• Like
  • Save
Breast Cancer Surgery
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Breast Cancer Surgery

on

  • 822 views

MedicYatra provides the safe & best Breast Cancer Surgery at its affiliate & trusted hospitals & clinics in various metro cities of India, like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Pune etc.Our ...

MedicYatra provides the safe & best Breast Cancer Surgery at its affiliate & trusted hospitals & clinics in various metro cities of India, like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Pune etc.Our Associate Board certified doctors are extensively trained and vastly experienced and have performed hundreds of such surgery at our state of the art JCI accredited hospitals & Clinics. Our aim is to provide you the best of the services at the most affordable costs. Don't forget to say hi at info@medicyatra.com

Statistics

Views

Total Views
822
Views on SlideShare
822
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
43
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Breast Cancer Surgery Breast Cancer Surgery Presentation Transcript

    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.Digital Mammography andComputer-Aided Diagnosis 1 Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Breast Cancer Breast cancer is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer deaths in American womenOne out of every seven womenwas diagnosed with breastcancer in 2007Fortunately, radical mastectomy(surgical removal) is rarelyneeded today with bettertreatment options Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 2
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comOutlineFemale Breast AnatomyBreast CancerMammographyComputer-Aided Diagnosis of BreastCancer Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 3
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Muscles Muscles underneath the breastsseparating them Breast has from the ribs no muscle tissue Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 4
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comFemale Breast Anatomy Breasts consist mainly of fatty tissue interspersed with connective tissue There are also less conspicuous parts  lobes  ducts  lymph nodes Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 5
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comBreast Gland Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes) arranged like the petals of daisy Inside each lobe are many smaller structures called lobules At the end of each lobule are tiny sacs (bulbs) that can produce milk Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 6
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Ducts Ducts carry Lobes, lobules, milk from bulbs and bulbs aretoward dark area Linked by a of skin in the network of thin center of the tubes (ducts) breast (areola) Ducts join togetherinto larger ducts ending at the nipple, where Areola milk is delivered Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 7
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Blood VesselsOxygen, nutrients, and otherlife-sustaining nourishmentare delivered to breast tissueby the blood in the arteriesand capillaries. Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 8
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Lymphatic System Lymph ducts: Drain fluid that carries white bloodLymph node Lymph duct cells (that fight disease) from the breast tissues into lymph nodes under the armpit and behind the breastbone Lymph nodes: Filter harmful bacteria and play a key role inA network of vessels fighting off infection Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 9
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Three Types of Vessels 1Lobules Ducts Nipple Milk 3Lymph Lymph WasteNodes Vessels produc ts Bacteria 2 ent Blood No urishm Cell life Vessels Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 10
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Signs and SymptomsMost common:lump orthickening inbreast. OftenpainlessDischarge Redness or pittingor of skin over thebleeding breast, like the Change in size Change in color an orange skin of or contours of or appearance breast of areola Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 11
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Noncancerous Conditions (1) Fibrocystic changes: Lumpiness, thickening and swelling, often associated with a woman’s period Cysts: Fluid-filled lumps can range from very tiny to about the size of an egg Fibroadenomas: A solid, round, rubbery lump that moves under skin when touched, occuring most in young women Infections: The breast will likely be red, warm, tender and lumpy Trauma: a blow to the breast or a bruise can cause a lump07/14/12 Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd CBMS2006 12
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Noncancerous Conditions (2)Microcalcifications: Tiny deposits of calciumcan appear anywhere in a breast and oftenshow up on a mammogram Most women have one or more areas of microcalcifications of various sizes Majority of calcium deposits are harmless A small percentage may be precancerous or cancer (biopsy is sometimes recommended) Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 13
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Causes Some of the cells begin growing abnormally These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and may spread through the breast, to the lymph or to other parts of the body (metastasize) The most common type of breast cancer begins in the milk-production ducts, but cancer may also occur in the lobules or in other breast tissue07/14/12 Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd CBMS2006 14
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Normal Breast Breast profile A ducts B lobules C dilated section of duct to hold milk D nipple E fat F pectoralis major muscle G chest wall/rib cage Enlargement A normal duct cells B basement membrane (duct wall) C lumen (center of duct)Illustration © Mary K. Bryson Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 15
    • Ductal Carcinoma in situ Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com (DCIS) Ductal cancer cells Normal Carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the ductal skin or other tissues that cell cover internal organs Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 16Illustration © Mary K. Bryson
    • Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com (IDC – 80% of breast cancer) Ductal cancer cells breaking through the wall The cancer has spread to the surrounding tissuesIllustration © Mary K. Bryson Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 17
    • Range of Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comDuctal Carcinoma in situ Illustration © Mary K. Bryson Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 18
