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  • 2. EDITED BY-
  • 3. Use Of Wood For Construction
    Wood has been an important construction material for building shelters, houses and boats.
    Nearly all boats were made out of wood until the late 19th century, and wood remains in common use today in boat construction.
    In buildings made of other materials, wood will still be found as a supporting material, especially in roof construction, in interior doors and their frames, and as exterior cladding.
    Wood is also commonly used as shuttering material to form the mould into which concrete is poured during reinforced concrete construction.
  • 4. Use Of Wood For Engineering
    Wood used in construction includes products such as glued laminated timber (glulam), laminated veneer lumber (LVL), parallam and I-joists.
    They may also be selected for specific projects such as public swimming pools or ice rinks where the wood will not deteriorate in the presence of certain chemicals.
    Wood unsuitable for construction in its native form may be broken down mechanically (into fibers or chips) or chemically (into cellulose) and used as a raw material for other building materials such as chipboard, engineered wood, hardboard, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), oriented strand board (OSB).
  • 5. Next generation wood product
    Further developments include new lignin glue applications, recyclable food packaging, rubber tire replacement applications, anti-bacterial medical agents, and high strength fabrics or composites.
    As scientists and engineers further learn and develop new techniques to extract various components from wood, or alternatively to modify wood, for example by adding components to wood, new more advanced products will appear on the marketplace.
  • 6. Furniture and Utensils
    Wood has always been used extensively for furniture, including chairs and beds. Also for tool handles and cutlery, such as chopsticks, toothpicks, and other utensils, like the wooden spoon.
  • 7.
  • 8. Hardwoods
  • 9. Softwoods
  • 10.
  • 11. Wood Glues
    Glue is an adhesive substance used to bind or fasten items together.
    There are different types of craft glue to suit the content and weight of the materials used across a broad range of crafts.
    Cyanoacrylates- Available in several widely-known brands, such as Super Glue and Instant Krazy Glue, cyanoacrylates create instant, strong bonds between non-porous materials, such as metal, plastic, and rubber. This adhesive is toxic and should be handled with care.
    Foam Craft Glue- This craft glue is specially formulated to adhere colorful foam craft sheets to each other, as well as to join fabric, paper, plastic, cardboard, and wood.
  • 12. Glitter Glue- Available in a squeeze bottle or a pen dispenser, this craft glue features both bright colors and glitter, making it useful for decoration as well as adhesion. It will stick to paper, papier-mâché, and wood. Hot Glue- Hot glue is a craft glue that comes in a solid stick form specially made to be heated and applied in an instrument called a hot-glue gun. There are high- and low-temperature hot glues, including a low-temperature foam glue. Powdered Glue- This craft glue is stored in a powder form that the user mixes with water when it is needed. This allows the user to control the thickness of the glue, depending on the task at hand.White Glue- This is a clear-drying glue. Some formulas are toxic, but non-toxic varieties are also available. It is useful for both porous and semi-porous surfaces.
  • 13. Some common wood glues
  • 14.
  • 15. Hammers
    A claw hammer is one of the most common types of hammers. The handle is relatively long and the head intersects the handle at the top. One end of the head has a flat section, perfect for driving nails. The other end of the head curves and forms a v-shaped split claw, perfect for removing nails from a surface.
    A framing hammer is perfect from framing a house. It usually has a heavy head, long handle, and a milled face that allow it to drive long nails into lumber with ease. Sometimes a framing hammer will have a portion of the head that is magnetized. Thus, the nail can be driven into the wood quickly and only uses one hand to do so. It has a straight claw that can rip apart lumber and extract nails.
  • 16. A ball-peen hammer is used most commonly in metal work. The head has a round ball or hemisphere at each end. It is most commonly used to peen welded metal, to expand copper roves, and to shape and set rivets. It is perfect for chiseling, as well. A sledgehammer has a large head that is usually designed of metal. Because it is so large, it is able to apply great force to a large area. The head can weigh over six pounds (2.7 kg) and the handle can be over three feet (.92 m) long. It usually takes two hands to heave the sledgehammer and swing it into the object. A sledgehammer is most commonly used for construction work and police work, such as knocking down drywall, brick walls, or barricaded doors. They can also be used to drive a fence post into the land.
