Thyroid

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Thyroid

  1. 1. THYROID GLAND Megha Naik, Batch 12- PGDCR Date : 14.12.12
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Table of Contents  Why is Thyroid Gland important?  Anatomy  Physiology  Functions of thyroid hormones  How are Thyroid hormones regulated?  Disorders of Gland  Hypothyroidism  Hyperthyroidism  Summary
  3. 3. WHY IS THYROID GLANDIMPORTANT ? Secretions of the Thyroid gland control:  Body’s Metabolism  Growth  Development Also affects : Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System and Reproductive System.
  4. 4. ANATOMY  Butterfly-shaped organ,  composed of two cone- like lobes or wings connected via the isthmus,  Lies on the anterior side of the neck, lying against and around the larynx and trachea
  5. 5. PHYSIOLOGY  Endocrine Gland  Follicular Cells - secretes Thyroid hormones- T3 – triiodothyronine and T4 – Tetraiodothyronine / thyroxine  Parafollicular cells – secretes Calcitonin
  6. 6. FUNCTIONS HORMONES FUNCTIONS T3 and T4 Regulates metabolic rate Calcitonin Regulates calcium and phosphate levels in blood.
  7. 7. HOW ARE THYROID HORMONESREGULATED? Controlled by :  Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone  Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Regulated by :  Negative feedback mechanism
  8. 8. DISORDERS OF THYROID GLAND  Hypothyroidism  Hyperthyroidism
  9. 9. HYPOTHYROIDISM Reasons Effects Treatment  Hashimoto  Hormone  Goiter disease, replacement  Myxedema Therapy  Iodine  Cretinism  Levothyroxin Deficiency,  Pituitary e (T4)  Liothyronine Insufficiency,  Surgical (T3) removal of thyroid gland
  10. 10. HYPERTHYROIDISM Reasons Effects Treatment  Grave’s  Thyroid  Grave’s disease, Inhibitors, Disease  Radioactive  Tumors,  Exopthalmos iodine,  Thyroiditis,  Gluco-  Thyroid Storm, corticoids,  Surgical removal
  11. 11. Summary  Endocrine gland located in the anterior neck.  Primary function is to regulate body’s metabolic rate.  Deficiency of the thyroid hormones causes Goiter,Myxedema, Cretinism.  Hypersecretion causes Grave’s Disease and Exopthalmos
  12. 12. References  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphy  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid  http://images.yourdictionary.com/thyroid-gland
  13. 13. QUESTIONS??
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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