile   phoneACMA. 2009...
Preferences 12-18s: 1. Texting (SMS -- mobiles) 2. Calling (mobiles) 3. IM (computer) 4. Use of fixed-line least preferredA...
What does this tell us?• The kids are connected, sure.• But it also points to the centrality of  mobile• More and more mob...
What does this tell us?• But, in fact the internet itself is going  mobile• The ‘cloud’ is taking over desktop• Mobile wil...
| A new technology does not add or      subtract something. It changes   everything. In the year 1500, fifty yearsafter the...
Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
PART IIMOBILE LEARNING
Intro• So, the kids are using these media and  devices -- not just mobile phones, but  also other electronic media in thei...
Intro• This gives us tremendous opportunities  to leverage that use into education• ‘Meet the learner where they are’• Hen...
What is mobile learning?Characteristics• ‘Anywhere, anytime’ learning• Not fixed by location or time-table• Supported by di...
Elements of m-learning Two main elements 1. Learner mobility 2. Device Supported by • Connectivity • Tools/apps • ContentF...
Characteristics of m-learning •     Spontaneous •     Personal •     Informal •     Contextual •     Portable •     Ubiqui...
Benefits • Move away from the teacher-centred,   information-centred model • Encourages self-directed learning • Use mobile...
Devices for mobile learning• So, what sort of devices are we talking  about that can  • Support learner mobility, and that...
Devices for mobile learning•   Mobile phones (both ‘smart’ and ‘dumb’)•   Digital cameras•   Voice recorders•   Tablet dev...
Digital devices support•   Audio, video and text files•   Audio, video and text recording•   Wireless internet•   News cont...
Activities on mobile devices• But what’s probably more important for  the educational context is not what  devices are out...
Activities on mobile devices•   Data gathering•   Voice recording•   Video recording•   Access to content•   Images/photog...
PART IIIIDEAS FOR USE
Intro• OK, time to get a bit more practical.• This is a pretty big topic, so I’m not  going to go through each and every  ...
Intro• Instead, I’m just going to look at one  device and give you a run-down on  what it can do and how it can be  used.•...
Tablet devices
Characteristics•   Small•   Lightweight (portable)•   Wireless access•   Sound recording and playback•   Run on apps
Apps•   ‘Mini-programs’•   Everything from news, weather, sport•   Calculators, navigation, maps•   Banking, shopping•   G...
Types of applications downloadedMackay, M. 2010. The Australian Mobile Phone Lifestyle Index (AMPLI). Available at http://...
Education apps• So, what about education apps?
‘There’s an app for that’DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed ...
DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
Key resourceDEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/ipad-in-the-classroom. Accessed 27 Apr...
Assisting teaching• Administration (calendars, reminders,  attendance, clocks)• Delivery of content• ‘Classroom’ managemen...
Assisting learning•   Personalised learning•   Personalised devices•   Portability•   Empowering•   Encourages participation
Assisting learning• Integrates learning with (older)  students’ lives -- doesn’t  compartmentalise it• Allows students to ...
Build your own app • My advice? • Optimise existing content for mobile • Push announcements to parents • Integrate into th...
Key resourceChiong, C., and Schuler, C. 2010. Learning:Is there an app for that? The Joan GanzCooney Center Sesame Worksho...
Trans• All very shiny, but what about a  practical example?
Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
City Experience    • 3 weeks, end of Year 8    • ‘School’ is the Sydney CBD    • Share individual and group findings on    ...
MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
City Experience    •      No right or wrong answers    •      Critical thinking and deep engagement    •      Community of...
MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
City Experience    1. Appreciate that learning happens       beyond the classroom    2. Explore and experience Sydney first...
MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
City Experience    4. Present the results of that research in       interesting ways    5. Learn even more about Sydney by...
MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
City Experience    • Girls keep a daily reflective journal    • Individual task: short movie, song or      dance, poster, b...
City Experience: Student voice    • Blog updates, any time, any locationMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at htt...
City Experience: Student voiceMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Acc...
City Experience: Teacher voiceMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Acc...
City Experience: Considerations    • LCD display difficult in full sunlight    • ‘It’s just another school aid’ (Mr Vass)  ...
Trans• So far, so practical ...• What about the pedagogy?
PART IVPEDAGOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Intro•We need to move on, so let’s consider some of the pedagogy behind all this.
Intro•We need to rethink things a bit in light of digital technologies•We are undergoing a digital revolution and we need ...
Intro•Obviously we have to incorporate ICT into teaching and learning, but why?•What rationales can we give ourselves?
Rationales for ICT in education   •Type A: Encouraging the acquisition of ICT    skills as an end in themselves   •Type B:...
Rationales for ICT in education   •Type C: Using ICTs to enhance students’    abilities as an integral component of    bro...
Rationales for ICT in education•Let’s concentrate on type ‘C’, then: broader curriculum reforms as regards pedagogy and co...
