Ways of the world


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Ways of the world

  1. 1. Ways of the World<br />The European Moment, Chapters 17-20<br />The Most Recent Century, Chapter 21-24<br />
  2. 2. The Revolution across THE WORLD Chapter 17<br />North American Revolution 1775-1787: it started as the colonies trying to break away from British ruling. They were trying to maintain the existing liberties that the colonies had started.<br />French Revolution 1789-1815: Napoleon Bonaparte was a major influence in France’s revolution. He contributed by ending feudalism, proclaiming equality of rights, insisting on religious toleration, codifying the laws, and rationalizing government administration. <br />Haitian Revolution 1792-1804: This was the first successful revolution by slave uprisings. <br />Spanish American Revolutions 1810-1825: Because of all the uprisings in Europe, the spread of revolutions continued to Latin America where independence of various states was established everywhere by 1826.<br />
  3. 3. Abolition of Slaverychapter 17<br />Enlightenment theorists began to speak out against slavery. The Quakers and the Protestant Evangelists thought slavery was “repugnant to their religion”. Also the colonies no longer really needed slaves for economic growth. The moral question of slavery was becoming more prominent as well as the political problems slavery brought. Of courses the actions of revolt from the slaves were also a major factor in the freedom process.<br />Slavery was happening everywhere: the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia as the serf system. The abolition of slavery marked a dramatic turn in the world’s social history and moral ideals. Although it would be a long time until African Americans in America were considered equal, the process had started.<br />
  4. 4. The rise of Feminismchapter 17<br />The French were the first to start questioning the rights of women. They were the first to start demanding equality between men and women.<br />With the growing industrial societies women began finding education opportunities and some slowly reached freedom from men. <br />Across the world women were striving for more independence and equal rights.<br />By 1914, 100,000 women were apart of the French feminist organization, while at the same time the National American Women SufferageAssociation claimed 2 million members.<br />New Zealand was the first country to give all women the right to vote, with Finland shortly following.<br />A feminist newspaper was established in Brazil in 1869.<br />Issues of marriage, women working, birth control, and even homosexuality was being questioned all over the world. Social issues were becoming more aware and would eventually become revolutionary consequences. <br />
  5. 5. Britain’s Industrial revolution Chapter 18<br />The Industrial Revolution began in Britain for many reasons. It started after the English revolution in the 1600s, which ended in a wealthy middle class with money and the ability to invest in new ideas. <br />This boomed the textile technology<br />Agriculture and population growth enabled the need and use for a new labor force<br />Raw materials for factories were provided within the empire.<br />Transportation: systems of rivers and canals made it easy to transport goods across the nation. As well as Britain being an island made it capable of shipping out goods to many locations.<br />
  6. 6. Karl MARXchapter 18<br /> Karl Marx spent most of his life in England where he witnessed the brutal effects on society of the Industrial Revolution. He formed strong opinions about the class struggle. <br />Marx believed that Capitalism was flawed in that it could never put an end to poverty. Marx predicted it would end in a class revolution. He looked forward to a Communist future, which he believed would forever end the rich vs. poor conflict. <br />However there was a sizable middle class and lower-middle class formed that Marx did not expect that enabled this Capitalist society to continue for longer.<br />
  7. 7. The rest of the worldchapter 18<br />The Industrial Revolution soon hit the rest of the world, all in different ways.<br />France: industrialization occurred slower<br />Germany: focused on iron, steel, coal, and started in huge companies which started a Marxist-oriented labor movement.<br />United States: pioneered techniques of mass production, using interchangeable parts, assembly line, and scientific management to produce for a mass market. Since they had so much land mass and so many natural resources they had to come up with new ways to manufacture all of it. They became the world’s leading industrial power by 1914.<br />Germany and the US had large business enterprises, whereas France and Britain family business still predominated the country.<br />
  8. 8. European ImperialismChapter 19<br />The expansion of Europe due to the industrial revolution greatly affected China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan. <br />These countries faced military and political ambitions of rival European states. They became involved in networks of trade, investment, and migration, and they were touched by aspects of European culture such as: language, religion, literature, and philosophy. <br />They were adapting to the new ideas and beliefs that came from the West, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and individualism.<br />
