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Ch14 outline


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  • 1. Community Healthand the Environment Chapter 14
  • 2. Introduction• Health is affected by the quality of the environment • Includes air we breathe, water we drink, food we eat, communities in which we live• Regulatory measures address environmental assaults• Environmental health• Environmental hazards
  • 3. The Air We Breathe• Outdoor air pollution• Regulation of outdoor air quality• Indoor air pollutants• Protecting indoor air
  • 4. Outdoor Air Pollution• Air pollution – contamination of air by substances in great enough amounts to harm living organisms • Major sources in U.S. – transportation, electrical power plants fueled by oil and coal, industry• Primary pollutants• Secondary pollutants • Phytochemical smog vs. industrial smog• Ozone• Thermal inversion
  • 5. Thermal Inversion
  • 6. Regulation of Outdoor Air Quality• Clean Air Act (CAA)• National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs)• Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)• Criteria pollutants• Air Quality Index (AQI)• Greenhouse gases
  • 7. Criteria Pollutants
  • 8. Air Quality Index
  • 9. Indoor Air Pollutants• Come from a variety of sources • Asbestos • Biogenic pollutants • Combustion by-products • Volatile organic compounds • Formaldehyde • Radon • Environmental tobacco smoke • Mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke
  • 10. Air Pollution Sources in the Home
  • 11. Protecting Indoor Air• People spend 50-90% of time indoors• Energy crisis of 1970s lead to tight ventilation • Sick building syndrome• No federal indoor clean air act• Smoking ordinances
  • 12. The Water We Use• Waterborne disease examples – cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery • Responsible for 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year• 2006 – 1/7 of world population had no access to supply of clean drinking water• U.S. – 100% of population has access to clean water and sanitation • Waterborne disease outbreaks still occur
  • 13. Sources of Water• Surface water • Water in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs• Groundwater • Located under surface of the ground• Aquifers • Porous, water-saturated layers of underground bedrock, sand, and gravel that can yield economically significant amounts of water• Only .003% of earth’s water is available for human use
  • 14. Sources of Water Pollution• Point source pollution • Pollution that can be traced to a single source• Nonpoint source pollution • All pollution that occurs through runoff, seepage, or falling of pollutants into water • Runoff – water than flows over land surfaces, typically from precipitation
  • 15. Types of Water Pollutants• Classified as biological and nonbiological• Runoff a problem• Can cause human illness
  • 16. Biological Pollutants of Water• Examples: viruses, bacteria, parasites• Cause a variety of diseases• Waterborne disease outbreak • At least 2 people affected by recreational or drinking water • Drinking water outbreaks have declined in recent years, but recreational has increased • Traced to source within or outside of water utility jurisdiction
  • 17. Nonbiological Pollutants of Water• Examples: heat, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, radioactive pollutants• Endocrine-disrupting chemicals• Pharmaceuticals and personal care products • No government regulation on disposal of meds• Water quality in U.S. has deteriorated in many communities • Population growth, chemical manufacturing, reckless land use, disposal of hazardous waste
  • 18. Ensuring the Safety of Our Water• Treatment of water for domestic use • Domestic use only 6% of water usage in U.S. • Each U.S. resident uses 80-100 gallons a day• Most municipalities use surface water, others use groundwater • Needs to be treated/disinfected• Fluoridation
  • 19. Wastewater Treatment• Wastewater (liquid waste or sewage)• Primary wastewater treatment • Sedimentation tanks; sludge• Secondary wastewater treatment • Clarified wastewater; aeration tanks• Tertiary wastewater treatment • Filtration; disinfection; discharge• Regulated by EPA
  • 20. Septic Systems
  • 21. Regulating Water Quality• Clean Water Act (CWA)• Watershed• Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  • 22. The Food We Eat• U.S. has one of the safest food supplies• More than 200 known diseases transmitted through food• Food can be contaminated at several points
  • 23. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks• Two or more cases of similar illness resulting from ingestion of food• Symptoms mild to severe• Causes • Inadequate cooking temperatures; improper holding temperatures • Unsanitary practices (handwashing) • Contaminated equipment• Federal, state, and local efforts to protect food
  • 24. Growing, Processing, and Distributing Our Food Safely• Need to protect plants and animals• Health concerns with chemicals • Risk of unintentional poisoning where chemicals are stored and used • Residues reaching food workers and consumers
  • 25. Pesticides• Pests – weeds, termites, mold• Pesticides – synthetic chemicals to kill pests• Over 19,000 products currently registered• Use increases farm production• Target organisms• Nontarget organisms• Herbicides and insecticides most commonly used pesticides
  • 26. Regulating Food Safety• Regulated by federal and state authorities• Enforced by local registered environmental health specialists (sanitarians)• Consumer awareness
  • 27. The Place We Live• Environmental hazards occur where we live due to household and land management practices• Solid waste – solid refuse from households, agriculture, and business
  • 28. Solid and Hazardous Waste• Solid waste – garbage, refuse, sludge, discarded solid materials • 95%+ traced to agriculture, mining and gas and oil production, industry; <5% MSW• Municipal solid waste (MSW) • Generated by households, businesses, institutions located within municipalities • Create 4.5 pounds MSW per person/day• Hazardous waste
  • 29. Municipal Solid Waste Generation Rates, 1960-2008, U.S.