Curriculum and pedagogy Time to rethinkDEECD. 2011. In their hands. Classroom ideas for learning with the iPad. Available ...
|[there should be] more opportunity for    conjoint activities in which those instructed take part, so that they may   acq...
Pedagogies for mlearningSo what types of pedagogies canmlearning support?
Pedagogies for mlearningYounger students• Game-based learning• Problem-based learning (PBL)• Peer learning• Just-in-time l...
Pedagogies for mlearningOlder students• Problem-based learning (PBL)• Research projects• Inquiry-based learning• Peer lear...
Trans (Student experiences)• Pedagogy is all well and good, but ...• What are the students’ experiences of  all this?• Wel...
Student experiences• ICT is seen either as a platform for admin  or delivery• Reasons for use: convenience and  control, n...
Student experiences• Cannot see how ICT and learning can  work together• Uncertain about how to map current  learning expe...
Trans• All of this means that if students don’t  receive good guidance, then deep  learning is not guaranteed• Neither is ...
Educational design• Be clear in your own mind: why, how,  what, when?• Clear instructions• How will you assess?• Group or ...
Other factors• Don’t do mobile learning if you aren’t  confident and competent in using the  tech• Needs leadership and sup...
Trans• But what are our more general roles  and responsibilities?
Teacher roles and responsibilities
Intro• First of all, it’s skilling up across the  TPACK spectrum
Curriculum and pedagogy TPACK • Technological   Pedagogical   Content   KnowledgeMishra, P. and Koehler, M.J. 2006. Techno...
Teacher roles and responsibilities•To help young people safely and ethically navigate the digital environment•To prepare y...
What we need to do• Shift from using these devices for our  own personal use (email, photos, SMS)  to using them for educa...
PART VCHALLENGES
Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
Intro• None of this is going to be challenge-  free, of course.• We have a number of things to  consider.
Considerations• Equity and access (theoretical as well  as effective access)• Participation (not just inclusion --  everyo...
Considerations• Curriculum integration (current and  evolving curricula)• Digital divide (not just access to  hardware, bu...
Challenges   •e-Access   •User e-Maturity   •The right resource   •eSafetyUnderwood, Jean. 2009. The impact of digital tec...
e-Access   •Access at home or school impacts on the    educational experience   •Home access is proving an important part ...
User e-Maturity   •Level of skill, confidence, knowledge   •Skills gaps exist despite positive attitudes   •Home access als...
The right resource   •Matching the technology with the    learning experience is critical   •Technology must match pedagog...
e-Safety   •Level of learner knowledge and    understanding is variable   •Knowledge is shaped by home access, e-    matur...
Advice• Develop a ‘best practice’ check list for  your school context to work alongside  policy• Have clear rules (class-d...
Trans• Digital literacy is some thing that we  need to explore a little more ...
PART VIDIGITAL LITERACY
Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
Digital literacy
Intro• So we find ourselves at a moment when  technology, society and culture are all  in flux• This means that new forms of...
MCEECDYA: ICT literacy       | the ability of individuals to use ICT         appropriately to access, manage,        integ...
MCEECDYA: ICT proficiency• 3 ‘strands’   1. Working with information   2. Creating and sharing information   3. Using ICT r...
MCEECDYA: ICT literacy1. Accessing info (identification, retrieval)2. Managing info (organising, storing)3. Evaluating info...
ICT literacy Patterns • Low socio-economic background • Indigeneity • Remote locality • Gender not an issueMCEETYA. 2007. ...
ICT proficiency levels“Challenging but reasonable”expectation:   • Year 6: 57% (2005 = 49%)   • Year 10: 66% (2005 = 61%)MC...
Digital literacy• I’d like to offer a slightly different model  but one that still addresses MCEECDYA’s  main concerns
1. Functional digital literacy
1. Functional digital literacy• In Web 2.0 world, this is not knowing  html or javascript• How to sign up for a service an...
2. Network digital literacy
2. Network digital literacy• Understanding what it means to be a  networked citizen.• How to manage online profiles/  ident...
2. Network digital literacy• Data and risk management• How to read and interpret Terms of  Service and Privacy policies.Po...
2. Network digital literacy• Understanding boyd’s (sic) four properties  of networked publics  1.Persistence  2.Searchabil...
3. Critical digital literacy
3. Critical digital literacy• Using ICT to further cognition and  collective intelligence.• How to find, validate, interpre...
Your digital literacy
Functional digital literacy•   Skilling up in the technology•   Workshops, training, ‘pushing buttons’    BUT the harder w...
Network digital literacy• Understanding Terms of Service and  Privacy Policies• Developing risk management plans• Understa...
Critical digital literacy•   Interrogation of how the digital world    works•   Critical engagement with    ‣   Humanist p...
Classroom praxis
Classroom praxis• The final problem is to consider how to  occupy students so they build this  three-tiered digital literac...
Classroom praxis• Whatever form this takes, it must involve  teaching students how to distinguish  active, deep and ethica...
