Psychology is a science Uses scientific methodology to study behavior and mental processes A wide ranging discipline that can encompass any aspect of human and nonhuman behavior Developed from the more established fields of philosophy and biology
Socrates (469-399 BC) Plato (428-348 BC) Aristotle (384-322 BC) Rene Descartes (1595-1650) Promoted Dualism- mind and body are seperate FrancisBacon (1561-1626) John Locke (1632-1704) Tabula Rasa (this aided in forming Empiricism)
William Wundt The birth of modern psychology occurred in December 1879 in Leipzig, Germany Wundt, Max Friedrich, and G. Stanley Hall collected data for Friedrich’s dissertation on “the duration of apperception” (the time lag between the subjects recognition that he has heard the ball hit the platform and his pressing of the telegraph key) Edward Bradford Titchener
WilliamJames Mary Whiton Calkins First female to earn a Ph.D. in Psychology at Harvard, but was denied her degree Margaret Floy Washburn First female to receive a psychology Ph.D. Dorothea Dix Charles Darwin Natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies
John B. Watson B. F. Skinner Sigmund Freud Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Charles DarwinIvan Pavlov Jean Piaget
Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism
Uses introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind Has its basis in Wundt’s European perspective. Titchener established this school based on his work as Wudt’s student in Germany Sought to identify what the mind and consciousness were
Focused on how our mental and behavioral process function- how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish Based on William James’ ideas about psychology having practical applications to life Assumed thinking was adaptive Soughtto identify how the mind and consciousness worked
Founded by John B. Watson He believed environment is the main component of psychology (like Locke) The view that psychology Should be an objective science Studies behavior without reference to mental processes B.F. Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
Sigmund Freud Id, Ego, Superego Focused on meaning of early childhood memories
The Third Force In the 1950s and 1960s, psychologist followed either the behaviorist or the psychoanalytic perspective. Humanistic psychology offered a third way of thinking about behavior Believes people are essentially good, unlike psychoanalytic psychologist Believes human were unique and distinct from animals, unlike behaviorist
Emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied
Germany Studied how people organized perceptual experiences in understandable ways. Developed rules for how we organize what we sense and perceive “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”
Supported ideas developed by earlier psychologist, such as the importance of how our mid processes and retains information
Do our human traits develop through experience or are we born with them? Evolution does not imply genetic determinism Behavior can be changed Organisms do not have a conscious or unconscious goal of maximizing gene reproduction. Rather they most adaptive traits will survive due to natural selection
Integrated viewpoint incorporates various levels of analysis and offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process Everything is related to everything else
Psychological Influence Social-Biological CulturalInfluence Influence Behavior or mental process
Biological Evolutionary Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic Social- Cultural
How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences; how genes combine with environment to influence individual differences Sample question: How are messages transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes Sample questions How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts Sample question How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as the disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?
How we learn observable responses Sample question How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the best way to alter our behavior, say, to lose weight or stop smoking?
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information Sample question How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Solving problems?
How we meet our needs for love and acceptance and achieve self-fulfillment Sample question How can we work toward fulfilling our potential? How can we overcome barriers to our personal growth?
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Sample question How are we humans alike as member of one human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
Basicresearch is more concerned with discovering concepts or processes. It is less practical in nature Much like Structuralism- want to discover what the mind and consciousness were Appliedresearch is more concerned with providing solutions to problems. It is more practical in nature Like Functionalism- how the mind and consciousness worked and how they helped people adapt to circumstances
Biological Clinical Cognitive Counseling Developmental Educational Experimental Human factors Industrial-Organization (I/O) Personality Psychometric Social
Psychiatrist go to medical school and receive training in the treatment of psychological disorders during a special residency and they can prescribe drugs Clinical psychologists earns a Ph.D. and practice different psychologically based treatments, or psychotherapies.