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  • Hydrology

    1. 1. HYDROLOGY Standard 3 S6E3. Students will recognize the significant role of water in Earth process.
    2. 2. Chapter 11 The Water Planet. Chapter 11. 1 Water Continually Cycles.
    3. 3. 1) Brainstorm: Where on Earth can you find water naturally? • Example: Rivers
    4. 4. 2. Now get with the people and compare answers. You may steal or give away answers.
    5. 5. Divide your answers into two sections a) Fresh Water b) Salt water Fresh water Salt Water
    6. 6. Answer this? • Is there more fresh water or salt water on the Earth?
    7. 7. Most of Earth’s water is in its oceans and seas (97%)
    8. 8. Only 3% of Earth’s water is fresh water.
    9. 9. Most fresh water is frozen in glaciers and in the North and South Poles
    10. 10. The water on Earth’s surface is called the hydrosphere.
    11. 11. Water is constantly moving between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere through a process called the water cycle
    12. 12. A heavy rainfall may leave many puddles on your street today.
    13. 13. Tomorrow the puddles may slowly shrink and vanish under a warm sunny sky.
    14. 14. • Several days later, clouds may again gather in the sky and produce rain that creates new puddles.
    15. 15. • These events illustrate the process known as the water cycle.
    16. 16. • The water cycle happens because of four repeating processes: transpiration, evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.
    17. 17. • The water cycle, also called the hydrologic cycle, is the continuous movement of water between the surface of Earth and the troposphere.
    18. 18. • Transpiration is the process in which some water within plants evaporates into the atmosphere. Water is first absorbed by the plant’s roots, and then later exits by evaporation through pores in the plant.
    19. 19. Evaporation • Evaporation is the process in which liquid water changes into invisible water vapor (water in the form of gas). Heat from sunlight makes evaporation happen.
    20. 20. Condensation • Condensation is the process in which water vapor changes into liquid water. Condensation occurs as air with water vapor in it cools. Clouds are evidence of condensation. Clouds are formed when water vapor cools and condenses into tiny liquid water droplets.
    21. 21. Precipitation • Precipitation occurs when water or a form of ice falls from the atmosphere to Earth’s surface. Precipitation forms when water droplets in clouds grow and become too heavy to stay in the atmosphere.
    22. 22. • 1. What percentage of water on Earth is salt water (Ocean & Sea) and freshwater? • 2. Where is most of the freshwater found and in what form? • 3. What are the 3 repeating processes of the water cycle? • 4. How many miles is between the ground and the troposphere. • 5.What process changes liquid water into water vapor? • 6. What causes evaporation to happen? • 7. What process changes water vapor into liquid water? • 8. What is the water on Earth constantly moving between? • 9. What is the evidence of condensation? • 10. What is water called in the form of gas?
    23. 23. Quiz • 1. What process changes water vapor into liquid water? • 2. What is the evidence of condensation? • 3. What is water called in the form of gas? • 4. What causes evaporation to happen? • 5.What process changes liquid water into water vapor?
    24. 24. • 1. What process changes water vapor into liquid water? Condensation • 2. What is the evidence of condensation? Clouds • 3. What is water called in the form of gas? Water Vapor • 4. What causes evaporation to happen? Heat from the Sun • 5.What process changes liquid water into water vapor? Evaporation
    25. 25. Chapter 11.2 Fresh Water Flows and Freezes on Earth
    26. 26. • I. Water flows and collects on Earth’s surface – A) The force of gravity pulls water downward.
    27. 27. • B. When precipitation falls on a high ridge that forms a divide, it flows away in different directions.
    28. 28. • C) All the water flowing downward on one side of a divide flows into a drainage basin.
    29. 29. • D) Water in a drainage basin forms streams and rivers or sinks into the ground.
    30. 30. • E. Most water eventually flows to the sea.
    31. 31. II. Surface Water collects in ponds and lakes. – A) Water collects in low areas to form ponds and lakes. In some places, the land surface dips below the level of underground water.
    32. 32. B) Water enters lakes and ponds as precipitation and may have water so deep that no sunlight reaches the bottom.
    33. 33. C) A pond is generally filled with plants.
    34. 34. D) In places with cold winters, the cool water layers of lakes switch places with warm water. This is known as turnover
    35. 35. E) Eutrophication is an increase in the nutrient level of a lake or pond, caused by a build up of dead organism or by pollution, such as nitrogen from fertilizers and phosphates from detergents.