Classroom praxis• It’s about you employing your  imagination, artistry, inventiveness to  create meaningful and ethically ...
Implications
Implications•Young people are connected, young people are mobile.•That means they have certain expectations.•It also means...
Implications•They expect access to technology and the web.•And despite being ‘teched up,’ young people often have under-de...
| I learned to drive in order to read LosAngeles in the original. — Reyner Banham, Architecture of Four Ecologies
Implications•You need to learn how to drive in order to read young people in the original.•Keep up.
Thanks forhaving me!
Sources and resourcesABS. 2009. Household Use of Information Technology, Australia, 2008-09. Available at http://www.abs.g...
Image sources24x7 Shop. 2011. Digital camera. http://demo84.24x7shop.com.au/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/5e06319eda...
Image sourcesiTech New Net. 2011. Samsung phones. http://www.itechnews.net/2009/02/23/samsung-c3110-and-c5212-mobile-phone...
Keeping up: Educating the mobile learner
Keeping up: Educating the mobile learner
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Keeping up: Educating the mobile learner

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Mobile devices are seemingly ubiquitous in contemporary society. Today's youth are using these devices, coupled with their access to social media, to share experiences, observations, and discoveries. his presentation argues that students are already mobile and that we need to harness this 'natural mobility' in the service of education. The paper covers topics such as current trends in electronic media usage in Australia, the basics of mobile learning, examples of use, pedagogy and challenges, and digital literacy.

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Transcript of "Keeping up: Educating the mobile learner"

  1. 1. Keeping up: Dr Megan Poore meg@meganpoore.comEducating the mobile learner
  2. 2. Intro• Thanks for inviting me to St Mary’s to talk about mobile learning.• It’s a stunning campus and I’ve been made to feel very welcome already.
  3. 3. Intro• Love coming to Perth.• Although I live in Canberra, I’m from South Australia originally, so flying to the other side of the continent always kind of gets me ‘centred’ so to speak.
  4. 4. Intro• I’ve called my talk ‘Educating the mobile learner’ because, really, students these days are already mobile.• They don’t need to have a specific form of learning -- ‘mobile learning’ -- thrust upon them• Because they are already out there learning -- usually informally -- when they’re on the go.
  5. 5. Intro• They’re already sharing experiences, observations, discoveries naturally through mobile devices (mainly phones).• Of course, they’re also sharing a lot of rubbish with each other, but which of us at that age didn’t want to talk about the latest a-ha record?• The question is, How do we harness their natural ‘mobility’ in the service of education?
  6. 6. Overview• Current trends in electronic media usage• Basics of mobile learning• Examples of use• Pedagogy and challenges• Digital literacy
  7. 7. Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
  8. 8. PART ICURRENT TRENDS
  9. 9. Trends (Intro)• First, let’s get an overview of young people’s electronic media usage• This will just give us a sense of how things vary across the age ranges
  10. 10. Time on electronic media/dayACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 2.
  11. 11. Current media usage Patterns • TV is a constant • Early childhood: TV and DVD • Games usage peaks with 8-11 year olds • Internet use increases in high school for chatting and doing homeworkACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 2.
  12. 12. Current media usage Patterns • Managing TV, DVD and gaming use more difficult to manage for younger children • Managing mobile phone use more difficult for older childrenACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 2.
  13. 13. Parental attitudes • Managing electronic media use becomes more difficult as kids get older • Many parents are happy with current balanceACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 18.
  14. 14. Parental attitudes Having said that, however ... • Some parents do not want more involvement in electronic media activities • Some parents want less involvement in electronic media activities • Only a small minority want more involvementACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 18.
  15. 15. Trans to mobile phone stats • That’s general electronic media usage • What about mobile phone usage in particular? • Check this out ...ACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 18.
  16. 16. ACMA. 2009.Click and connect: Young Australians’ use of online social media02: Quantitative research report Report. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/1001/pc=PC_311797. Accessed 1 February 2010. p. 29.
  17. 17. Mobile phone usage • Younger kids: not important • Becomes more important as kids get olderACMA. 2009.Click and connect: Young Australians’ use of online social media02: Quantitative research report Report. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/1001/pc=PC_311797. Accessed 1 February 2010. p. 28.
  18. 18. Mobile phone usage • 75 % of 12-14 year olds use a mobile phone • 90 % of 15-17 year olds use a mobile phoneACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 2.
  19. 19. Preferences 12-18s: 1. Texting (SMS -- mobiles) 2. Calling (mobiles) 3. IM (computer) 4. Use of fixed-line least preferredACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. pp. 2 & 12.
  20. 20. What does this tell us?• The kids are connected, sure.• But it also points to the centrality of mobile• More and more mobile phones have 3G access (internet, wireless, broadband)• And more and more of us have 3G phones.
