The word photography camefrom two Greek words thatmean "writing with light." Thefirst time the word"photography" was used wasin 1839, the year the inventionof the photographic processwas made public, by Sir JohnHerschel
CAMERA OBSCURAGo in the a dark room on a bright day, make a holein the window cover and the outside is projectedinside but its upside down the picture is in full colour.Its explained by some laws of physics, light travels ina straight line when some of the rays reflected from Camera = Latin fora bright subject pass through a small hole in thin “room”material they do not scatter but cross and reform as Obscura = Latinan upside down image on a flat surface held parallel for “dark”to the hole. This law of optics was known in ancienttimes.
About 2,400 years ago (4th Century B.C.) thefamous philosopher Aristotle talked about apinhole image formation in his work. Hewondered why "when light shines through arectangular peep-hole, it appears circular inthe form of a cone?" He didnt find an answerto his question and the problem wasntanswered until about 2,000 years later in the1500s.
The earliest mention of the camera obscura was in 5th century BC by aChinese philosopher Mo-Ti. He recorded this creation of an inverted imageformed by rays of light passing through a pinhole vin a dark room hecalled this darken room a "collecting place" or the "locked treasure room."In 1490 Leonardo Da Vinci gave two descriptions of the camera obscura inhis notebooks. Many of the first camera obscuras were large rooms likethat illustrated by the Dutch scientist Reinerus Gemma-Frisius in 1544 foruse in observing a solar eclipse.
This is the French inventor Nicephore Niepce was born in 1765,he was fascinated by lithography but unskilled at drawing. Hesought out away to take images of nature, in 1826-27 hecaptured an image from his workroom window using lightsensitive chemicals on a piece of metal This was the firstpermanent photograph. He kept his process a secret until 1829,when he partnered with Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre.
THE FIRST PHOTOGRAPHOn a summer day in 1827, Nicephore Niepce made the first photographic imagewith a camera obscura. Prior to Niepce people just used the camera obscura forviewing or drawing purposes not for making photographs. Joseph NicephoreNiepces heliographs or sun prints as they were called were the prototype for themodern photograph, by letting light draw the picture. Niepce placed anengraving onto a metal plate coated in bitumen, and then exposed it to light.When he placed the metal plate in a solvent eventually an image ,before theninvisible, appeared. However, his photograph took eight hours of light exposureto create and after appearing would soon fade away.
1834Henry talbot creates permanent negative image using papersoaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution. Talbotcreated positive images by contact printing onto another sheet ofpaper.
DAGUERREOTYPE Louis Daguerre, a French artist and scenic painter. Daguerre hadThis is another began experimenting with ways of fixing the images formed by theFrench inventor camera obscura around 1824, in 1829 he made a partnership withLouis Daguerre Niepce. After the death of his partner he continued to experimenthe worked with with copper plates coated with silver iodide to produce directNicephore positive pictures. he discovered the latent image on an exposedNiepce before plate could be "developed" with the fumes from warmed mercury.he died. Louis The use of mercury vapour meant that photographic images couldwas born in1787 and died be produced in twenty to thirty minutes rather than hours. In 1837,in 1851 he was Daguerre found a way of "fixing" the photographic images with aborn in solution of common salt. Two years later, he got a suggestion fromCormeilles, Sir John Herschel and used thiosulphate of soda as the fixing agentFrance
1841Tablot patents his process under the name calotype also knownas tintypes
1851Fredrick scott archer, a sculptor in london, improves photographyresolution by spreading a mixture of collodion and chemicals onsheets of glass. Wet plate collodion photography was muchcheaper than daguerreotypes the negative/ positive processpermitted unlimited reproductions.
1855-57Direct positive images on glass (ambortypes) and metal (tintypesor ferrotypes) were popular in the us 3 million tintypes producedin the mid 1800s.
1861Scottish physicist James Maxwell demonstrates a colour photosystem which included 3 black and white photos each takenthrough a green, blue and red filter. The photos were turned intolantern slides and projected in the same colour filter.
1871An English doctor, Richard Maddox, proposes the use of emulsionof gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate (the dry plate)
1877Eadweard Muybridge who was born in England then moved to America.He began as a landscape photographer acquiring a suitable reputation.He was then requested by the former governor of California he began totake photos of horses to see how they moved. His early work required forhim to take a picture at precisely the right time, however in 1878 heconducted an experiment to take a sequence of images in quicksuccession .
KODAKIn 1888 George Eastman invented dry, transparent andflexible, photographic film (or rolled photography film) andthe kodak cameras could use the new film. He wanted tomake it so anyone could take a picture not just trainedphotographers. In 1883 he announced the invention ofphotographic film in rolls. The camera came with 100exposures and once they were used people would send thecameras with the rolls back to the factory in new Yorkwhere the photos would be developed then sent back to theperson with a new roll as well.
EARLY 35MM CAMERAS.The first patent for one was given to Leo, Audobard and Baradat in england in 1908.the first full scale production camera was the homeos (a stereo camera) produced byjules richard in 1903. it took stereo pairs 18x24 with 2 tessar lenses it was sold until1920.The first 35mm big seller was the American Tourist Multiple, also appearing in 1913,this camera cost $175 in 1913 (which by todays standards is the equal of $3000 lecia)ittook either 800 half frame or 400 full frame shots on 50ft rolls.
INSTANT CAMERAAn instant camera is a type of camera that generates adeveloped film image. The most popular types to use selfdeveloping film formerly made by polaroid corporation.These were invented by a lot of people but the credit goesto an American scientist Edwin Land, who unveiled thefirst commercial instant camera the land camera. InFebruary 2008, polaroid announced it would discontinueproduce of film and shut down 3 factories.
The first true digital camera that recorded images as acomputerized file was most likely the Fuji DS-1P of 1988 whichrecorded to a 16 MB memory card that used a battery to keepthe data in memory.( this camera was never marketed in the USand hasn’t been confirmed to have shipped to japan.)
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