States of Consciousness        Chapter 4
Consciousness• Consciousness: All the sensations,  perceptions, memories, and feelings  you are aware of in any instant   ...
Explaining Waking          Consciousness• Stream of information resulting from the  activity of the thalamus which analyze...
Daydreaming and Fantasy• Spontaneous shifts if attention away  from the here and now into a make-  believe world• Urge to ...
Consciousness• Altered state of consciousness -  state in which there is a shift in the  quality or pattern of mental acti...
Necessity of Sleep• Circadian rhythm - a cycle of bodily rhythm that  occurs over a 24-hour period.  • “circa” – about  • ...
Circadian Cycles:         The Biological Clock• Circadian cycles are those that last “about a  day”• Circadian rhythms are...
Necessity of Sleep• Microsleeps - brief sidesteps into  sleep lasting only a few seconds.• Sleep deprivation - any signifi...
Necessity of Sleep• Adaptive theory - theory of sleep proposing that animals  and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid p...
Brain Wave Patterns• Electroencephalograph (EEG) - allows  scientists to see the brain wave activity as a  person passes t...
Stages of Sleep• Rapid eye movement (REM) - stage of  sleep in which the eyes move rapidly  under the eyelids and the pers...
The Rhythms of Sleep• Brain waves and  sleep stages  •   Stage 1  •   Stage 2  •   Stage 3  •   Stage 4  •   REM sleep
• Non-REM (NREM) Sleep: Occurs  during stages 1, 2, 3, and 4; no rapid  eye movement occurs  • Seems to help us recover fr...
Stages of Sleep• Non-REM Stage One – light sleep.  • May experience:  • hypnagogic images – vivid visual events.  • hypnic...
Click to see an   Sleep Cycle                                         awake brain.Click dude for alphaWaves.              ...
Stage 1• Kind of awake and  kind of asleep.• Only lasts a few  minutes, and you  usually only  experience it once  a night...
Stage 2                                             • More Theta Waves                                               that ...
Stages 3 and 4• Slow wave sleep.• You produce Delta  waves.• If awoken you will  be very groggy. • Vital for restoring   b...
REM Sleep                                       • Rapid Eye                                         Movement              ...
REM Sleep and Dreaming• If wakened during REM sleep, almost always report a  dream.• REM rebound - increased amounts of RE...
Some Sleep Disorders
Insomnia• Persistent  problems falling  asleep• Effects 10% of the  population• Primary versus  Secondary  Insomnia
Narcolepsy                                                  • Suffer from                                                 ...
•   A person stops                   Sleep Apnea  breathing during  their sleep.• Wake up  momentarily, gasps  for air, th...
Night Terrors       • Wake up screaming         and have no idea         why.       • Not a nightmare.       • Most common...
Somnambulism• Sleep Walking• Most often occurs  during the first few  hours of sleeping and  in stage 4 (deep  sleep).• If...
Dreams
Freud’s Theory of Dreams• Dreams are a  roadway into our  unconscious.• Manifest Content  (storyline)• Latent Content  (un...
Activation-Synthesis Theory• Physiological  View /Biological  Theory.• Our Cerebral  Cortex is trying to  interpret random...
Information-Processing Theory               • Dreams are a way to                 deal with the                 stresses o...
Cognitive View• Two facts about REM sleep are crucial in →→  understanding nature of dreams     1) During REM sleep areas ...
Hypnosis
Hypnosis• Altered state of  consciousness?• Posthypnotic  suggestion• Posthypnotic  amnesia
Hypnotic Theories        Role Theory                      State Theory• Hypnosis is NOT an altered       • Hypnosis is an ...
Dissociation Theory          • We voluntarily            divide our            consciousness up.          • Ice Water     ...
• Neo-dissociation      • Theory of  theory : suggests       dissociated control:  that hypnotized         suggests that  ...
Some facts• Certain findings suggest that some people  produce actual changes in perception and  states of consciousness. ...
Drugs
Psychoactive Drugs• Psychoactive drugs - drugs that alter thinking,  perception, and memory.• Physical Dependence  • Toler...
Drugs• Our brain is  protected by a layer  of capillaries called  the blood-brain  barrier.• The drugs that are  small eno...
Drugs are either….If a drug is used often,  a tolerance is  created for the  drug.Thus you need more of  the drug to feel ...
Stimulants      • Speed up body        processes.      • More powerful ones        (like cocaine) give        people feeli...
Depressants• Depressants - drugs that  decrease the functioning  of the nervous system.• Slows down body  processes.• Alco...