  21. 21. What does this tell us?• But, in fact the internet itself is going mobile• The ‘cloud’ is taking over desktop• Mobile will be essential to accessing the cloud
  22. 22. | A new technology does not add or subtract something. It changes everything. In the year 1500, fifty yearsafter the printing press was invented, we didnot have old Europe plus the printing press. We had a different Europe.— Neil Postman, Technopoly
  23. 23. Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
  24. 24. PART IIMOBILE LEARNING
  25. 25. Intro• So, the kids are using these media and devices -- not just mobile phones, but also other electronic media in their daily lives• As learners they are already mobile.
  26. 26. Intro• This gives us tremendous opportunities to leverage that use into education• ‘Meet the learner where they are’• Hence, mobile learning.• So, let’s explore mlearning a bit.
  27. 27. What is mobile learning?Characteristics• ‘Anywhere, anytime’ learning• Not fixed by location or time-table• Supported by digital technologies• Relevant to the context and location of the student
  28. 28. Elements of m-learning Two main elements 1. Learner mobility 2. Device Supported by • Connectivity • Tools/apps • ContentFaculty of Education and Social Work. 2011. Mobile Learning. University of Sydney. Available at http://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/learning_teaching/ict/theory/mobile_learning.shtml Accessed 27April 2011.
  29. 29. Characteristics of m-learning • Spontaneous • Personal • Informal • Contextual • Portable • Ubiquitous • Pervasive • Varied and changing locations • Immediate interactionFaculty of Education and Social Work. 2011. Mobile Learning. University of Sydney. Available at http://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/learning_teaching/ict/theory/mobile_learning.shtml Accessed 27April 2011.
  30. 30. Benefits • Move away from the teacher-centred, information-centred model • Encourages self-directed learning • Use mobile learning to allow learners to actively participate in different contextsAT&T. 2010. Transforming the classroom with mobile technology. Available at http://www.corp.att.com/edu/resources/videos/transform_classroom.html. Accessed 27 April 2011.
  31. 31. Devices for mobile learning• So, what sort of devices are we talking about that can • Support learner mobility, and that are • Relevant to learner context and location?
  32. 32. Devices for mobile learning• Mobile phones (both ‘smart’ and ‘dumb’)• Digital cameras• Voice recorders• Tablet devices (iPads)• Laptops and netbooks• Video cameras• MP3 players
  33. 33. Digital devices support• Audio, video and text files• Audio, video and text recording• Wireless internet• News content• RSS Feeds• Email• Social media• GPS and Geolocation 
  34. 34. Activities on mobile devices• But what’s probably more important for the educational context is not what devices are out there ...• And neither is it really what technical specs and access they allow ...• Rather, it’s the types of activities they support
  35. 35. Activities on mobile devices• Data gathering• Voice recording• Video recording• Access to content• Images/photographs• Podcasting, vodcasting, photosharing, knowledge acquisition = mobile learning
  36. 36. PART IIIIDEAS FOR USE
  37. 37. Intro• OK, time to get a bit more practical.• This is a pretty big topic, so I’m not going to go through each and every device and what it can do.
  38. 38. Intro• Instead, I’m just going to look at one device and give you a run-down on what it can do and how it can be used.• I’ll also give you a Real-Live Example of in-class (mobile?!) use.
  39. 39. Tablet devices
  40. 40. Characteristics• Small• Lightweight (portable)• Wireless access• Sound recording and playback• Run on apps
  41. 41. Apps• ‘Mini-programs’• Everything from news, weather, sport• Calculators, navigation, maps• Banking, shopping• Games, books, music, movies• Video and audio creation• etc.
  42. 42. Types of applications downloadedMackay, M. 2010. The Australian Mobile Phone Lifestyle Index (AMPLI). Available at http://www.aimia.com.au/ampli. Accessed on 27 April 2011. p. 74.
  43. 43. Education apps• So, what about education apps?
  44. 44. ‘There’s an app for that’DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
  45. 45. DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
  46. 46. DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
  47. 47. DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
  48. 48. DEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.
  49. 49. Key resourceDEECD. n.d. iPads for learning. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/ipad-in-the-classroom. Accessed 27 April 2011.
  50. 50. Assisting teaching• Administration (calendars, reminders, attendance, clocks)• Delivery of content• ‘Classroom’ management: encouraging shy, disengaged students• Connection with colleagues• Professional learning
  51. 51. Assisting learning• Personalised learning• Personalised devices• Portability• Empowering• Encourages participation
  52. 52. Assisting learning• Integrates learning with (older) students’ lives -- doesn’t compartmentalise it• Allows students to search things they don’t understand at the time
  53. 53. Build your own app • My advice? • Optimise existing content for mobile • Push announcements to parents • Integrate into the learning management system (LMS) • Students can check grades and get feedbackChiong, C., and Schuler, C. 2010. Learning: Is there an app for that? The Joan Ganz Cooney CenterSesame Workshop. Available at http://joanganzcooneycenter.org/Reports-27.html. Accessed 27 April2011.
  54. 54. Key resourceChiong, C., and Schuler, C. 2010. Learning:Is there an app for that? The Joan GanzCooney Center Sesame Workshop.Available at http://joanganzcooneycenter.org/Reports-27.html. Accessed 27 April 2011.
