Introduction• Adolescents and young adults (15-24) • Adolescence generally regarded as puberty to maturity• Adults (25-64)• 15-64 some of the most productive, or most productive, years of people’s lives• Most enjoy the best health of their lives• Shape health through lifestyle and health behavior for later years
Adolescents and Young Adults• Represent the future of the nation• Adolescence is difficult stage; period of transition from childhood to adulthood • Comfort and security to complex and challenging situations• Young adults complete physical growth; experience significant life changes • Leave home, join military, begin careers, etc.• Many health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are adopted and consolidated
Demography• Numbers • Peaked in 1979 at 21% of population; now ~14%• Living arrangements • 1/3 live in single parent families• Employment status • Participation in labor force has remained fairly constant in recent decades • Disparities by race
Mortality• Significant decline in death rates over past several decades; mostly due to advances in medicine and injury and disease prevention• Male mortality rate higher than female• Most threats stem from behavior rather than disease• Unintentional injuries (46.5%), homicide (16%), suicide (12%)
Mortality• 1/4 of all deaths in age group from motor vehicle injuries; alcohol contributing factor• Homicide and suicide rates up 200-300% over last 50 years• Significant racial disparities among race and leading causes of death
Morbidity• Communicable diseases • Measles immunizations important • Sexually transmitted diseases • This age group acquires nearly half of all new STDs in the U.S. • Some effects can last a lifetime
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle Choices of High School Students• Unintentional injuries• Violence• Tobacco use• Alcohol and other drugs• Sexual behaviors – unintended pregnancies and STDs• Physical activity• Overweight and weight control
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle Choices of College Students• Unintentional injuries• Violence• Tobacco use• Alcohol and other drugs• Sexual behaviors – unintended pregnancies and STDs
Community Health Strategies• Main factors affecting community health with age group are social and cultural factors and community organizing• Alcohol use a main problem
Adults• Ages 25-64• Represent more than half of U.S. population
Health Profile• Mortality • mainly from chronic diseases • Many associated with unhealthy behaviors and poor lifestyle choices • Lifestyle improvements and public health advances have led to decline in death rate for adults
Cancer• #1 cause of death for adult age group in recent decades • Males – prostate, lung, and colorectal • Females – breast, lung, and colorectal
Cardiovascular Disease• Age-adjusted mortality rates dropped over past 60 years • Mainly due to public health efforts related to smoking cessation, increased physical activity, and nutrition
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle Choices• Risk factors for chronic disease • Most significant for adults – smoking, lack of exercise, BMI, alcohol• Risk factors for personal injury • Motor vehicle safety – seatbelts and alcohol use• Awareness and screening of certain conditions • Hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol
Community Health Strategies• Emphasis on individual responsibility for health• Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts for adults • Primary – exercise and nutrition programs • Secondary – self and clinical screenings to identify and control disease processes • Tertiary – medication compliance
Discussion Questions• Why are lifestyle and health behaviors significant for the adult age group compared to other age groups?• How can community health efforts affect leading causes of death for the adolescent and young adult age group?
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