Alcohol    • More than 86 billion      dollars are spent      annually on alcoholic      beverages.    • Alcohol is involv...
Hallucinogens        • Psychedelics        • Causes changes in          perceptions of reality        • LSD, peyote,      ...
Opiates• Has depressive and  hallucinogenic  qualities.• Derived from poppy  plant.• Morphine, heroin,  methadone and  cod...
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consciousness

  1. 1. States of Consciousness Chapter 4
  2. 2. Consciousness• Consciousness: All the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are aware of in any instant • Waking Consciousness: Normal, clear, organized, alert awareness• Consciousness - a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment.
  3. 3. Explaining Waking Consciousness• Stream of information resulting from the activity of the thalamus which analyzes and interprets information• Consciousness may only be the “tip of the iceberg” that includes unconscious mental activities• Consciousness is also viewed as an adaptation allowing us to get along with others in our group (humans)
  4. 4. Daydreaming and Fantasy• Spontaneous shifts if attention away from the here and now into a make- believe world• Urge to daydream peaks about every 90 minutes• Daydreams may provide stress relief and encourage creativity
  5. 5. Consciousness• Altered state of consciousness - state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness.• Awareness that is distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking consciousness
  6. 6. Necessity of Sleep• Circadian rhythm - a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period. • “circa” – about • “diem” – day• Hypothalamus – tiny section of the brain that influences the glandular system. • suprachiasmatic nucleus – deep within the hypothalamus; the internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep. • Tells pineal gland to secrete melatonin, which makes a person feel sleepy.
  7. 7. Circadian Cycles: The Biological Clock• Circadian cycles are those that last “about a day”• Circadian rhythms are governed by an area of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)• Controls body temperature, metabolism, blood pressure, hormone levels, and hunger• Jet lag is the result of desynchronization of the circadian rhythm
  8. 8. Necessity of Sleep• Microsleeps - brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds.• Sleep deprivation - any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability.
  9. 9. Necessity of Sleep• Adaptive theory - theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active.• Restorative theory - theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage.
  10. 10. Brain Wave Patterns• Electroencephalograph (EEG) - allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered. • Alpha waves - brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep. • Theta waves - brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep. • Delta waves - long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep.
  11. 11. Stages of Sleep• Rapid eye movement (REM) - stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream.• NREM (non-REM) sleep - any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM.
  12. 12. The Rhythms of Sleep• Brain waves and sleep stages • Stage 1 • Stage 2 • Stage 3 • Stage 4 • REM sleep
  13. 13. • Non-REM (NREM) Sleep: Occurs during stages 1, 2, 3, and 4; no rapid eye movement occurs • Seems to help us recover from daily fatigue• Rapid Eye Movements (REM): Associated with dreaming; sleep is very light • Body is very still during REM sleep • Lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep is called “REM Behavioral Disorder”
  14. 14. Stages of Sleep• Non-REM Stage One – light sleep. • May experience: • hypnagogic images – vivid visual events. • hypnic jerk – knees, legs, or whole body jerks.• Non-REM Stage Two – sleep spindles (brief bursts of activity only lasting a second or two).• Non-REM Stages Three and Four – delta waves pronounced. • Deep sleep – when 50%+ of waves are delta waves.
  15. 15. Click to see an Sleep Cycle awake brain.Click dude for alphaWaves. • Use an EEG machine to measure stages of sleep. • When you are the onset of sleep you experience alpha waves. • Produces mild hallucinations, like a feeling of falling.
  16. 16. Stage 1• Kind of awake and kind of asleep.• Only lasts a few minutes, and you usually only experience it once a night.• Your brain produces Theta Waves.
  17. 17. Stage 2 • More Theta Waves that get progressively slower. • Begin to show sleepClick image to see Stage Two of sleep. spindles…short bursts of rapid brain waves.
  18. 18. Stages 3 and 4• Slow wave sleep.• You produce Delta waves.• If awoken you will be very groggy. • Vital for restoring body’s growth hormones and good Click boys to see deep sleep.From stage 4, your brain begins to speed up and you overall3,health.go to stage then 2….then ……
  19. 19. REM Sleep • Rapid Eye Movement • Often called paradoxical sleep. • Dreams usually occur in REM.Click boy dreaming to see REM sleep. • Body is essentially paralyzed.
  20. 20. REM Sleep and Dreaming• If wakened during REM sleep, almost always report a dream.• REM rebound - increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights.• Nightmares - bad dreams occurring during REM sleep.• REM behavior disorder - a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares.
