CommunityOrganizing/Building and   Health Promotion    Programming        Chapter 5
Introduction• Social ecological approach to behavior change  • Interaction between and interdependence of    factors withi...
Community Organizing/Building• Community health problems range from small  to complex• Community organizing  • Process thr...
Community Organizing/Building Terms•   Community capacity•   Empowerment•   Participation and relevance•   Social capital
Need for Organizing Communities• Changes in community social structure has  lead to loss in sense of community  • Advances...
Assumptions of Community Organizing• Those who organize communities do so while  making certain assumptions
Community Organizing Methods• No single preferred method• All incorporate fundamental principles  • Start where the people...
Community Organizing Methods• Locality development     • Broad self participation; process oriented;       stresses consen...
Community Organizing Methods
Process of Community Organizing/Building
Recognizing the Issue• Initial organizer  • recognizes that a problem exists and decides to    do something about it  • Ge...
Gaining Entry into the Community• Organizers need:  • Cultural sensitivity, cultural competence,    cultural humility• Org...
Organizing the People• Executive participants• Leadership identification• Recruitment  • Expanding constituencies• Task Fo...
Assessing the Community• Community building• Needs assessment vs. mapping community  capacity• Community assets  • Primary...
Determining the Priorities and Setting Goals• Criteria to consider when selecting priority  issue  •   Problem must be win...
Arriving at a Solution and Selecting            Intervention Strategies• Alternate solutions exist for every problem  •   ...
Final Steps•   Implementing•   Evaluating•   Maintaining•   Looping Back
Process of Community Organizing/Building
Health Promotion Programming• Important tool for community health  professionals• Health education – part of health promot...
Creating a Health Promotion Program• Involves a series of steps• Success depends on many factors• Experienced planners use...
Generalized Model for Program Planning
Assessing Needs of the Priority Population• Determining purpose and scope of needs  assessment• Gathering data• Analyzing ...
Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives• Foundation of the program• Portions of the programming process are  designed to ...
Goals•   More encompassing than objectives•   Written to cover all aspects of the program•   Provide overall program direc...
Objectives• More precise than goals• Steps to achieve the program goals• The more complex a program, the more  objectives ...
Creating an Intervention• Intervention  • Activities that will help the priority population    meet the objectives and ach...
Intervention Considerations•   Multiplicity•   Dose•   Best practices•   Best experience•   Best processes
Implementing the Intervention• Implementation   • Putting a planned program into action• Pilot test   • Trial run-implemen...
Evaluating the Results• Determine the value or worth of an object of  interest• Evaluation should occur during first steps...
Steps to Evaluation•   Planning the evaluation•   Collecting the data•   Analyzing the data•   Reporting the results•   Ap...
Discussion Questions• How would you explain the difference  between health education and health  promotion?• How can commu...
Ch05 outline
Ch05 outline
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Ch05 outline

  1. 1. CommunityOrganizing/Building and Health Promotion Programming Chapter 5
  2. 2. Introduction• Social ecological approach to behavior change • Interaction between and interdependence of factors within and across all levels of a health problem • Behavior has multiple levels of influence • Behavior change usually a combination of individual and environmental/policy-level interventions
  3. 3. Community Organizing/Building• Community health problems range from small to complex• Community organizing • Process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching the goals they have collectively set • Not a science, but an art of consensus building
  4. 4. Community Organizing/Building Terms• Community capacity• Empowerment• Participation and relevance• Social capital
  5. 5. Need for Organizing Communities• Changes in community social structure has lead to loss in sense of community • Advances in electronics • Communications • Increased mobility• Community organizing skills extend beyond community health
  6. 6. Assumptions of Community Organizing• Those who organize communities do so while making certain assumptions
  7. 7. Community Organizing Methods• No single preferred method• All incorporate fundamental principles • Start where the people are • Participation • Create environments in which people and communities can become empowered as they increase problem-solving abilities
  8. 8. Community Organizing Methods• Locality development • Broad self participation; process oriented; stresses consensus and cooperation; builds group identity and sense of community• Social planning • Heavily task oriented; involves people and outside planners• Social action • Task and process oriented; disadvantaged segments of the population
  9. 9. Community Organizing Methods
  10. 10. Process of Community Organizing/Building
  11. 11. Recognizing the Issue• Initial organizer • recognizes that a problem exists and decides to do something about it • Gets things started • Can be from within or outside of the community • Grass-roots, citizen initiated, bottom-up • Top-down, outside-in
  12. 12. Gaining Entry into the Community• Organizers need: • Cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, cultural humility• Organizers need to know: • Who is causing problem and why; how problem has been addressed in past; who supports and opposes idea of addressing problem; who could provide more insight• Gatekeepers
  13. 13. Organizing the People• Executive participants• Leadership identification• Recruitment • Expanding constituencies• Task Force• Coalition
  14. 14. Assessing the Community• Community building• Needs assessment vs. mapping community capacity• Community assets • Primary building blocks • Secondary building blocks • Potential building blocks
  15. 15. Determining the Priorities and Setting Goals• Criteria to consider when selecting priority issue • Problem must be winnable • Must be simple and specific • Must unite members of organizing group • Should affect many people • Should be part of larger plan• Goals written to serve as guide for problem solving
  16. 16. Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies• Alternate solutions exist for every problem • Probable outcomes • Acceptability to the community • Probable long- and short-term effects • Costs of resources
  17. 17. Final Steps• Implementing• Evaluating• Maintaining• Looping Back
  18. 18. Process of Community Organizing/Building
  19. 19. Health Promotion Programming• Important tool for community health professionals• Health education – part of health promotion• Health promotion – more encompassing than health education• Program planning • May or may not be associated with community organizing/building • Process by which an intervention is planned
  20. 20. Creating a Health Promotion Program• Involves a series of steps• Success depends on many factors• Experienced planners use models to guide work• Before process begins, important to understand and engage priority population
  21. 21. Generalized Model for Program Planning
  22. 22. Assessing Needs of the Priority Population• Determining purpose and scope of needs assessment• Gathering data• Analyzing data• Identifying factors linked to health problem• Identifying program focus• Validating prioritized need
  23. 23. Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives• Foundation of the program• Portions of the programming process are designed to achieve the goals by meeting the objectives
  24. 24. Goals• More encompassing than objectives• Written to cover all aspects of the program• Provide overall program direction• Are more general in nature• Usually take longer to complete• Do not have a deadline• Are usually not observed, but inferred• Often not measured in exact terms
  25. 25. Objectives• More precise than goals• Steps to achieve the program goals• The more complex a program, the more objectives needed• Composed of who, what, when, and how much
  26. 26. Creating an Intervention• Intervention • Activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and achieve the program goals • The program that the priority population will experience • May be several or a few activities
  27. 27. Intervention Considerations• Multiplicity• Dose• Best practices• Best experience• Best processes
  28. 28. Implementing the Intervention• Implementation • Putting a planned program into action• Pilot test • Trial run-implementation to a small group • Determine problems and fix before full implementation• Phasing in • Step-by-step implementation; implementation with small groups
  29. 29. Evaluating the Results• Determine the value or worth of an object of interest• Evaluation should occur during first steps of program development• Formative evaluation• Summative evaluation• Impact evaluation• Outcome evaluation
  30. 30. Steps to Evaluation• Planning the evaluation• Collecting the data• Analyzing the data• Reporting the results• Applying the results
  31. 31. Discussion Questions• How would you explain the difference between health education and health promotion?• How can community members work together to solve health problems?

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