JN3050 lecture two 2012

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Second lecture for Future of Journalism, delivered at the University of Central Lancashire. Creative Commons CC NC BY

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  • Human beings have always told stories, it’s how we learn, make sense of the world and construct our identity. If language is the thing that makes us human, then storytelling is why we have language.Stories differ in terms of purpose and implicit and explicit truthfulness
  • Writing was initially used to record business and government information, but as more and more people learnt to write, they began to write down stories and events.
  • The invention of the printing press, and later of movable type, began the expansion of literacy into the general population, and with that came the development of written material as a kind of entertainment. In Europe, the protestant reformation, aided by the new printing presses, started a revolution in writing in the vernacular. The beginnings of the industrial revolution, the rise of commerce, the beginnings of democracy and other changes in society saw the rise of an educated class with interests in trade, politics, business and social issues. The printing presses began to produce information about daily life, rather than fiction and religious stories
  • The first newspaper was published by Johan Carolus in Strassburg, called Relation allerFürnemmen und gedenckwürdigenHistorien (Collection of all distinguished and commemorable news). Within a few decades multiple newspapers had arisen, and this new format (periodical, informative, quickly distributed became immensely popular.
  • By the eighteenth century, printing press technology had developed so rapidly (along with papermaking), that all major cities in Europe (and in the growing colonies abroad) were littered with pamphlets, newsletters, flyers and other assorted printed matter. The political turmoil of the eighteenth century exacerbated this, as did the continued expansion of the cities and the economic power moved to industry. By the mid-nineteenth century social reformers were agitating for free education, and the ability to read and write started to become the norm, rather than the exception.
  • As people moved to the cities to work in rapidly-expanding industries, the demand for entertainment and diversion, as well as information, increased. The rise of the middle classes, and of the nuclear family also contributed to this. New publications were created to service that demand, and the mix of information, opinion and entertainment led to the development of what we now call magazines (as distinct from newspapers)The
  • The late nineteenth century saw a new revolution in distribution technologies. The postal system was the first of these, and it allowed printers and publishers to sell subscriptions around the country and the world. This expanding network of communication began to knit the country and the empire together in ways that it had not been before
  • The telegraph was faster than the postal system, and although too expensive for most people to use for all but the most essential information, it changed journalism irrevocably. Coverage of foreign wars was now almost instaneous – where readers in the UK had had to wait weeks for news from the Crimean front, the news from the Anglo-boer war was published within days.
  • The telegraph was faster than the postal system, and although too expensive for most people to use for all but the most essential information, it changed journalism irrevocably. Coverage of foreign wars was now almost instantaneous – where readers in the UK had had to wait weeks for news from the Crimean front, the news from the Anglo-boer war was published within days. This bill from May 18, 1900, was published only a day after the events it described.
  • Photography and later film made the news more visual. The ability to take and reproduce pictures easily led to more visual content, film was initially used as newsreels in cinemas
  • Television and radio were the next two inventions, bringing broadcasting to the world. Broadcasting brought a new level of national regulation, by requirement, and democratic countries began to develop their own state-owned media.
  • Television and radio were the next two inventions, bringing broadcasting to the world. Broadcasting brought a new level of national regulation, by requirement, and democratic countries began to develop their own state-owned media.
  • Computers were not initially seen as a communication tool, but they changed newsprint production before they changed distribution.
  • The Internet changed distribution irrevocably. Telegraph first newspaper online in 1996.
  • Satellite removed the national and regional restrictions on television, and CNN was created Global news, for a global audience
  • Mobile phones changed the way journalists work, smartphones changed the way people read the news. Increased fragmentation of news, niche markets, fragmentation of consumption, soundbytes, the news in 140 chars, vs greater access to archive and depth, greater range of voices, greater range of competing products. Distinction between news and other kinds of content blurs, celebrification, tabloidisation, dumbing down. Increased financial pressureIncreased competition for audiences
  • Overall trends – from personal to professional and back to personalLarge general audience to niche audienceNews timed for the producer’s interests to news where and when the consumer wants it. What else?
  • JN3050 lecture two 2012

    1. 1. http://azulindigo.wordpress.com/2007/02/27/17/
    2. 2. http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/iit/about/object-image12.html
    3. 3. http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/11300/11358/gutenberg_11358.htm
    4. 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Relation_Aller_Fuernemmen_und_gedenckwuerdigen_Historien_(1609).jpg
    5. 5. http://www.thomaspainefriends.org/paine_am-crisis-1.jpg
    6. 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Household_Words

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