  9. 9. Internal Crisis in Chinachapter 19<br />Because of China’s success economically, population growth was inevitable. 100 million people in 1685, became 340 million people in 1853. <br />As an outcome there became a huge peasant population which resulted in unemployment, impoverishment, misery, and starvation.<br />China’s bureaucratic state did not enlarge itself in order to maintain the growth of the population size. Gradually the state lost control and power over the people. Functions such as tax collection, flood control, social welfare, and public security were all weakened.<br />A massive civil war (the Taiping Uprising) occurred and it would take the dynasty over a decade to recover from the devastation.<br />
  10. 10. The Rise of japanchapter 19<br />Differing from China and the Ottoman Empire, Japan was able to surpass European domination and create their own East Asian empire, mostly at the expense of China.<br />What lead to their success:<br />The influence of Confucianism encouraged education and generated a more literate population. 40% of men and 15% of women were able to read and write.<br />Peasants moved to the city to imitate their social betters, becoming artisans or merchants.<br />They had acquired a government without violence or destruction.<br />Japan was of less interest to Western powers, which reduced the pressure on Japan.<br />Increased knowledge and fascination of the Western societies affected and influenced new politics in Japan.<br />Industrial growth began with the opening of model factories, mines, railroads, and banking systems.<br />
  11. 11. Expanding EuropeChapter 20<br />A second wave of European conquest swept Asia and Africa. Germany, Italy, Belgium, United States, and Japan were all major roles in the expansion process.<br />This second round was initiated by the Industrial Revolution.<br />The Europeans had to use force and firearms in order to prevail and institute their new empires. They were successful almost everywhere, having more powerful guns and simply guns at all compared to the homeland people.<br />
  12. 12. The Marketchapter 20<br />In some of the colonies, cash-crop agriculture benefited the farms. However the success brought new problems. Forced labor fostered the employment of former slaves as workers and there became problems between the sexes. Also labor shortage brought migration from the interior parts of West Africa forming class problems.<br />Although the international market was promoted quite willingly by the Asian and African peoples because of the economic and societal growth it brought.<br />
  13. 13. Educational impact of Colonializationchapter 20<br />European expansion also included the expansion of European ideals and culture. More and more people in Africa and Asia began speaking French or English, building in a similar architectural style, and emulating European customs such as taking value in education.<br />For example in the 1800s in India they sought a renewed Indian culture with withdraw from child marriages, caste, and discrimination against women. This was inspired by the western education. New morals and ideas were spread and the world was slowly becoming a smaller place.<br />
  14. 14. World War IChapter 21<br />Nineteenth Century Europe was in a power struggle for land, technology, and national identity. This pushed the countries into a war that would last longer and become bigger than anyone expected. <br />Britain, France, and Russia were fighting Germany, Austria, and Italy. The United States joined on Britain and France’s side in 1917 making it a full on world war. <br />Ending in German defeat in 1918, this war had enormous casualties and the collapse of the German, Russia, and Austrian empires re-mapped Central Europe.<br /> With this emerged an independent Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and some other nations. <br />The Treaty of Versailles ended the war in 1919 officially, but would establish conditions that generated a second world war only two decades later, dealing with the blame of Germany for the war and the resentment that went with it.<br />
  15. 15. Hitler and the Nazischapter 21<br />After the second world war there was a growing hostility to democracy in Germany. The economy was falling and unemployment became a global problem. Many industrial workers turned to socialist and communists for answers. Other Germans turned to fascism, and a large number of middle-class people looked to conservative and radical right-winged movements.<br />This is where Hitler’s National Socialist Party grew support. He promoted nationalism in terms of racial superiority, hated for Jews, opposition to communism, and a determination to rescue Germany from the Treaty of Versailles and raise the economy.<br />Once in power, Hitler dismantled labor unions, controlled the press and radio, and controlled all police power.<br />He used the discrimination against Jews as a symbol of trying to reach German roots and culture.<br />
  16. 16. World war IIchapter 21<br />WWII started individually in Europe and Asia, for similar reason of dissatisfaction of the arrangements internationally resolved from WWI.<br />WWII in Asia began with the struggle power between China and Japan. The Allies (The United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union) entered after the attack on Pearl Harbor. This jump started the global struggle of power and war, The Allies vs. the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan).<br />After the devastating war, The Marshall Plan was instituted in order for Europe to recover and rehabilitate their economies and lands.<br />
