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Ch05 outline Ch05 outline Presentation Transcript

  • CommunityOrganizing/Building and Health Promotion Programming Chapter 5
  • Introduction• Social ecological approach to behavior change • Interaction between and interdependence of factors within and across all levels of a health problem • Behavior has multiple levels of influence • Behavior change usually a combination of individual and environmental/policy-level interventions
  • Community Organizing/Building• Community health problems range from small to complex• Community organizing • Process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching the goals they have collectively set • Not a science, but an art of consensus building
  • Community Organizing/Building Terms• Community capacity• Empowerment• Participation and relevance• Social capital
  • Need for Organizing Communities• Changes in community social structure has lead to loss in sense of community • Advances in electronics • Communications • Increased mobility• Community organizing skills extend beyond community health
  • Assumptions of Community Organizing• Those who organize communities do so while making certain assumptions
  • Community Organizing Methods• No single preferred method• All incorporate fundamental principles • Start where the people are • Participation • Create environments in which people and communities can become empowered as they increase problem-solving abilities
  • Community Organizing Methods• Locality development • Broad self participation; process oriented; stresses consensus and cooperation; builds group identity and sense of community• Social planning • Heavily task oriented; involves people and outside planners• Social action • Task and process oriented; disadvantaged segments of the population
  • Community Organizing Methods
  • Process of Community Organizing/Building
  • Recognizing the Issue• Initial organizer • recognizes that a problem exists and decides to do something about it • Gets things started • Can be from within or outside of the community • Grass-roots, citizen initiated, bottom-up • Top-down, outside-in
  • Gaining Entry into the Community• Organizers need: • Cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, cultural humility• Organizers need to know: • Who is causing problem and why; how problem has been addressed in past; who supports and opposes idea of addressing problem; who could provide more insight• Gatekeepers
  • Organizing the People• Executive participants• Leadership identification• Recruitment • Expanding constituencies• Task Force• Coalition
  • Assessing the Community• Community building• Needs assessment vs. mapping community capacity• Community assets • Primary building blocks • Secondary building blocks • Potential building blocks
  • Determining the Priorities and Setting Goals• Criteria to consider when selecting priority issue • Problem must be winnable • Must be simple and specific • Must unite members of organizing group • Should affect many people • Should be part of larger plan• Goals written to serve as guide for problem solving
  • Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies• Alternate solutions exist for every problem • Probable outcomes • Acceptability to the community • Probable long- and short-term effects • Costs of resources
  • Final Steps• Implementing• Evaluating• Maintaining• Looping Back
  • Process of Community Organizing/Building
  • Health Promotion Programming• Important tool for community health professionals• Health education – part of health promotion• Health promotion – more encompassing than health education• Program planning • May or may not be associated with community organizing/building • Process by which an intervention is planned
  • Creating a Health Promotion Program• Involves a series of steps• Success depends on many factors• Experienced planners use models to guide work• Before process begins, important to understand and engage priority population
  • Generalized Model for Program Planning
  • Assessing Needs of the Priority Population• Determining purpose and scope of needs assessment• Gathering data• Analyzing data• Identifying factors linked to health problem• Identifying program focus• Validating prioritized need
  • Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives• Foundation of the program• Portions of the programming process are designed to achieve the goals by meeting the objectives
  • Goals• More encompassing than objectives• Written to cover all aspects of the program• Provide overall program direction• Are more general in nature• Usually take longer to complete• Do not have a deadline• Are usually not observed, but inferred• Often not measured in exact terms
  • Objectives• More precise than goals• Steps to achieve the program goals• The more complex a program, the more objectives needed• Composed of who, what, when, and how much
  • Creating an Intervention• Intervention • Activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and achieve the program goals • The program that the priority population will experience • May be several or a few activities
  • Intervention Considerations• Multiplicity• Dose• Best practices• Best experience• Best processes
  • Implementing the Intervention• Implementation • Putting a planned program into action• Pilot test • Trial run-implementation to a small group • Determine problems and fix before full implementation• Phasing in • Step-by-step implementation; implementation with small groups
  • Evaluating the Results• Determine the value or worth of an object of interest• Evaluation should occur during first steps of program development• Formative evaluation• Summative evaluation• Impact evaluation• Outcome evaluation
  • Steps to Evaluation• Planning the evaluation• Collecting the data• Analyzing the data• Reporting the results• Applying the results
  • Discussion Questions• How would you explain the difference between health education and health promotion?• How can community members work together to solve health problems?