Ch16 outline


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Ch16 outline

  1. 1. Safety and Health in the Workplace Chapter 16
  2. 2. Introduction• Occupational disease • Occupational illness• Occupational injury
  3. 3. Scope of the Problem• 14 workers die each day in U.S. from injury sustained at work• Fatalities have declined significantly over past 100 years• Reporting of illness versus injury• Economic impact
  4. 4. Importance of Occupational Safety and Health to the Community• Industry is a subset of the larger community• Affects workplace and those outside the worksite• Workers themselves are a community
  5. 5. History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems• Before 1970 • Industrial revolution • State legislation • Child labor laws • Worker’s compensation laws • Federal legislation • Bureau of Labor-1884 • Many laws from 1908-1970 • Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
  6. 6. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHAct)• To ensure employers in private sector furnish each employee a workplace free from recognized hazards causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm• Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) established to enforce OSHAct• NIOSH
  7. 7. Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Diseases, and Deaths• Recent trends • Decline in number of workplace injuries and illnesses reported in private industry since 1992• Goods-producing industries higher rate of nonfatal injury than service-producing • Highest – agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting • Highest service-producing – education and health care
  8. 8. Nonfatal Workplace Injury and Illness Incidence Rates by Industry, 2008
  9. 9. Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace• Minor injuries – cuts, bruises, abrasions, minor burns• Major injuries – amputations, fractures, severe lacerations, eye losses, acute poisonings, severe burns• Reported by many sources
  10. 10. Fatal Work-Related Injuries• Highway incidents leading cause • Falls, being struck by object, homicide• Industries with highest rates of fatal occupational injuries • Agriculture • Forestry • Fishing and hunting • Mining • Transportation and warehousing
  11. 11. Manner of Fatal Work Injuries, 2008
  12. 12. Nonfatal Work-Related Injuries• Males account for majority of treatment• Younger workers highest nonfatal workplace injury/illness rate• Disabling injuries and illnesses • Repeat trauma disorders
  13. 13. Characteristics of Workers Involved in Work-Related Injuries• Age• Gender• Poverty and race• Geographic differences in workplace injuries• Temporal variations in workplace injuries• Workplace injuries by industry and occupation • Fatal and nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses • Agricultural safety and health
  14. 14. Hours Worked and Fatal Work Injuries by Gender, 2008
  15. 15. Most Dangerous Jobs in 2008
  16. 16. Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace• Four fundamental tasks • Anticipation • Recognition • Evaluation • Control
  17. 17. Workplace Violence: Intentional Workplace Injuries• 1.7 million victims each year• Homicides third leading cause of workplace fatalities • Second leading cause of workplace death for women• Some occupations more dangerous than others
  18. 18. Categories of Workplace Violence• Criminal intent (Type I)• Customer/client (Type II)• Worker-on-worker (Type III)• Personal relationship (Type IV)
  19. 19. Risk Factors for Workplace Violence• Working with the public• Working around money or valuables• Working alone• Working late at night• Jobs with higher risk • Taxicab drivers • Jobs in liquor stores • Detective and protective services
  20. 20. Prevention Strategies• Environmental designs• Administrative controls• Behavior strategies
  21. 21. Occupational Illnesses and Disorders• Illness more difficult to acquire data on than injury• Difficult to link occupational exposure• Some conditions slow to develop and difficult to associate with the workplace
  22. 22. Types of Occupational Illnesses• Musculoskeletal disorders• Skin diseases and disorders• Noise-induced hearing loss• Respiratory disorders • Pneumoconiosis • Asbestosis • Silicosis • Byssinosis
  23. 23. Other Work-Related Diseases and Disorders• Poisonings • Agricultural workers• Infections • Health care industry • Hazardous drugs• Anxiety, stress, neurotic disorders
  24. 24. Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and Disorders• Requires vigilance of employer and employee• Agent-host-environment model• Identification and evaluation of agents• Standard setting for the handling of and exposure to causative agents• Elimination or substitution of causative factors• Engineering controls• Environmental monitoring• Medical screenings
  25. 25. Resources for the Prevention of Workplace Injuries and Diseases• Occupational safety and health professionals • Safety engineers • Certified safety professionals • Health physicists • Industrial hygienists • Occupational physicians • Occupational health nurses
  26. 26. Occupational Safety and Health Programs• Preplacement examinations• Disease prevention programs• Safety programs• Worksite health promotion programs• Employee assistance programs
  27. 27. Discussion Questions• How can employees advocate for safer workplaces?• What occupational injury prevention strategies can prove to be most effective in the coming decades?