Achievement gaps among different groups of students have haunted reformers searching for equal educational opportunities for all students (Kozol, 1991; Hilliard, 2000; Lomax, West, Harmon, Viator, & Madaus, 1995).
Intelligence and achievement (Hilliard, 2003; Lomax, et al., 1994).
Traditional versus Nontraditional Instructional Practices
Educators desiring more for their students than a proficiency score are viewed as nontraditional thinkers in the current direction of educational policy (Doherty & Hilberg, 2007).
The repercussions associated with not meeting NCLB requirements reinforce instructional practices that increase students ’ scores on the yearly summative assessment (Liston, Whitcomb, & Borko, 2007; McMillian, 2003).
Language and discussion reflect a significant portion of student achievement (Vygotsky, 1978; Graves, 2007).
The Need for Creativity and Vocabulary Instruction
Complexity aids students ’ comprehension (Williamson, Bondy, Langly, & Mayne, 2005; Hurren, et al., 2006).
Creative production involves fluency, originality, and elaboration of ideas (Mouchiroud & Lubart, 2001; Wu & Chiou, 2008).
Fluency, originality, and elaboration are necessary for vocabulary development (Graves, 2007).
Variety of contexts aids students ’ comprehension (National Research Council [NRC], 2000, p. 51-78).
Creativity provides a framework that could serve as a way to impact student achievement on a summative assessment while also attending to the learner ’s educational needs regardless of race or socioeconomic background (Ford, Moore, & Milner, 2005; Tieso, 2005; Respress & Lutfi, 2006).
The combination of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration have become widely accepted as one way of defining and measuring creativity (Wang & Horng, 2002; Russo, 2004; Cramond, Matthews-Morgan, Bandalos, & Zuo, 2005; Matud, Rodriguez, & Grande, 2007).