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Neuhold papst sadness

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  • 1. Sadness  and  happiness                    in  speech  and  music      Sara  Papst  &  Michaela  Neuhold  Implica(ons  If  music  and  speech  use  similar  elements  to  express  sadness  and  happiness,   that   can   explain   how   music   communicates   specific  emo<ons.  That  raises  the  ques<on  of  whether  the  findings  are  universal  or  confined  to  Western  culture.  Further  studies  should  focus  on  the  expression  of  sadness  and  happiness  in  music  and  speech  of  non-­‐Western  cultures.  References    Cur<s,  M.  E.  &  Bharucha,  J.  .J  (2010).  The  minor  third  communicates  sadness  in  speech,  mirroring  its  use  in  music.  Emo%on,  10(3),  335-­‐48.  Huron,  D.  (2008).    A  comparison  of  average  pitch  height  and  interval  size  in  major-­‐  and  minor-­‐key  themes:  Evidence  consistent  with  affect-­‐related  pitch  prosody.  Empirical  musicology  review,  3(2),  59-­‐63.  Scherer,  K.  (1995).  Expression  of  Emo<on  in  Voice  and  Music.  Journal  of  Voice,  9(3),  235-­‐248.    Turner,  B.,  &  Huron,  D.  (2008).  A  comparison  of  dynamics  in  major-­‐  and  minor-­‐key  works.  Empirical  Musicology  Review,  3(2),  64-­‐68.  Pictures  of  faces:  h_p://www.uni-­‐graz.at/en/pslg4wwwpslg4www_research/pslg4www_projects/pslg4www_vi  suell_hun<ngton.htm,  (6.12.2010).  Seminar on Music Psychology, University of Graz, Austria, December 2010Pitch   and   interval   sizes   in   major   and   minor   keys  (Huron,  2008)  Method:   The   average   pitch   and   interval   size   from   9.788  instrumental  themes  were  calculated  Results:  Both  average  pitch  and  average  interval  size  were  higher  for  major  keys  than  for  minor  keys.  Rela(onship  to  speech:  •    Lower   average   pitch   and   smaller   interval   sizes   are   also  observed  in  sad  speech.  SysMusGrazIntroduc(on  Speech  and  music  developed  from  primi<ve  affect  vocaliza<ons  such  as  “ai”  or  “oh”  that  expressed  emo<on  (Scherer,  1995).  The  func<on  of  expressing  emo<on  is  s<ll  important  in  speech  and  music.  In  every  language  people  talk  differently  when  they  are  happy  or  sad  and  it  is  possible  to  recognize  the  mood  just  by  hearing  the  voice  (Scherer,  1995).  In  music  we  have  the  two  modes  of  major  and  minor  keys,  which  seem  to  express  happiness  (major)  and  sadness  (minor).    Are  there  any  connec(ons  in  expressing  sadness  and  happiness  between  speech  and  music?  Our  thesis  In   music   and   speech,   interval   sizes,   pitches   and  dynamic  levels  are  used  in  a  similar  way  to  express  the  emo<ons  sadness  and  happiness.  Minor  third  expresses  sadness  in  music  and  speech  (Cur<s  &  Bharucha,  2010)  •     When  actors  said  “Let’s  go”,  “Okay”,  “Come  here”,  or  “Come  on”  in  a  sad  voice,  interval  measurements  from  one  syllable  to  the   next   showed   that   sadness   was   expressed   by   descending  minor  third  (-­‐300  cents)  and  minor  second  (-­‐100  cents)  à   See  Fig.  1    •    Par<cipants   listened   to   the   sad   spoken   phrases   and   rated  descending  minor  third  and  minor  second  as  sadness.  •     When  intervals  from  the  speech  samples  were  synthesized  as  musical   intervals   (piano   <mbre),   par<cipants   had   to   rate   the  degree  of  perceived  anger,  happiness,  pleasantness  and  sadness    and  rated  the  descending  minor  third  as  sadness  and  the  minor  second  as  anger  and  sadness.  BUT:  Descending   minor   thirds   also   appear   frequently   in   major   key  works  and  express  happiness,  e.g.  “cuckoo  mo<ve”.    Same  Origin:  Affect  Vocaliza<ons  Music  lari<es:  Sadness  is  expressed  by...    ...a  descending        minor  third    ...  a  lower  pitch  level    ...  a  smaller  interval  size    Dynamics  in  major  and  minor  keys  (Turner  &  Huron,  2008)  Analyses  of  48  minor  and  major  pieces  showed  that  minor  key  works  have  a  lower  mean  dynamic  level  than  major  key  works.  Rela(onship  to  speech:                Forte   Piano  Fig.  1:  Sadness  was  expressed  by  an  interval  between  250  and  350  cents  downward  (minor  third).  (Cur%s  &  Bharucha,  2010)  Speech  

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