    36. 36. F) Eutrophication causes an increase in the amount of algae and other organisms in the water.
    37. 37. • Eutrophication This leads to oxygen depletion in the water and the death of fish and other animals.
    38. 38. III. Most fresh water on Earth is frozen A) Two –thirds of the fresh water on Earth is in the form of ice, mostly in huge ice sheets that cover land near the poles.
    39. 39. B) These are continental glaciers. Valley glaciers build up in mountainous areas and flow slowly down between mountains.
    40. 40. C) Sometimes a chunk of a glacier breaks off to form an iceberg that floats in the ocean.
    41. 41. • Only about 1/8 of the total volume and weight of an iceberg floats above the water
    42. 42. 11.2 Quiz 1. What pulls the water down hill? 2. Where does all the water eventually flow to? 3. When the water flows down a divide, where does it go? 4. When does lake turnover occur? 5. How much of the world’s fresh water is ice?
    43. 43. 6. How much of an iceberg floats above water? 7. What is it called when a chunk of a glacier breaks off 8. What are the large ice sheets called? 9 List one difference between a pond and a lake 10 List another difference between a pond and a lake.
    44. 44. • • • • • • • • • • • ANSWERS 1. Gravity 2. Sea or Ocean 3. Drainage Basin 4. Spring and Fall 5. 2/3 6. 1/8 7. Ice burg 8. Glaciers. 9 & 10. Pond is smaller Pond is shallow Pond has plants.
    45. 45. Chapter 11.3 Fresh Water Flows Underground
    46. 46. Fresh water flows underground. • I. Water fills underground spaces. – A) Some water sinks into the ground. Plants use some of it, and the rest sinks deeper into earth and is held underground as groundwater.
    47. 47. • B) Either ground materials are permeable, and water can flow through them; or they are impermeable, and water cannot flow through them.
    48. 48. • C) sandstone, is permeable.
    49. 49. • Gravel is permeable
    50. 50. • Sand is permeable.
    51. 51. • Soil is also permeable.
    52. 52. • D) Water sinks into Earth until it reaches an impermeable layer.
    53. 53. • E) The water table is the top of the area that is saturated with water.
    54. 54. • F) An underground layer of permeable rock or sediment that contains water is an aquifer.
    55. 55. • G) In an aquifer, groundwater is stored in permeable material located over or beside impermeable rock that prevents the water from draining away.
    56. 56. • H) Aquifers filter and clean water and provide a water source for people on Earth.
    57. 57. • II. Underground water can be brought to the surface. – A) People collect groundwater from springs and wells.
    58. 58. • B) A spring is a place where the surface of the land dips below the water table and water bubbles up from the ground.
    59. 59. • C) A well is a hole drilled into the ground to reach groundwater.
    60. 60. • D) An artesian well is a well in which water flows to the surface naturally because of pressure exerted below the surface.
    61. 61. • E) A hot spring is a place where water heated underground reaches the surface.
    62. 62. • F) A geyser is a special kind of hot spring that shoots water into the air.
    63. 63. In between fresh and salt water. • III. Somewhere in between fresh and salt water is brackish water. – A) Brackish water is found in an estuary
    64. 64. • B) An estuary is the area where a river empties into and ocean. – 1. The water in an estuary is a mixture of fresh and salt water.
    65. 65. 11.3 Quiz Who am I? • Word Box • • • • • Well Geyser Water table Freshwater Brackish Artesian Well permeable Aquifer saltwater Spring impermeable groundwater Estuary
    66. 66. • 1. I am water that is a mixture of salty and fresh water. • 2. I am the type of material that lets water flow through me. • 3. I am water that is held underground.
    67. 67. • 4. I am an underground layer of water that is held in permeable rock. • 5. I am a well in which water flows upward because of pressure beneath the surface. • 6. I am material that does not allow water to pass through.
    68. 68. • 7. I am a layer of water trapped between impermeable rock and permeable material. • 8. I am a type of spring that due to pressure, I shoot water into the air. • 9. I am an area where fresh water meets the ocean.
    69. 69. • I am the type of water that you depend on for survival.
    70. 70. Oceans (Ch 13.1) S6E3. C Describe the composition, location and surface topography of the ocean Essential Question Where does the salt in the ocean come from?
    71. 71. 1. Location of Ocean water • A. Altogether, the oceans cover approximately 70% of Earth’s surface area.
    72. 72. • B) Earth is the only planet in the solar system that contains substantial amounts of water.
    73. 73. • C. Earth’s five oceans are named the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Arctic.
