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Tower blocks were cheap to build and provided a large number of dwellings in a small space. What were the advantages of building tower blocks?
After the Second World War, the British Government realised that due to bomb damaged, poor quality terraced housing and predicted population growth, they needed to provide more housing, especially in inner city areas.
Therefore, in the 1950s and 1960s the Government knocked down the poor quality terraces and replaced them with tower blocks.
Tower blocks were built in the inner city and on the edge of cities. The buildings in the suburbs were a mixture of low rise buildings and high rise tower blocks. tower blocks and low rise buildings in the suburbs (Roehampton, London) Inner city tower block in Spitalfields, London
The problems with tower blocks … ‘ I wake up at 6am with the sound of the couple next door shouting at each other. I can hear everything they say because the walls are so thin! I try to get out of the flat as much as possible. It is damp and mould is growing on the kitchen walls. I worry about Jake’s health. Jake is becoming hyperactive in this place. Although I try to encourage him to go out and play, there isn’t any park nearby. I am worried he will get involved with the older kids that hang around the lifts.’ Mother aged 23 ‘ I live on the eighteenth floor of a block of flats. I am 72 years old and find it difficult to get around. The lift is often broken….I am afraid to go out with all the youths hanging around the stairwell. Sometimes I feel like a prisoner in my own home!’ Grandmother aged72
The London Docklands Inner city renewal Wall Street on the Water?
The River Thames became increasingly silted and as the boats became progressively larger they found it difficult to come this far downstream (look at your atlas to check the position of the Docklands on the Thames). Therefore the docks moved downstream to places such as Tilbury.
Containerisation meant that fewer dockers were needed.
A general decline in manufacturing meant that portside industries, such as food refining, closed down.
Sub-standard and low quality housing such as tower blocks were built in the 1950s and 1960s. These were built to replace the bomb damaged housing from the Second World War.
What impact would these factors have on the migration to and from the London Docklands?
Decline of the Docklands High unemployment People have less money to spend on goods and services. How are the statements below connected? Draw a diagram to show these connections. People have more time and less money and opportunities. Less taxes and business rates are paid to the local council. The local council invests less in housing, roads and education. Young people leave school with fewer qualifications. Petty crime often increases. Vicious Circle of Poverty High unemployment
Vicious Circle of Poverty High unemployment People have less money to spend on goods and services People have more time and less money and opportunities. Less taxes and business rates are paid to the local council The local council invests less in housing, roads and education Young people leave school with fewer qualifications Petty crime often increases
1. To economically regenerate the area by primarily attracting private investment. 2. To physically regenerate the environment of the Docklands to aid the above. 3. To improve the living conditions and prospects of the community of the Docklands. Aims of the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) London Docklands Development Corporation (1981-1998)
Enterprise Zone Tower Hamlets Newham Southwark Isle of Dogs Royal Docks Canary Wharf Surrey Quays Greenwich Wapping LDDC areas – Wapping Surrey Quays Isle of Dogs Royal Docks
we are here We are looking South East from Cabot Tower. Match the labels to the photograph. Millwall Docks West India Docks River Thames A B C
The London Docklands N The Dome What direction is the camera facing? Poplar Docks camera
LDDC Timeline LDDC set up End of the LDDC DLR City Airport Enterprise Zone in Isle of Dogs boom recession IRA bomb Jubilee Extension approved (completed 2000) boom
Docklands before the LDDC 1970-1980 30,000 jobs lost 1981 50% of Docklands derelict (over 1000 hectares) unemployment 21%, male unemployment was 24%, twice the national average one third housing unsatisfactory for human habitation inadequate infrastructure of roads, rail, telephone and cable lines (the Docklands was kept deliberately inaccessible to protect the goods that were being stored)
Success or Failure? You are in charge of urban planning in Carsmouth and are considering regenerating the inner city dock area. You have decided to evaluate the LDDC urban renewal to see if you can learn from the successes and failures of this scheme. Using the evidence on the following slides, decide on the advantages and disadvantages of the LDDC project. Business Local community Transport Environment Divide your answer into the following categories :-
Environmental Change The creation of an attractive environment was an essential part of the LDDC brief. 1) Derelict land and docks were regenerated. By 1988, 600 hectares were reclaimed. 2) Parks and river/dock side paths were developed. 3) Old houses were improved and new houses were built. 4) £300 million was spent on improving utilities. Achievements Before the 1980s McDougall’s flour was processed here! Millwall Docks..
Housing Docklands Housing -The Facts *Over 50,000 new homes have been built since 1981. *8,000 local authority homes have been improved since 1981. Silvertown Urban Village Housing (built by Wimpey) comprises of 917 homes ( mostly two and three bed houses and some combined workplace homes). The development also includes 140 social housing units for rent for the Peabody Trust.
Local Authority Housing near Cross Harbour on the Isle of Dogs
Housing What does this graph tell you about the type of housing that was built in the Docklands after 1981?
