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Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02
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Latinamericanindependencemovementsandrevolutions 090319164612-phpapp02

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  • 1. 1750-1914:An Age ofRevolutionsLatin AmericanIndependenceMovements
  • 2. BackgroundIndigenous peoples and civilizations ◦ Maya, Aztec, IncaEuropean Colonization, 1500s ◦ Spain, Portugal, FranceAmerican Revolution, 1776French Revolution and Enlightenment, 1789Napoleon’s conquests within Europe, 1800s
  • 3. Latin American IndependenceMovements, 18th & 19th C.
  • 4. François Toussaint- Simón Louverture-Miguel Hidalgo Bolívar Pedro I José de San Martín
  • 5. French colonies: Revolution in Haiti Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea. Plantation slavery, sugar
  • 6. Toussaint L’OuvertureFormer slave, self-educated.Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat.Allegedly got name (“opening” in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines.Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791.100,000 slaves in revolt.
  • 7.  By 1801, L’Ouverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves. In January 1802, French troops landed. Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery French accused him of planning another uprising. Sent him to a prison in the French Alps. He died 10 months later, April 1803.
  • 8. Spanish ColoniesRevolutions againstSpanish Rule
  • 9. Latin American social classesPeninsulares - men born in Spain ◦ held highest officesCreoles - Spaniards born in Latin America ◦ officers in army, but not in government ◦ often resented power of the peninsularesMestizos - mixed European and IndianMulattos - mixed European and AfricanIndians/Africans
  • 10. European Background:Napoleon Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808. Removed Spain’s King Ferdinand VII and made Joseph (Nap’s brother) king of Spain. Creoles used it as a reason for revolution. 1810 rebellion across Latin America. 1814, Napoleon defeated and Ferdinand returned to power, but creoles cont’d their movement.
  • 11. Francisco Goya, Executions of May 3, 1808
  • 12. Simon Bolivar Wealthy Venezuelan creole. “The Liberator”
  • 13. Venezuelan Independence,1821Venezuela declared independence, 1811.Bolivar’s armies unsuccessful at first.1819: Bolivar marched armies over Andes into today’s Colombia, defeated Spanish army.1821: Venezuelan independence.Marched north to Ecuador to meet Jose de San Martin.
  • 14. Jose de San Martin Simple, modest man. Born in Argentina, spent time in Spain as military officer.
  • 15. Lima, Peru
  • 16. Argentinean Independence Argentinadeclared independence in 1816. San Martin led army across Andes to Chile, joined by Bernardo O’Higgins, and freed Chile. Ecuador, 1822: San Martin met with Bolivar to decide how to remove remaining Spanish forces in Lima, Peru.
  • 17. San Martin sailed for Europe anddied on French soil in 1850.Dec9, 1824, Bolivar defeatedSpanish at Battle of Ayacucho.
  • 18. BolivarSanMartin
  • 19. Gran Colombia, 1820-1830Bolivar’s vision of a united South America.Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama.Short-lived due to dissension amongst various factions.Bolivar resigned in 1828.In1830, Bolivar’s Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance, 1903.
  • 20. MexicoIndians and mestizos, not creoles, played the key role in independence movements.Creoles sided with Spain to avoid violence of lower-class rebellions (until 1820).
  • 21. Miguel HidalgoA village priest, believedin Enlightenment ideals.1810, called for revolution. ◦ Grito de Dolores (call for revolution)Hidalgo’sIndian and mestizo followers marched to Mexico City.Spanish army and creoles acted against Hidalgo and defeated him in 1811.
  • 22. Mexican Independence, 18211820 revolution in Spain put a liberal government in power.Mexican creoles feared loss of influence, so they united against Spain.Agustin Iturbide declared himself emperor, but was overthrown.1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic.
  • 23. French RuleConservative rebels plotted with France to reconquer Mexico.Napoleon III sent armies to Mexico.Cinco de Mayo, 1862: ◦ Zaragoza won the Battle of Puebla against the French, but the French won the war.Napoleon III appointed a relative, Austrian archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico.Juarez resisted, US sent troops to Mexico - French gave up in 1867.Juarez continued reforms.
  • 24. United Provinces of Central AmericaSeveral other Central American states declared their independence from both Spain and Mexico to create the United Provinces of Central America.
  • 25. Independence in South America 3In South America, Native Americanshad rebelled against Spanish rule asearly as the 1700s, with limited results.It was not until the 1800s thatdiscontent sparked a widespread drivefor independence.Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,” :theGeorge Washington of South America,”led an uprising that established a republicin Venezuela. He then captured Bogotá,Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In 1816, José de San Martín helpedArgentina win freedom from Spain. Hethen joined forces with Bolívar. Bolívar tried to unite the liberatedlands into a single nation called GranColumbia. However, bitter rivalries madethat dream impossible. Before long, GranColumbia split into three independentcountries: Venezuela, Columbia, andEcuador. (Panama)
  • 26. By 1841, United Provinces of Central America had split into republics of El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras.Conservative clergy and wealthy landowners resisted liberal, democratic reforms.Inability to agree to terms of a canal cost it much-needed revenue.
  • 27. Period of Consolidation, 1825-1850 Breakdown of original nations and groups: ◦ Gran Colombia ◦ an original union between Bolivia and Peru ◦ United Provinces of Central America Instability of internal politics ◦ Bolivia experienced 60 revolts and coups. ◦ Venezuela experienced 52 revolts and coups Liberals - free trade, representative govt, federal government system Conservatives - protect church and upper classes ◦ controlled most regimes between 1830 and 1870. Independence movements and new governments run by Creoles Spanish administrators had excluded Creoles from political leadership, so few leaders could actually run a government.
  • 28. Latin American IndependenceMovements, 18th & 19th C.

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