digestive system

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digestive system

  1. 1. The Digestive System<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Digestion<br />Processing of food (Types)<br /><ul><li>Chemical
  3. 3. Catabolic reactions
  4. 4. Enzymatic hydrolysis
  5. 5. Carbohydrate
  6. 6. Protein
  7. 7. Lipid
  8. 8. Mechanical (physical)</li></ul>Chew<br />Tear<br />Grind<br />Mash<br />Mix<br />
  9. 9. 3<br />Digestion<br />Phases<br /><ul><li>Ingestion
  10. 10. Movement
  11. 11. Digestion
  12. 12. Absorption
  13. 13. Further digestion</li></li></ul><li>4<br />Digestive System Organization<br />Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract (Alimentary canal)<br />Tube within a tube<br />Direct link/path between organs<br />Structures<br /><ul><li>Jejenum
  14. 14. kIleum
  15. 15. Cecum
  16. 16. Ascending colon
  17. 17. Transverse colon</li></ul>Mouth<br />Oral Cavity<br />Pharynx<br />Esophagus<br />Stomach<br />Duedenum<br />
  18. 18. 5<br />Digestive System Organization<br />Descending colon<br />Sigmoid colon<br />Rectum<br />Anus<br />Accessory structures<br />Not in tube path<br />Organs<br />Teeth<br />Tongue<br />Salivary glands<br />Liver<br />Gall bladder<br />Pancreas<br />
  19. 19. 6<br />Anatomy of the Mouth and Throat<br />
  20. 20. 7<br />Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth<br />
  21. 21. 8<br />Dorsal Surface of the Tongue<br />
  22. 22. 9<br />The Major Salivary Glands<br />
  23. 23. 10<br />Deglutition (swallowing)<br />Sequence<br />Voluntary stage<br />Push food to back of mouth<br />Pharyngeal stage<br />Raise<br />Soft palate<br />Larynx + hyoid<br />Tongue to soft palate<br />Esophageal stage<br />Contract pharyngeal muscles<br />Open esophagus<br />Start peristalsis<br />
  24. 24. 11<br />Deglutition (swallowing)<br />Control<br />Nerves<br />Glossopharyngeal<br />Vagus<br />Accessory<br />Brain stem<br />Deglutition center <br />Medulla oblongata<br />Pons<br />Disorders<br />Dysphagia<br />Aphagia<br />
  25. 25. 12<br />Esophagus<br />Usually collapsed (closed)<br />3 constrictions<br />Aortic arch<br />Left primary bronchus<br />Diaphragm <br />Surrounded by<br />SNS plexus<br />Blood vessels<br />Functions<br />Secrete mucous<br />Transport food<br />
  26. 26. 13<br />Peristalsis and Segmentation<br />
  27. 27. 14<br />Esophagus<br />Sphincters<br />Upper<br />Lower<br />Abnormalities<br />Achalasia<br />Atresia<br />Hernia<br />Barret’s esophagus<br />Esophageal varices<br />
  28. 28. 15<br />Stomach<br />Usually “J” shaped<br />Left side, anterior to the spleen<br />Mucous membrane<br />G cells – make gastrin<br />Goblet cells – make mucous<br />Gastric pit – Oxyntic gland – Parietal cells – Make HCl<br />Chief cells – Zymogenic cells<br />Pepsin<br />Gastric lipase<br />
  29. 29. 16<br />Anatomy of the Stomach<br />
  30. 30. 17<br />Stomach<br />3 muscle layers<br />Oblique<br />Circular<br />Longitudinal<br />Regions<br />Cardiac sphincter<br />Fundus<br />Antrum (pylorus)<br />Pyloric sphincter<br />Vascular<br />Inner surface thrown into folds – Rugae<br />Contains enzymes that work best at pH 1-2<br />
  31. 31. 18<br />Stomach<br />Functions<br />Mix food<br />Reservoir<br />Start digestion of<br />Protein<br />Nucleic acids<br />Fats<br />Activates some enzymes<br />Destroy some bacteria<br />Makes intrinsic factor – B 12 absorption<br />Destroys some bacteria<br />Absorbs<br />Alcohol<br />Water<br />Lipophilic acid<br />B 12<br />