  21. 21. Some Sleep Disorders
  22. 22. Insomnia• Persistent problems falling asleep• Effects 10% of the population• Primary versus Secondary Insomnia
  23. 23. Narcolepsy • Suffer from sleeplessness and may fall asleep at unpredictable or inappropriateClick above to see Skeeter the narcoleptic dog. times. • Directly into REM sleep • Less than .001 % of population.
  24. 24. • A person stops Sleep Apnea breathing during their sleep.• Wake up momentarily, gasps for air, then falls back asleep.• Very common, especially in heavy males.• Can be fatal.
  25. 25. Night Terrors • Wake up screaming and have no idea why. • Not a nightmare. • Most common in children (boys) between ages 2-8.
  26. 26. Somnambulism• Sleep Walking• Most often occurs during the first few hours of sleeping and in stage 4 (deep sleep).• If you have had night terrors, you are more likely to sleep walk when older.
  27. 27. Dreams
  28. 28. Freud’s Theory of Dreams• Dreams are a roadway into our unconscious.• Manifest Content (storyline)• Latent Content (underlying meaning)
  29. 29. Activation-Synthesis Theory• Physiological View /Biological Theory.• Our Cerebral Cortex is trying to interpret random electrical activity we have while sleeping.• That is why dreams sometimes make no
  30. 30. Information-Processing Theory • Dreams are a way to deal with the stresses of everyday life. • We tend to dream more when we are more stressed.
  31. 31. Cognitive View• Two facts about REM sleep are crucial in →→ understanding nature of dreams 1) During REM sleep areas of the cerebral cortex that play a role in waking perception, thought and regulating of motor processes are highly active 2) Yet, during REM sleep there is massive inhibition of input from sensory systems and muscles• As a result, the cortical structures or systems that normally regulate perception & thought have only their own activity as input. This activity forms the basis for the imagery and ideas in dreams
  32. 32. Hypnosis
  33. 33. Hypnosis• Altered state of consciousness?• Posthypnotic suggestion• Posthypnotic amnesia
  34. 34. Hypnotic Theories Role Theory State Theory• Hypnosis is NOT an altered • Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. state of consciousness.• Different people have various state of hypnotic • Dramatic health suggestibility. benefits• A social phenomenon where people want to believe( social • It works for pain best. learning  they experience what they expect to experience through learning)• Work better on people with richer fantasy lives.
  35. 35. Dissociation Theory • We voluntarily divide our consciousness up. • Ice Water Experiment. • We have a hidden observer, a level of us that is always aware.
  36. 36. • Neo-dissociation • Theory of theory : suggests dissociated control: that hypnotized suggests that individuals enter a hypnotism weakens an altered state of control of the central consciousness in function over other which cognitive and consciousness is behavioral divided subsystems, letting these subsystems to be invoked by the hypnotist’s suggestions.
  37. 37. Some facts• Certain findings suggest that some people produce actual changes in perception and states of consciousness. But this is common amongst people who are highly suggestible / susceptible to hypnotism.• Evidence is more for the social cognitive/ social learning view. i.e. reaction to hypnosis seem to stem from primarily from their beliefs and expectations about it.
  38. 38. Drugs
  39. 39. Psychoactive Drugs• Psychoactive drugs - drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory.• Physical Dependence • Tolerance – more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect. • Withdrawal - physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems.• Psychological dependence - the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being.
  40. 40. Drugs• Our brain is protected by a layer of capillaries called the blood-brain barrier.• The drugs that are small enough to pass through are called psychoactive drugs.
  41. 41. Drugs are either….If a drug is used often, a tolerance is created for the drug.Thus you need more of the drug to feel the same effect.If you stop using a drug you can develop withdrawal symptoms.
  42. 42. Stimulants • Speed up body processes. • More powerful ones (like cocaine) give people feelings of invincibility.
  43. 43. Depressants• Depressants - drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system.• Slows down body processes.• Alcohol• Anxiolytics (barbiturates and tranquilizers)
  44. 44. Alcohol • More than 86 billion dollars are spent annually on alcoholic beverages. • Alcohol is involved in 60% of ALL crimes. • Alcohol is involved in over 70% of sexually related crimes. • Is it worth the cost?
  45. 45. Hallucinogens • Psychedelics • Causes changes in perceptions of reality • LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana. • Reverse tolerance or synergistic effect
  46. 46. Opiates• Has depressive and hallucinogenic qualities.• Derived from poppy plant.• Morphine, heroin, methadone and codeine.• All these drugs cross the placental barrier….teratogens.

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