Chap 19 blood glucose regulation

4,668 views
4,346 views

Published on

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,668
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
164
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chap 19 blood glucose regulation

  1. 1. Hormonal communication <ul><li>Exocrine and endocrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>endocrine glands – produce hormones (chemicals that carry information from one part of the body to another) </li></ul><ul><li>endocrine – means “secreting to the inside” </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>exocrine glands – means “secreting to the outside” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saliva, enzymes, bile, gastric juices, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Control of blood glucose concentration
  4. 4. The pancreas <ul><li>endocrine and exocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>exocrine – pancreatic juices into duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>endocrine – islets of Langerhans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alpha cells secrete glucagon (stimulates release of glucose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beta cells secrete insulin (stimulates uptake of glucose) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. We eat food containing carbohydrates
  6. 6. The carbohydrates are fully digested to glucose which is absorbed
  7. 7. The carbohydrates are fully digested to glucose which is absorbed
  8. 9. The pancreas detects the change in blood glucose concentration and releases the appropriate hormone
  9. 11. The control of blood glucose <ul><li>glucose in blood </li></ul><ul><li>stored in liver and muscles as glycogen (large, insoluble polysaccharide) </li></ul><ul><li>normal blood glucose level 80-120 mg/ml </li></ul><ul><li>increase in blood glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alpha cells stop secreting glucagon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beta cells secrete insulin </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. insulin affects many cells especially in liver and muscles *** test ? <ul><ul><li>increases absorption of glucose from blood into cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase rate use of glucose in respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase rate of conversion to glycogen </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. glucagon affects the activity of liver cells <ul><ul><li>stimulates break down of glycogen to glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of fatty acids as fuel for respiration instead of glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production of glucose from fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release glucose into blood </li></ul></ul>
  12. 18. Insulin and glucagon
  13. 19. Diabetes mellitus
  14. 20. juvenile-onset diabetes – insulin-dependent diabetes <ul><li>beta cells incapable of secreting sufficient insulin, or </li></ul><ul><li>person’s own immune system attacks beta cells </li></ul>
  15. 21. non-insulin dependent diabetes <ul><ul><li>pancreas secretes insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>liver and muscle cells do not respond </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. After meal <ul><ul><li>blood glucose rises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kidneys cannot reabsorb all glucose, it enters urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water and salts accompany glucose into urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person feels hungry and thirsty </li></ul></ul>
  17. 23. uptake of glucose by cells slow <ul><ul><li>use fats and proteins for metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to build up of keto-acids, lowers blood pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cause dehydration, salt loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can cause coma </li></ul></ul>
  18. 25. Pharmaceutical insulin <ul><ul><li>pig or cow insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980’s genetically engineered bacteria with human insulin gene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advantages of human engineered bacterial insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more rapid response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shorter duration of response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less chance of immune response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effective in people not tolerant to animal-derived insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acceptable to people opposed to pig/cattle insulin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 26. Manipulating DNA <ul><li>Genetic engineering : making direct and specific changes in DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use restriction enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Separating DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gel electrophoresis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pasting DNA together </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms “recombinant DNA” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Making copies of DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 27. Restriction Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Create sticky ends </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as a way bacteria defend themselves from viruses </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. Transformation
  22. 29. High Fructose Corn Syrup Good or Bad?

×