  55. 55. Trans• All very shiny, but what about a practical example?
  56. 56. Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
  57. 57. MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  58. 58. City Experience • 3 weeks, end of Year 8 • ‘School’ is the Sydney CBD • Share individual and group findings on final day ‘learning celebration’MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  59. 59. MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  60. 60. City Experience • No right or wrong answers • Critical thinking and deep engagement • Community of learners is important • Parents offer advice, access to workplaces, expertise, networks, peopleMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  61. 61. MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  62. 62. City Experience 1. Appreciate that learning happens beyond the classroom 2. Explore and experience Sydney first hand 3. Work in groups to research an aspect of special interestMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  63. 63. MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  64. 64. City Experience 4. Present the results of that research in interesting ways 5. Learn even more about Sydney by sharing learning with one another.MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  65. 65. MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  66. 66. City Experience • Girls keep a daily reflective journal • Individual task: short movie, song or dance, poster, brochure, podcast, artwork, website, poetry, photo gallery, dioramaMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  67. 67. City Experience: Student voice • Blog updates, any time, any locationMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  68. 68. City Experience: Student voiceMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  69. 69. City Experience: Teacher voiceMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  70. 70. City Experience: Considerations • LCD display difficult in full sunlight • ‘It’s just another school aid’ (Mr Vass) • No USB port -- online/cloud storage • Insurance: who is responsible for the iPads once they leave the school? • Mobile data plans • Central syncing of contentMLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 28 April 2011.
  71. 71. Trans• So far, so practical ...• What about the pedagogy?
  72. 72. PART IVPEDAGOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
  73. 73. Intro•We need to move on, so let’s consider some of the pedagogy behind all this.
  74. 74. Intro•We need to rethink things a bit in light of digital technologies•We are undergoing a digital revolution and we need to think about how this is impacting on education
  75. 75. Intro•Obviously we have to incorporate ICT into teaching and learning, but why?•What rationales can we give ourselves?
  76. 76. Rationales for ICT in education •Type A: Encouraging the acquisition of ICT skills as an end in themselves •Type B: Using ICTs to enhance students’ abilities within the existing curriculumDownes, Toni, et al. 2001. Making better connections. Available at http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/publications_resources/profiles/making_better_connections.htm. Accessed 1 Febraury 2010. p. 23
  77. 77. Rationales for ICT in education •Type C: Using ICTs to enhance students’ abilities as an integral component of broader curriculum reforms that are changing not only how learning occurs but what is learned •Type D: Using ICTs as integral to reforms that alter the organisational structure of schooling itselfDownes, Toni, et al. 2001. Making better connections. Available at http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/publications_resources/profiles/making_better_connections.htm. Accessed 1 Febraury 2010. p. 23
  78. 78. Rationales for ICT in education•Let’s concentrate on type ‘C’, then: broader curriculum reforms as regards pedagogy and content•This is how it looks
  79. 79. Curriculum and pedagogy Time to rethinkDEECD. 2011. In their hands. Classroom ideas for learning with the iPad. Available at http://asp-uk.secure-zone.net/v2/index.jsp?id=639/684/1619&lng=en Accessed 27 April 2011.
  80. 80. |[there should be] more opportunity for conjoint activities in which those instructed take part, so that they may acquire a social sense of their own powers and of the materials and appliances used."— John Dewey, Democracy and Education
  81. 81. Pedagogies for mlearningSo what types of pedagogies canmlearning support?
  82. 82. Pedagogies for mlearningYounger students• Game-based learning• Problem-based learning (PBL)• Peer learning• Just-in-time learning• Constructivism• Active learning
  83. 83. Pedagogies for mlearningOlder students• Problem-based learning (PBL)• Research projects• Inquiry-based learning• Peer learning• Just-in-time learning• Constructivism• Active learning
  84. 84. Trans (Student experiences)• Pedagogy is all well and good, but ...• What are the students’ experiences of all this?• Well, it’s not all good
  85. 85. Student experiences• ICT is seen either as a platform for admin or delivery• Reasons for use: convenience and control, not learningUniversity of Melbourne. 2006. First year students’ experiences with technology: Are they really DigitalNatives? http://www.bmu.unimelb.edu.au/research/munatives/natives_report2006.pdf. Accessed 12February 2008.JISC. 2007. Student expectations study: Findings from preliminary research. (Joint Information SystemsCommittee) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/studentexpectationsbp.aspx. Accessed 12February 2008.
  86. 86. Student experiences• Cannot see how ICT and learning can work together• Uncertain about how to map current learning experience onto school study• Students are seeking advice on how to think WITH and ABOUT technologyUniversity of Melbourne. 2006. First year students’ experiences with technology: Are they really DigitalNatives? http://www.bmu.unimelb.edu.au/research/munatives/natives_report2006.pdf. Accessed 12February 2008.JISC. 2007. Student expectations study: Findings from preliminary research. (Joint Information SystemsCommittee) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/studentexpectationsbp.aspx. Accessed 12February 2008.