  • 17. Chisels
    A cold chiselis a tool made of tempered steel used for cutting 'cold' metals, meaning that they are not used in conjunction with heating torches, forges, etc. Cold chisels are used to remove waste metal when a very smooth finish is not required or when the work cannot be done easily with other tools, such as a hacksaw, file, bench shears or power tools.
    A hot chisel is used to cut metal that has been heated in a forge to soften the metal. One type of hot chisel is the hardy chisel, which is used in an anvil hardy hole with the cutting edge oriented up. The hot workpiece cut is then placed over the chisel and struck with a hammer. The hammer drives the workpiece into the chisel, which allows it to be snapped off with a pair of tongs.
  • 18. Masonry chisels are typically heavy, with a relatively dull head that wedges and breaks, rather than cuts. Normally used as a demolition tool, they may be mounted on a hammer drill, jack hammer, or hammered manually, usually with a heavy hammer of three pounds or more.Stone chisels are used to carve or cut stone, bricks or concrete slabs. To cut, as opposed to carve, a brick bolster is used; this has a wide, flat blade that is tapped along the cut line to produce a groove, then hit hard in the centre to crack the stone. Sculptors use a spoon chisel, which is bent, with the bezel (cutting edge) on both sides. To increase the force, stone chisels are often hit with club hammers, a heavier type of hammer. A plugging chisel has a tapered edge for cleaning out hardened mortar. The chisel is held with one hand and struck with a hammer. The direction of the taper in the blade determines if the chisel cuts deep or runs shallow along the joint.
  • 19. Saws
    Saws, like all tools, come in different types for different uses. To get the results you desire, it is important to select the correct saw for the job. While power saws are popular, they are also expensive.
    Crosscut and ripsaws have the same shape and are made for cutting wood. But the ripsaw's teeth are coarser. If you are looking for a smoother cut, go with the crosscut. Both work the same way. Position the wood on a sawhorse, or stable surface, and use a push/pulling motion to cut the wood. Both saws will cut the wood on the push motion and clean the sawdust out during the pulling motion.
    The backsaw offers smooth, precise cuts from a rectangular blade. Many carpenters use the backsaw to cut on a miter box. The miter box allows carpenters to make precise 45-degree or 90-degree angles. The backsaw cuts the same way as the crosscut saw, with a push/pull motion.
  • 20. The coping saw is likely the most versatile saw used for design or decoration. The saw is thin and removable. It is placed between a frame, and pinned in. This allows you to do delicate work. The compass saw looks like a thin, pointed ripsaw. It is used the same way, except in tight or straight places, like walls or keyholes. A straight-handled compass saw will cut on the pull stroke while a piston-grip saw will cut on the push stroke. The hacksawis a multi-purpose saw. It can be used on metal or plastic and can be used from almost any angle. It has a fairly small blade that is positioned by pins, so it can be turned in different directions. You can also replace the blade for harder or softer surfaces. The more teeth in the blade, the harder material the blade can cut.
  • 21. Screwdrivers
    The Phillips screwdriver has a crossed tip. It is used to drive Phillips screws, whose heads are imprinted with an X shape.
    The standard or flat-head screwdriver looks just like the Phillips, with the exception of the tip; instead of having a cross or X shape, the flat-head screwdriver has a single blade. It is used for screws whose heads are imprinted with a straight line.
    Universal screwdrivers work on both Phillips and flat-head screws of varying sizes. They have a common handle, then a series of interchangeable bits (tips) that the user can take in and out depending on the needs of the job. Ratcheting
    Ratcheting screwdrivers have a handy modification. Ratcheting handles are designed for speed, so instead of turning a screw then adjusting your hand to turn it again, you merely repeat the same turning motion in rapid succession.
  • 22. Ratcheting screwdrivers have a handy modification. Ratcheting handles are designed for speed, so instead of turning a screw then adjusting your hand to turn it again, you merely repeat the same turning motion in rapid succession. Robertson screwdrivers are used to drive screws with a squared tip. Star screwdrivers, as the name suggests, are used to drive screws with star-imprinted tips. Sometimes screws are hard to reach with a regular straight screwdriver. Offset screwdrivers are bent in different shapes (such as an L or Z shape) to reach screws in tight or awkward spaces.
  • 23. Some Common Woodworking Tools
  • 24. Some Wooden Prosthesis And orsthesis
  • 25. Wood Patterns
  • 26. Bibliography
  • 27. THE END