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Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
Chapter 16 lecture 2
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Chapter 16 lecture 2

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  • So, in effect, photosynthesis is respiration run backwards powered by light.
  • CO 2 contains little energy because it is fully oxidized Reduce CO 2 in a series of steps to synthesize a stable energy storage molecule
  • RuBP = ribulose bisphosphate Rubisco = ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase
  • Gluconeogenesis == making new glucose
  • Transcript

    • 1. Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle Life from Air
    • 2. The Calvin Cycle Whoops! Wrong Calvin…
    • 3. Remember what it means to be a plant…
      • Need to produce all organic molecules necessary for growth
        • carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
      • Need to store chemical energy produced from light reactions
        • in stable form
        • can be moved around plant
        • saved for a rainy day
    • 4. Autotrophs
      • Making energy & organic molecules from light energy
        • photosynthesis
      + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    • 5. Light reactions
      • Convert solar energy to chemical energy
        • ATP
        • NADPH
      • What can we do now?
       energy  reducing power   build stuff !!
    • 6. How is that helpful?
      • Want to make C 6 H 12 O 6
        • synthesis
        • How? From what? What raw materials are available?
      CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 NADPH NADP reduce CO 2 carbon fixation NADP
    • 7. From CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6
      • CO 2 has very little chemical energy
        • fully oxidized
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 contains a lot of chemical energy
        • reduced
        • endergonic
      • Reduction of CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6 proceeds in many small uphill steps
        • each catalyzed by specific enzyme
        • using energy stored in ATP & NADPH
    • 8. From Light reactions to Calvin cycle
      • Calvin cycle
        • chloroplast stroma
      • Need products of light reactions to drive synthesis reactions
        • ATP
        • NADPH
    • 9. starch, sucrose, cellulose & more Calvin cycle RuBP Rubisco 1. Carbon fixation 2. Reduction 3. Regeneration of RuBP ribulose bisphosphate ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase used to make glucose G3P glyceraldehyde-3-P PGA phosphoglycerate C C C 1C CO 2 5C 3C 6 NADP 6 NADPH 6 ADP 6 ATP 3 ADP 3 ATP 3C 3C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 6C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C = = | H | H | H | H | H | H C C C – –
    • 10. glucose C-C-C-C-C-C fructose-6P P- C-C-C-C-C-C -P DHAP P- C-C-C G3P C-C-C -P pyruvate C-C-C 2 ATP 2 ADP Remember G3P? glycolysis 2 NAD + 2 NADH 4 ADP 4 ATP
    • 11. Calvin Cycle Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (3C) (G3P) Glucose and other sugars Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) (5C) 3-phosphoglycerate (3C) (PGA) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (3C) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (3C) (G3P) Rubisco Reforming RuBP Reverse of glycolysis Carbon fixation Stroma of chloroplast Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 6 NADPH 3 ATP 3 ADP 6 ATP 6 ADP 6 NADP + 2P i 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (3C) 6P i
    • 12. To G-3-P and Beyond !
      • Glyceraldehyde-3-P
        • end product of Calvin cycle
        • energy rich 3 carbon sugar
        • “ C3 photosynthesis ”
      • G-3-P = important intermediate
      • G-3-P   glucose   carbohydrates
        •   lipids
        •   amino acids
        •   nucleic acids
    • 13. Rubisco ** test question in 2011 test, had to know actual name
      • Enzyme which fixes carbon from air
        • ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase
        • the most important enzyme in the world!
          • it makes life out of air!
        • definitely the most abundant enzyme
    • 14. Accounting
      • The accounting is complicated
        • 3 turns of Calvin cycle = 1 G3P
        • 3 CO 2  1 G3P (3C)
        • 6 turns of Calvin cycle = 1 C 6 H 12 O 6 (6C)
        • 6 CO 2  1 C 6 H 12 O 6 (6C)
        • 18 ATP + 12 NADPH  1 C 6 H 12 O 6
        • any ATP left over from light reactions will be used elsewhere by the cell
    • 15. Photosynthesis summary
      • Light reactions
        • produced ATP
        • produced NADPH
        • consumed H 2 O
        • produced O 2 as byproduct
      • Calvin cycle
        • consumed CO 2
        • produced G3P (sugar)
        • regenerated ADP
        • regenerated NADP
      NADP ADP
    • 16. Summary of photosynthesis
      • Where did the CO 2 come from?
      • Where did the CO 2 go?
      • Where did the H 2 O come from?
      • Where did the H 2 O go?
      • Where did the energy come from?
      • What’s the energy used for?
      • What will the C 6 H 12 O 6 be used for?
      • Where did the O 2 come from?
      • Where will the O 2 go?
      • What else is involved…not listed in this equation?
      6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    • 17. Supporting a biosphere
      • On global scale, photosynthesis is the most important process for the continuation of life on Earth
        • each year photosynthesis synthesizes 160 billion tons of carbohydrate
        • heterotrophs are dependent on plants as food source for fuel & raw materials
    • 18. The poetic perspective…
      • All the solid material of every plant was built by sunlight out of thin air
      • All the solid material of every animal was built from plant material
      Then all the cats, dogs, rats, people & elephants… are really strands of air woven together by sunlight! sun air
    • 19.  
    • 20.  
    • 21. Any Questions??

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