  87. 87. Trans• All of this means that if students don’t receive good guidance, then deep learning is not guaranteed• Neither is learning automatic• We need to work on our educaitonal design
  88. 88. Educational design• Be clear in your own mind: why, how, what, when?• Clear instructions• How will you assess?• Group or individual work?• Give models/exemplars where possible• Align your outcomes with activities, resources and assessment
  89. 89. Other factors• Don’t do mobile learning if you aren’t confident and competent in using the tech• Needs leadership and support
  90. 90. Trans• But what are our more general roles and responsibilities?
  91. 91. Teacher roles and responsibilities
  92. 92. Intro• First of all, it’s skilling up across the TPACK spectrum
  93. 93. Curriculum and pedagogy TPACK • Technological Pedagogical Content KnowledgeMishra, P. and Koehler, M.J. 2006. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework forTeacher Knowledge. Available at http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=12516. Accessed 25January 2010.
  94. 94. Teacher roles and responsibilities•To help young people safely and ethically navigate the digital environment•To prepare young people for meaningful participation in the digital knowledge economy•To provide more individualised learning experiences for students
  95. 95. What we need to do• Shift from using these devices for our own personal use (email, photos, SMS) to using them for education• It might seem like ‘fun’ or ‘not work’ to explore iPhone apps, or Twitter but ...• It is part of our Professional Learning to keep up-to-date
  96. 96. PART VCHALLENGES
  97. 97. Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
  98. 98. Intro• None of this is going to be challenge- free, of course.• We have a number of things to consider.
  99. 99. Considerations• Equity and access (theoretical as well as effective access)• Participation (not just inclusion -- everyone’s contribution is recognised)
  100. 100. Considerations• Curriculum integration (current and evolving curricula)• Digital divide (not just access to hardware, but also to networks, resources, people, social capital)
  101. 101. Challenges •e-Access •User e-Maturity •The right resource •eSafetyUnderwood, Jean. 2009. The impact of digital technology. A review of the evidence of the impact of digitaltechnologies on formal education. Available at http://publications.becta.org.uk/display.cfm?resID=41343. Accessed1 February 2010.
  102. 102. e-Access •Access at home or school impacts on the educational experience •Home access is proving an important part of the learning process •Disenfranchisement is a serious issueUnderwood, Jean. 2009. The impact of digital technology. A review of the evidence of the impact of digitaltechnologies on formal education. Available at http://publications.becta.org.uk/display.cfm?resID=41343. Accessed1 February 2010.
  103. 103. User e-Maturity •Level of skill, confidence, knowledge •Skills gaps exist despite positive attitudes •Home access also impacts user eMaturityUnderwood, Jean. 2009. The impact of digital technology. A review of the evidence of the impact of digitaltechnologies on formal education. Available at http://publications.becta.org.uk/display.cfm?resID=41343. Accessed1 February 2010.
  104. 104. The right resource •Matching the technology with the learning experience is critical •Technology must match pedagogy •It is risky to move teachers too far outside their comfort zones (slower uptake and higher rejection rates)Underwood, Jean. 2009. The impact of digital technology. A review of the evidence of the impact of digitaltechnologies on formal education. Available at http://publications.becta.org.uk/display.cfm?resID=41343. Accessed1 February 2010.
  105. 105. e-Safety •Level of learner knowledge and understanding is variable •Knowledge is shaped by home access, e- maturity, individual attitudes •Students see both teachers and parents as important sources of e-safety adviceUnderwood, Jean. 2009. The impact of digital technology. A review of the evidence of the impact of digitaltechnologies on formal education. Available at http://publications.becta.org.uk/display.cfm?resID=41343. Accessed1 February 2010.
  106. 106. Advice• Develop a ‘best practice’ check list for your school context to work alongside policy• Have clear rules (class-developed) around appropriate use etc.• Be clear about consequences for misuse• Provide digital literacy support for kids (and teachers!) who need it
  107. 107. Trans• Digital literacy is some thing that we need to explore a little more ...
  108. 108. PART VIDIGITAL LITERACY
  109. 109. Tweet thistalk:#mlearning
  110. 110. Digital literacy
  111. 111. Intro• So we find ourselves at a moment when technology, society and culture are all in flux• This means that new forms of literacy are emerging that are different from the traditional literacies of the ‘Three Rs’• Digital literacy is one of these new forms of literacy
  112. 112. MCEECDYA: ICT literacy | the ability of individuals to use ICT appropriately to access, manage, integrate and evaluate information, develop new understandings, and communicate with others in order to participate effectively in society”MCEECDYA. 2010. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report2008. Available at www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/NAP-ICTL_2008_report.pdfAccessed 2 June 2010. p. viii
  113. 113. MCEECDYA: ICT proficiency• 3 ‘strands’ 1. Working with information 2. Creating and sharing information 3. Using ICT responsiblyMCEECDYA. 2010. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report2008. Available at www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/NAP-ICTL_2008_report.pdfAccessed 2 June 2010. p. 7.