  17. 17. Communism, A cold WarChapter 22<br />Communism was extended from the Soviet Union into China, Korea, and Vietnam after WWII this globalized the cold war. <br />The United States was threatened by the take over and influence of Communism. <br />Fidel Castro came to power in 1959 in the Soviet Union, his nationalization of American assets provoked great U.S. hostility and efforts to overthrow his regime. <br />Securing nuclear missiles in Cuba Castro believed this would stop U.S action against Castro. <br />U.S. armies blockaded the island and a compromise was exchanged.<br />
  18. 18. Nuclear threatschapter 22<br />During this time of the Cuban missile crisis, scientists actually discussed the possible distinction of the human species because of nuclear missiles. <br />The American monopoly on these weapons in WWII jump-started the Soviet Union’s efforts to acquire them and in 1949 they succeeded. <br />A single bomb could destroy an entire major city in the world within an instant.<br />
  19. 19. Communism – The Fallchapter 22<br />Communism reached it’s greatest heights in the 1970s with it’s most expansion. Few people could guess that within just two decades most of communism experiments would be gone.<br />The fall of communism can be attributed to no economic growth to catch up with the more advanced capitalist countries. The second failure was morally. Stalin’s terror and the gulag in the Soviet Union, Mao’s Cultural Revolution in China, and something close to genocide in Cambodia, all trying to claim to moral superiority over capitalist societies was wearing on the people.<br />
  20. 20. Decolonization chapter 23<br />In the second half of the twentieth century, with pressure form the nationalist movements, Europe’s Asian and African empires dissolved into dozens of new independent states.<br />Why did this happen?<br />Christianity and material progress helped with the realities of colonial racism, exploitation, and poverty.<br />Ideals of national self-determination, which was at odds with the possession of colonies that were denied their own nationalistic character.<br />There was a powerful drive of nationalism, which now played a role in disintegration<br />
  21. 21. India - independent but split chapter 23<br />India was among the first colonies to gain freedom from Britain rule and provided as a model and inspiration for other colonies.<br />It formed, into two separate independent countries: a Muslim Pakistan, and a Hindu India. Dividing it ended in the death of over a million of people trying to get to Pakistan or India to join their religious companions.<br />
  22. 22. Politics: Africa vs. Indiachapter 23 <br />In India, Western style democracy took place, which included regular elections, multiple parties, liberties, and peaceful changes within the government. This has been going on pretty much since they have received their independence.<br />Britain handed over power gradually to India so they were able to sort out leadership and politics, whereas in Africa it was a different story.<br />Although Africa has struggled through a long period of economic disappointment, class resentments, and ethnic conflict, this came to support for the democracies of the early independence era. Since the early 1980s a new western-style democracy has brought on popular movements and new constitutions to Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, and Zambia.<br />
  23. 23. Reglobalizationchapter 24<br />Globalization, recovering from the 1930s and the world wars.<br />Foreign direct investment: a company in a certain country (let’s say the U.S.) opens us a factory in China or Mexico. Investments such as this exploded after 1960, as companies in rich countries would take advantage of cheap labor, tax breaks, and looser regulations in developing countries.<br />International credit cards: allowed for easier transferring of money across national borders<br />Transnational corporations (TNCs): huge global businesses which produced goods or delivery services simultaneously in many countries. (For example: Mattel Corporation produced Barbie, which was produced in factories located in Malaysia, China, plastic and hair from Taiwan and Japan, and cotton cloth from China, and distribution centers were in Hong Kong sold to 150 countries by 1999.<br />
  24. 24. American “dominance”chapter 24<br />As America was certainly an “empire of production” after the cold war, they were also unchecked by any equivalent power militarily, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.<br />After the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, the United States attacked Afghanistan (where al-Queda instigators of the attack had been sheltered), then Iraq (2003, where Saddam Hussein allegedly had been developing weapons of mass destruction).<br />Without another major power nation, The U.S. could act without fearing to bring conflict onto the world stage. However establishing peace within these deeply damaged Muslim countries proved to be a more difficult task then expected.<br />
  25. 25. Keep the globe greenChapter 24<br />During the past few decades a huge environmentalist movement has been under way. The fear of global warming is a major threat to our planet.<br />Carbon dioxide emissions is the chief human contribution to global warming. It is distributed evenly across the planet, but the industrialized countries have been largely responsible for those emission during the twentieth century. <br />The unequal emissions has prompted controversy between the countries of the Global North and South about who should make the sacrifices required to address the problem of global warming.<br />