  32. 32. 19<br />Small Intestine<br />Extends from pyloric sphincter  ileocecal valve<br />Regions<br />Duodenum<br />Jejenum<br />Ileum<br />Movements<br />Segmentation<br />Peristalsis<br />
  33. 33. 20<br />Small Intestine<br />Histology<br />Intestinal glands – Intestinal enzymes<br />Duodenal glands – Alkaline mucous<br />Paneth cells – Lysozyme<br />Microvilli<br />Lacteals<br />Plicacircularis<br />Smooth muscle<br />Lymphatic tissue – GALT<br />Vascular<br />
  34. 34. 21<br />Small Intestine<br />Absorbs<br />80% ingested water<br />Electrolytes<br />Vitamins<br />Minerals<br />Carbonates<br />Active/facilitated transport<br />Monosaccharides<br />Proteins<br />Di-/tripeptides<br />Amino acids<br />Lipids<br />Monoglycerides<br />Fatty acids<br />Micelles<br />Chylomicrons<br />
  35. 35. 22<br />Structure of the Villi in the Small Intestine<br />
  36. 36. 23<br />Small Intestine<br />Secretes digestive enzymes<br />Peptidases<br />Amino-<br />Di-<br />Tri-<br />Sucrases<br />Maltase<br />Lactase<br />Saccharidases<br />Di-<br />Tri-<br />Lipase<br />Nucleases<br />
  37. 37. 24<br />Small Intestine<br />Control<br />Requires pancreatic enzymes & bile to complete digestion<br />
  38. 38. 25<br />Large Intestine<br />Extends from ileocecal valve to anus<br />Regions<br />Cecum – Appendix<br />Colon<br />Ascending<br />Transverse<br />Descending<br />Rectum<br />Anal canal<br />
  39. 39. 26<br />Anatomy of the Large Intestine<br />
  40. 40. 27<br />Large Intestine<br />Histology<br />No villi<br />No permanent circular folds<br />Smooth muscle<br />Taeniae coli<br />Haustra<br />Epiploic appendages<br />Otherwise like rest of Gl tract<br />
  41. 41. 28<br />Large Intestine<br />Functions<br />Mechanical digestion<br />Haustral churning<br />Peristalsis<br />Reflexes <br />Gastroileal<br />Gastrocolic<br />Chemical digestion – Bacterial digestion<br />Ferment carbohydrates<br />Protein/amino acid breakdown<br /><ul><li> Absorbs
  42. 42. More water
  43. 43. Vitamins
  44. 44. B
  45. 45. K
  46. 46. Concentrate/eliminate wastes</li></li></ul><li>29<br />Feces Formation and Defecation<br />Chyme dehydrated to form feces<br />Feces composition<br />Water<br />Inorganic salts<br />Epithelial cells<br />Bacteria<br />Byproducts of digestion<br />Defecation<br />Peristalsis pushes feces into rectum<br />Rectal walls stretch<br />Control<br />Parasympathetic<br />Voluntary<br />
  47. 47. 30<br />Liver<br />Location<br />R. Hypochondrium<br />Epigastric region<br />4 Lobes<br />Left <br />Quadrate<br />Caudate<br />Right<br />Each lobe has lobules – Contains hepatocytes – Surround sinusoids – Feed into central vein<br />
  48. 48. 31<br />Liver<br />Functions<br />Makes bile<br />Detergent – emulsifies fats<br />Release promoted by:<br />Vagus n.<br />CCK<br />Secretin<br />Contains<br />Water<br />Bile salts<br />Bile pigments<br />Electrolytes<br />Cholesterol<br />Lecithin<br />
  49. 49. 32<br />Liver<br />Detoxifies/removes<br />Drugs<br />Alcohol<br />Stores<br />Gycolgen<br />Vitamins (A, D, E, K)<br />Fe and other minerals<br />Cholesterol<br />Activates vitamin D<br />Fetal RBC production<br />Phagocytosis<br />Metabolizes absorbed food molecules<br />Carbohydrates<br />Proteins<br />Lipids<br />
  50. 50. 33<br />Liver<br />Dual blood supply<br />Hepatic portal vein<br />Direct input from small intestine<br />Hepatic artery/vein<br />Direct links to heart<br />
  51. 51. 34<br />The Duodenum and Related Organs<br />
  52. 52. 35<br />The Organs and Positions in the Abdominal Cavity<br />
  53. 53. 36<br />Structures of the Alimentary Canal<br />

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