  114. 114. MCEECDYA: ICT literacy1. Accessing info (identification, retrieval)2. Managing info (organising, storing)3. Evaluating info (integrity, relevance, usefulness)4. New understandings (creating knowledge, authoring)5. Communicating with others (sharing, creating products)6. Using ICT appropriately (critical, reflective, strategic, ethics, legals)MCEECDYA. 2010. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report2008. Available at www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/NAP-ICTL_2008_report.pdfAccessed 2 June 2010. p. 7.
  115. 115. ICT literacy Patterns • Low socio-economic background • Indigeneity • Remote locality • Gender not an issueMCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available athttp://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.htmlAccessed 21 October 2008.
  116. 116. ICT proficiency levels“Challenging but reasonable”expectation: • Year 6: 57% (2005 = 49%) • Year 10: 66% (2005 = 61%)MCEECDYA. 2010. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report2008. Available at www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/NAP-ICTL_2008_report.pdfAccessed 2 June 2010.
  117. 117. Digital literacy• I’d like to offer a slightly different model but one that still addresses MCEECDYA’s main concerns
  118. 118. 1. Functional digital literacy
  119. 119. 1. Functional digital literacy• In Web 2.0 world, this is not knowing html or javascript• How to sign up for a service and what happens after that• How to find and add and invite friends• How to upload a profile photo, etc.Poore, Megan. 2010. The three tiers of digital literacy. Blog post. Available at http://meganpoore.com/2010/05/07/the-web-of-digital-literacy/. Accessed 20 June 2010.
  120. 120. 2. Network digital literacy
  121. 121. 2. Network digital literacy• Understanding what it means to be a networked citizen.• How to manage online profiles/ identities• Knowing what happens to uploaded materialPoore, Megan. 2010. The three tiers of digital literacy. Blog post. Available at http://meganpoore.com/2010/05/07/the-web-of-digital-literacy/. Accessed 20 June 2010.
  122. 122. 2. Network digital literacy• Data and risk management• How to read and interpret Terms of Service and Privacy policies.Poore, Megan. 2010. The three tiers of digital literacy. Blog post. Available at http://meganpoore.com/2010/05/07/the-web-of-digital-literacy/. Accessed 20 June 2010.
  123. 123. 2. Network digital literacy• Understanding boyd’s (sic) four properties of networked publics 1.Persistence 2.Searchability 3.Replicability 4.Invisible audiencesPoore, Megan. 2010. The three tiers of digital literacy. Blog post. Available at http://meganpoore.com/2010/05/07/the-web-of-digital-literacy/. Accessed 20 June 2010.boyd, danah. 2007. Generation MySpace Part 1. Social networking and its impact on students andeducation. Podcast. Accessed 25 January 2010.boyd, danah. 2007. Generation MySpace Part 2. Social networking and its impact on students andeducation. Podcast. Accessed 25 January 2010.
  124. 124. 3. Critical digital literacy
  125. 125. 3. Critical digital literacy• Using ICT to further cognition and collective intelligence.• How to find, validate, interpret, communicate, analyse, critique, evaluate, synthesise, transform information• Higher-level thinking and engagement with cultural, social, political and intellectual life.Poore, Megan. 2010. The three tiers of digital literacy. Blog post. Available at http://meganpoore.com/2010/05/07/the-web-of-digital-literacy/. Accessed 20 June 2010.
  126. 126. Your digital literacy
  127. 127. Functional digital literacy• Skilling up in the technology• Workshops, training, ‘pushing buttons’ BUT the harder work is• Changing mindsets• Adjusting attitudes• Overcoming fear• Building self-esteem• Embracing new ways of thinking
  128. 128. Network digital literacy• Understanding Terms of Service and Privacy Policies• Developing risk management plans• Understanding copyright and Intellectual Property• Understanding how data is transferred, managed and used
  129. 129. Critical digital literacy• Interrogation of how the digital world works• Critical engagement with ‣ Humanist philosophy ‣ Educational theory ‣ Cultural studies ‣ Popular non-fiction on digital culture
  130. 130. Classroom praxis
  131. 131. Classroom praxis• The final problem is to consider how to occupy students so they build this three-tiered digital literacy for ethical encounters in digital and new media spaces.
  132. 132. Classroom praxis• Whatever form this takes, it must involve teaching students how to distinguish active, deep and ethical intellectual pursuit from frivilous, simple, cosmetic obsessions• Students need to be taught how to produce as well as consume digital culture and how to use digital tools for communication and collaboration in the collective knowledge space
  133. 133. Classroom praxis• It’s about you employing your imagination, artistry, inventiveness to create meaningful and ethically proper learning experiences for your students• There is no formula for that.
  134. 134. Implications
  135. 135. Implications•Young people are connected, young people are mobile.•That means they have certain expectations.•It also means they have certain needs.