    • Invasive Lobular Carcinoma Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com (ILC) Lobular cancer cells breaking through the wallIllustration © Mary K. Bryson Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 19
    • Cancer Can also Invade Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comLymph or Blood Vessels Cancer cells invade lymph duct Cancer cells invade blood vessel Illustration © Mary K. Bryson @ Copyright Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 20
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com MammographyUse a low-dose x-ray system to examinebreastsDigital mammography replaces x-rayfilm by solid-state detectors thatconvert x-rays into electrical signals.These signals are used to produce imagesthat can be displayed on a computerscreen (similar to digital cameras)Mammography can show changes in thebreast up to two years before aphysician can feel them Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 21
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Computer-Aided DiagnosisMammography allows for efficientdiagnosis of breast cancers at anearlier stageRadiologists misdiagnose 10-30% CAD systemsof the malignant cases can assist radiologists toOf the cases sent for surgical Reduce thesebiopsy, only 10-20% are problemsactually malignant National Cancer Institute Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 22
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com What Mammograms ShowTwo of the most important mammographicindicators of breat cancers  Masses  Microcalcifications: Tiny flecks of calcium – like grains of salt – in the soft tissue of the breast that can sometimes indicate an early cancer. Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 23
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Detection of Malignant MassesMalignant masses have a more spiculatedappearance benign malignant Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 24
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comMammogram – Difficult Case Heterogeneously dense breast Cancer can be difficult to detect with this type of breast tissue The fibroglandular tissue (white areas) may hide the tumor The breasts of younger women contain more glands and ligaments resulting in dense breast tissue Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 25
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comMammogram – Easier Case With age, breast tissue becomes fattier and has fewer glands Cancer is relatively easy to detect in this type of breast tissue Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 26
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Different ViewsSide-to-Side MRI - Cancer can have a unique appearance – many small irregular white areas that turned out to be cancer (used for diagnosis)Top-to-Bottom Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 27
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comScalar FieldA scalar field is a n-dimensional spacewith a scalar value attached to eachpoint in the space (e.g., a gray-scaleimage) Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 28
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Scalar Field and Gradient Black representingA scalar field is a n-dimensional space Higher valueswith a scalar value attached to eachpoint in the space (e.g., a gray-scaleimage)The derivative of a scalar field resultsin a vector field called the gradient i.e., the gradient is a vector field  which points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the scalar field, and  whose magnitude is the greatest rate of change Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 29
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com GradientThe derivative of a scalar field Black representing Higher valuesresults in a vector field calledthe gradient  i.e., the gradient is a vector field  which points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the scalar field, and  whose magnitude is the greatest rate of change Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 30
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Cartesian Gradient  g (P )For an image functionI(P) where P is a pixel, φ (P )the Cartesian gradient at PP is: δ I ( P)  ∂I ( P )  δy  ∂x  g ( P ) =  ∂I ( P )  φ δ I ( P)   δ I ( P)  ∂y  δx tan φ = δy δ I ( P) Magnitude: δx Orientation: 2 2  ∂I ( P )  m( P) =  ∂ ( P)  I ∂ ( P)  I    ∂   x  +  ∂   y  φ ( P ) = arctan  ∂y   ∂I ( P )    ∂xCopyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd   31
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Radial Gradient Radial gradient• The radial gradient vector has the same  magnitude as the r (P ) g (P ) Cartesian gradient P φ (P ) vector, but θ (P )• the orientation is given as: r( P) = θ ( P) − φ ( P) Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 32
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comFeature: Spiculation [Huo et al.] Extract the mass using a region-growing technique The maximum gradient and its angle relative to the radial direction are computed Calculate the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) from the cumulative gradient orientation histogram Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 33
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comFeature: Spiculation [Chan et al.] Determine the outline of the segmented mass Obtain the rubber-band- straightening-transformed image  The spicules become approximately aligned in a similar direction The rectangular region can then be subjected to texture analysis Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 34
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comBreast Calcifications Calcifications show up as white spots on a mammogram Round well-defined, larger calcifications (left column) are more likely benign Tight cluster of tiny, irregularly shaped calcifications (right column) may indicate cancer Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 35
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comCalcification Features The morphology of individual calcification, e.g., shape, area, and brightness The heterogeneity of individual features characterized by the mean, the standard deviation, and the maximum value for each feature. Cluster features such as total area, compactness Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 36
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.com Database Approach to Computer-Aided DiagnosisContent-based image retrieval techniques canprovide radiologists “visual aids” to increaseconfidence in their diagnosisThe database consists of a largenumber of images with verifiedpathology resultsDiagnosis is done by submittingthe suspected mass region as aquery to retrieve similar casesfrom the database Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 37
    • Email: enquiry@medicyatra.comA Mammography CAD System[Giger et al.] Probability of malignancy Similar images of known diagnosis Indicates the unknown lesion relative to all lesions in the database Copyright @ Forever Medic Online Pvt. Ltd 38