  • 30. MSW Generation by Material, 2008, U.S.
  • 31. Managing Our Solid Waste• Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)• Solid waste management • Source reduction • Product reuse and recycling • Disposal • Composting • Sanitary landfills • Leachates • Combustion (incineration)
  • 32. Sanitary Landfills
  • 33. Managing Our Hazardous Waste• RCRA and EPA • Strict controls over treatment, storage, and disposal• Deep well and underground injection• Dealing with past disposal cleanup• Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability act (CERCLA)• Superfund
  • 34. Brownfields• Property where reuse is complicated by the presence of hazardous substances from prior use• 450,000 in U.S.
  • 35. Lead and Other Heavy Metals• Often contaminate well water• Lead found in soil, household dust, air, paint • Children at greatest risk of poisoning • Major health problems
  • 36. Controlling Vectorborne Diseases• Vectors – fleas, lice, ticks, etc.• Vectorborne disease outbreaks • Unexpectedly large number of cases of disease caused by an agent transmitted by insects and other arthropods • Federal, state, and local efforts for prevention and control• #1 vectorborne disease is Lyme disease
  • 37. Natural Hazards• Naturally occurring phenomenon or event that produces or releases energy in amounts that exceed human endurance, causing injury, disease, or death • Often termed disasters
  • 38. Radiation• Process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves• Heat, sounds, visible light are long- wavelength, low-energy radiation• High-energy ionizing radiation• Can cause sickness, permanent damage
  • 39. Radiation from Natural Sources• Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sun• Skin cancer • ABCD rule
  • 40. UV Index Scale
  • 41. Radiation from Humanmade Sources• Those associated with medical and dental procedures “(X-rays, nuclear medicine diagnoses, radiation therapy), consumer products (smoke detectors, TVs, computer screens) and nuclear energy and weaponry
  • 42. Natural Environmental Events• Geologic activity (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes), weather-driven events (tornados, hurricanes, floods)• Can result in serious physical and psychological health consequences for humans• Natural disasters – substantial loss of human life and property• Create new variety of needs
  • 43. Psychological and Sociological Hazards• Can affect health• Overpopulation and crowding• Hate crimes• Wars• Acts of terrorism
  • 44. Population Growth• Carrying capacity• Growth rate declining, but population growing• Unsustainable to maintain quality of life and health of today• Humane means of limiting population growth• Bias and hate crimes
  • 45. World Population Growth, 1750-2050
  • 46. Terrorism• Calculated use of violence or threat of violence against civilians to attain goals that are political or religious in nature• Sociological hazard • Affects entire societies• Psychological hazard • Produces fear, stress, hysteria
  • 47. Responding to Environmental Hazards• Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) • Within U.S. Department of Homeland Security• American Red Cross (ARC) • Works to prevent and alleviate human suffering
  • 48. Discussion Questions• What environmental issues will have the biggest impact on community health in the next 10 years? 50 years?• What environmental issues will have the biggest impact on personal health in the next 10 years? 50 years?