  136. 136. Implications•They expect access to technology and the web.•And despite being ‘teched up,’ young people often have under-developed digital literacy skills.•You will need to be digitally literate yourself.
  137. 137. | I learned to drive in order to read LosAngeles in the original. — Reyner Banham, Architecture of Four Ecologies
  138. 138. Implications•You need to learn how to drive in order to read young people in the original.•Keep up.
  139. 139. Thanks forhaving me!
  140. 140. Sources and resourcesABS. 2009. Household Use of Information Technology, Australia, 2008-09. Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/8146.0Main+Features12008-09?OpenDocument.Accessed 28 April 2011.ACMA. 2009. Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years. AustralianCommunications and Media Authority. Available at http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311819. Accessed 27 April 2011. p. 2.Chiong, C., and Schuler, C. 2010. Learning: Is there an app for that? The Joan Ganz Cooney CenterSesame Workshop. Available at http://joanganzcooneycenter.org/Reports-27.html. Accessed 27 April2011.DEECD. 2011. In their hands. Classroom ideas for learning with the iPad. Available at http://asp-uk.secure-zone.net/v2/index.jsp?id=639/684/1619&lng=en Accessed 27 April 2011.Kneebone F., and Angus, J. 2011. Mobile Touch: A Guide to Implementing Mobile E‐learning in YourOrganisation Available at http://www.scribd.com/full/48295171?access_key=key-1r9kkolkaih3ca1cy2ivAccessed 27 April 2010.Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J. 2006. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework forTeacher Knowledge. Available at http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=12516. Accessed 25January 2010.MLC School. n.d. City Experience. Available at http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/ Accessed 27 April2011.
  141. 141. Image sources24x7 Shop. 2011. Digital camera. http://demo84.24x7shop.com.au/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/5e06319eda06f020e43594a9c230972d/o/l/olympus-stylus-750-7-1mp-digital-camera-2.jpgAccessed 28 April 2011.Apple. 2011. iPads. http://www.apple.com/education/ipad/. Accessed 27 April 2011.Apple. 2011. iPhone. http://www.apple.com/au/iphone/. Accessed 28 April 2011.Campad Electronics. 2006. iPod. http://www.campadelectronics.com.au/products/ipod/images/ipodphoto2.jpg. Accessed 28 APril 2011.DEECD. n.d. Keyboards and iPads. http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/education-apps. Accessed 27April 2011.Dee, Natalie. 2009. Squirrel. http://www.nataliedee.com/010409/thinking-about-nuts.jpg. Accessed 21June 2010.Domremy. n.d. Video camera. http://www.domremy.catholic.edu.au/Curriculum/IST/year_10/A/Cameras/Digital%20and%20Video%20Cameras/Images/Digital_Video_Camera.jpg. Accessed 28 April 2011.Domremy. n.d. Digital camera. http://www.domremy.catholic.edu.au/Curriculum/IST/year_10/A/Cameras/Digital%20and%20Video%20Cameras/Images/Sony-DSC-W90-digital-camera.jpg. Accessed 28 April2011.Engadget. 2011. Netbook. http://www.jr.com/asus/pe/ASU_N10JA2. Accessed 28 April 2011.Gotta be Mobile. 2011. http://cdn.gottabemobile.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/le1700_tablet_pc.jpgAccessed April 28 2011.
  142. 142. Image sourcesiTech New Net. 2011. Samsung phones. http://www.itechnews.net/2009/02/23/samsung-c3110-and-c5212-mobile-phones/ Accessed 28 April 2011.MLC School. n.d. City Experience. http://cityexperience.mlcsyd.nsw.edu.au/. Accessed 29 April 2010.My Health Alert. 2011. Laptop. http://www.myhealthalert.net/images/laptop-2.jpg . Accessed 28 April2011.Reputation Management Firm. 2010. Searching. http://www.reputationmanagementfirm.com/iStock_000005808627Small.jpg. Accessed 21 June 2010.Safety Photo. 2010. Hard hat area. http://www.safetyphoto.co.uk/photo1/safetysigns/This_is_a_hard_hat_area.gif. Accessed 21 June 2010.Southern Fried Blog. 2009. Smiley face http://southernfriedblog.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/smiley-face.jpg. Accessed 21 June 2010.St. Mary’s. n.d. http://www.whitepages.com.au/cp/st-mary-s-anglican-girls-school-inc-350070961w00w-w00w%23215753599%23st+mary%27s+anglican+girls%27+school+%28inc%29.html Accessed 29 April2011.Vellard. 2011. Voice recorder. http://www.vellard.com.au/Forus-Digital-Voice-Recorder-128mb-66hrs-p-16546.html. Accessed 28 April 2011.Who Guides. 2011. MP3 player. http://www.whoguides.com/who-invented-the-mp3-player. Accessed 28April 2011.All other pictures are copyright and royalty-free. All other images are royalty- and copyright-free.
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