Cabot Place Shopping in Canary Wharf Although shops in Cabot Place were originally exclusively geared towards the business person, the shops now include a wider range of high street stores such as ‘Gap’ and ‘Dixons’. The complex also includes various fast food outlets such as ‘Burger King’ and the supermarket ‘Tesco Metro’. The only other supermarket on the Isle of Dogs is ‘Asda’ near Cross Harbour DLR.
Look at the graph showing some of the changes in the structure of employment in the Docklands. Describe the change in employment structure. What could ‘other services’ include? The London Docklands – Local Community Financial Services
The London Docklands – Local Community Only a small proportion of the original Docklands community are employed in the financial sector. Why? Financial Services
The London Docklands – Local Community 80 Groups share more than £1million in LDDC grants Activities backed by the grants include education and training, childcare, youth work, sport, the arts and support for the homeless and work with ethnic minorities. ‘ We are delighted the Corporation is able to carry on supporting the local community’. Bob Pringle, LDDC Executive Director of Community Infrastructure. Autumn 1995 The LDDC did partly respond to the criticism that there was a mis-match of skills between the established docklands population and the jobs created. In the late 1980s the LDDC sponsored various training projects to improve the qualifications of the population. The LDDC spent £30 million on community and environmental projects .
The London Docklands – Transport Improvements The DLR opened 1987. It cost £73 million. This railway now operates a full service. However, in the late 1980s, the DLR service stopped in the evenings and had a limited service at weekends. Why was it important for the LDDC to improve the transport in order to attract new businesses to the Docklands? Why did many local residents complain that the DLR wasn’t built for them? Docklands Light Railway (DLR)
The London Docklands – Transport Improvements (STOLPORT…short take-off and landing) opened in 1987. It is situated in the Royal Docks. London City Airport
The London Docklands – Transport Improvements Roads - The Limehouse Link Bridges West India Dock The LDDC constructed bridges across the docks to improve accessibility. The Limehouse Link, which cost £450 million, was built to connect the Docklands to Central London. However, some communities were disrupted during its construction. For example, in 1990, some of the housing in Ropemakers’ Fields, Limehouse was knocked down by the construction of the Limehouse Link Tunnel.
The London Docklands – Transport Improvements Green Park Westminster Waterloo Southwark London Bridge Bermondsey Canada Water Canary Wharf Greenwich Point Canning Town West Ham Stratford Jubilee Line The Jubilee line extension was proposed. However, the line was subject to delays and was finished in 2000.
The London Docklands - Business Canary Wharf, only three miles from The City, was conceived in the 1980s as a solution to rising rents in central London. The LDDC job was to attract private investment by improving the environment and infrastructure of the area. In the 1980s, the LDDC attracted £10 of private investment for every £1 they spent. Cabot Square in Canary Wharf
Enterprise Zone (1982-1992) West India Docks Millwall Docks Enterprise Zone approximate area The Enterprise Zone was set up on the Isle of Dogs to attract new business investment. Companies that moved to the Enterprise Zone were entitled to 10 years’ rate free and a fast track planning procedure. Many of the newspaper companies, moved from Central London to the Isle of Dogs in the 1980s. What impact did this migration of companies have on parts of Central London?
View from One Canada Square towards The City The London Docklands - Business In Canary Wharf, the 5.9 million square feet of office and retail space are now leased. 28,000 people work in the whole of London Docklands (11/2000) and it is estimated that by 2005 Canary Wharf alone will have 100,000 workers. However, much of the office space in Canary Wharf remained empty until the late 1990s. The completion of the Jubilee Line in 2000 has certainly encouraged new investment in the area.
Credit Suisse First Boston Cabot Square Canary Wharf DLR West India Quay DLR Ogilvy & Mather Barclays Capital Jubilee Line Morgan Stanley Heron Quays DLR One Canada Square London Underground Ltd Financial Services Authority Barclays Capital Businesses in Canary Wharf 2/2000 River Thames One Canada Square- The Independent Telegraph Group Trinity Mirror KPMG Why would many of these jobs not suit the established population?
Two new towers, either side of One Canada Square, one for HSBC and the other for Citigroup, have been built.
A 30 storey building next to the Jubilee line station has been built. This is to be filled by Clifford Chance who is to move their 2,500 employees from The City to the Docklands in 2001.
A five storey shopping centre facing Canada Square Park is planned for 2001.
Headquarters for The Northern Trust Company, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter are to be located near Heron Quays DLR.
The Royal Docks will receive £2billion of investment in the form of new homes, retail and leisure facilities.
HSBC under construction Cabot Square Canary Wharf DLR West India Quay DLR Jubilee Line Heron Quays DLR Citibank under construction One Canada Square New business developments in Canary Wharf 2000/1 Clifford Chance under construction Morgan Stanley Dean Witter under construction The Northern Trust Company under construction