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Reflection and Refraction
 

Reflection and Refraction

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    Reflection and Refraction Reflection and Refraction Presentation Transcript

    • light SECONDARY 3 PHYSICS
    • What is Light?
      • Light is the part of the EM spectrum which we can see.
      • Light travels in straight lines called rays .
      • A bundle of rays is known as a beam of light.
      A ray A divergent beam A convergent beam A parallel beam
    • Luminous and Non-Luminous
      • Luminous objects are those that give off light on its own.
      • Example: Light bulb, Sun
      • Non-luminous objects are objects that do not give off light on its own.
      • Example: table, board, Moon
    • Reflection
      • Reflection is the bouncing of light rays off a surface.
      • We are able to see non-luminous objects as light is reflected off them.
    • Reflection Angle of incidence, i Angle of reflection, r normal Incident ray Reflectedray surface
    • Laws of Reflection
      • The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie on the same plane.
      • The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
    • Reflection for Different Surfaces
      • Regular reflection
      • On smooth surfaces
      • Diffused reflection
      • On rough surfaces
    • Properties of Image Formed by Plane Mirror
      • Same size as the object
      • Laterally inverted (left-to-right inversion)
      • Upright
      • Virtual (image cannot be caught on a screen)
      • Object distance is equal to image distance
    • Ray Diagram for Reflection Object, O observer
    • Ray Diagram for Reflection Image, I observer Object, O
    • Ray Diagram (Extended object) observer
    •  
    • Refraction
      • Refraction is the bending of light when it enters from one transparent medium into another.
      • It is caused by the different speeds of light in different media.
      • The greater the optical density of the medium, the slower the speed of light.
    • Refraction Incident ray Refracted ray Emergent ray Angle of incidence Angle of refraction normal Angle of emergence
    • Laws of Refraction
      • The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in the same plane.
      • For two particular media, the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant.
      (Snell’s Law)
    • Refractive Index
      • When light passes from vacuum (or air) into a given medium (eg. water), the constant ratio of is known as the refractive index, n , for that medium.
      Angle of incidence Angle of refraction
    • Speed and Refractive Index
      • Speed of light in vacuum = 3 x 10 8 ms -1
      • Light is found to move slower in optically denser mediums. (eg. glass and water)
    • Daily Phenomena of Refraction
      • Swimming pool and ponds appear shallower than it really is.
      • Object is at a deeper depth than where it appears to be.
      • Bent objects in liquids
    • Total Internal Reflection
      • Light ray is unable to exit a medium.
      • Occurs when
      • Ray of light passes from a denser to a less dense medium
      • Angle of incidence in the denser medium is greater than the critical angle.
      • http:// www.lightlink.com/sergey/java/java/totintrefl/index.html
    • Critical Angle
      • The angle of incidence in the optically denser medium for which the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is 90 o .
      Refractive index Critical angle