    74. 74. 2. Composition of the Ocean Water • A) When scientist refer to the salinity of the ocean, they are mainly referring to the amount of dissolved salt in the water (Sodium Chloride) and the amount of other elements.
    75. 75. • B) Water that contains dissolved solids, such as salts, is heavier than the same amount of water with no dissolved solids. In other words salt water has a greater density than fresh water.
    76. 76. • C) Gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, are also dissolved in the ocean water.
    77. 77. • D) Animals in the water get oxygen because oxygen is dissolved in the water.
    78. 78. 3. The Ocean Floor (Topography)
    79. 79. • A) Continental Shelf – – A continental shelf is the flat or gradually sloping land that extends underwater from the edge of a continent to a continental slope.
    80. 80. • B) Continental slope – A continental slope is land that drops down steeply at the edge of a continental shelf
    81. 81. • C) Submarine Canyons – – Cut through the continental shelf and slope
    82. 82. • D) Ocean trenches are narrow, steepsides clefts in the ocean floor.
    83. 83. • E) An abyssal plain is a wide, flat area of the ocean floor that is covered with a thick layer of sediment
    84. 84. • F) A mid-ocean ridge is a chain of mountains that run through an ocean basin.
    85. 85. • G) Volcanic Islands are underwater volcanoes tall enough to reach above the surface
    86. 86. • H) Seamounts are underwater mountains.
    87. 87. Ocean Currents • S6E3. D Students will explain the cause of the waves, currents and tides. • Chapter 13.2
    88. 88. Ocean Currents. • A) Great rivers of water, called ocean currents, flow through the world’s oceans. There are two types of ocean currents: Surface currents and Deep currents.
    89. 89. Surface Currents • A) Strong winds cause surface currents
    90. 90. Surface Currents • B) Earth’s rotation curls surface currents • C) Surface currents rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
    91. 91. Deep Currents • A) Deep currents are caused by differences in water density.
    92. 92. Deep Currents • B) Dense water sinks bringing oxygen down from the surface. This is called Downwelling. The oxygen allows animals to live in the deep ocean.
    93. 93. Deep Currents – Cont’d • C) Upwelling is the movement of water up to the surface. Because this process brings up nutrients fro the deep ocean, large numbers of ocean animals live in areas where upwelling occurs.
    94. 94. Currents interact with climate and weather. • Currents help distribute heat around the Earth by moving warm water away from the equator and cool water away from the north and south poles.
    95. 95. Waves • S6E3. D Students will explain the cause of the waves, currents and tides. • Chapter 13.3
    96. 96. 1. Causes of Waves • • • • A) strong wind B) earthquakes C) landslides D) underwater volcanic eruptions.
    97. 97. Diagram of a Wave Wave height
    98. 98. A wave in the ocean has the same basic shape as many other waves • The crest is the high point of the wave • The trough is the low point of the wave • Wave height is the vertical distance between the top of the crest and the bottom of the trough. • Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest and the next.
    99. 99. Waves • A) waves transport energy NOT water
    100. 100. Waves cause Currents • A) Longshore Current – Moves water parallel to the shore. • B) Rip Current – Are narrow streams of water that break through sandbars and drain rapidly back to sea. Rip currents occur when high winds or waves cause a larger-than-usual amount of water to wash back from the shore.
    101. 101. Tides • S6E3. D Students will explain the cause of the waves, currents and tides. • Chapter 13.4
    102. 102. Tides • Tides are changes in ocean water levels that take place in a regular pattern. Tides are controlled mostly by the pull of gravity between the moon and Earth.
    103. 103. • The force of gravity due to the moon pulls ocean water away from Earth’s surface. As earth rotates, water is pulled up onto the shore at parts of Earth that face directly toward or away from the moon, causing high tides.
    104. 104. Spring Tide • During the new moon and the full moon, the moon, the sun and the Earth are lined up. • The gravity of the Sun and the gravity of the Moon combine to pull Earth’s waters in the same directions. • The result is a smaller tidal bulge and tidal dip, called a spring tide.
    105. 105. Neap Tides • During the first and third quarter moons , the Sun and the Moon are not lined up with Earth. • The gravity pulls from a different direction. • The result is a smaller tidal bulge and tidal dip, called a neap tide.
    106. 106. Tidal Range • Tidal range is the difference in height between a high tide and the next low tide.
    107. 107. • At the same time, ocean water is pulled away from the shorelines of points on Earth that are not pulled by the moon at that moment. These areas experience low tides.
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