Mobile, Social, Global: Applica0ons of Emerging Technologies in Survey Research
Mobile, Social, Global: Applica0ons of Emerging Technologies in Survey Research Robert D Furberg, PhD, MBA RTI Interna6onal 31st Annual Southern Associa6on for Public Opinion Research Conference 05OCT2012
• 83% of U.S. adults own a cell phone. • 35% of U.S. adults own a smartphone and one-‐quarter of them use their phone as their main source of internet access. • Nearly 1/3 of households are now mobile-‐ only. Source: CTIA, 2012
• The highest level of mobile telephone use is among adolescents, younger adults, socioeconomically disadvantaged popula6ons, less educated young adults, and people who rent or frequently change addresses. (Franklin, 2003; Faulkner, 2005; Koivusilta 2007) • Further, a high level of mobile telephone use is associated with lower levels of self-‐rated health, higher BMI, and engaging in health-‐ compromising behaviors. (Lajunen, 2007; Koivusilta, 2005)
• The pervasiveness, low cost, and convenience of mobile phones make (SMS) tex6ng an ideal applica6on for dissemina6ng as well as gathering health informa6on from consumers (Fjeldsoe, 2009). • Evalua6on of SMS interven6ons suggest that text messaging systems can eﬀec6vely increase medica6on and appointment adherence and sustain health promo6on behaviors such as smoking cessa6on, diabetes, asthma management, and depression (Cole-‐Lewis & Kershaw, 2010).
• Fully half of U.S. adult cell phone owners (50%) now have apps on their phones.
• 17% have used their phone to look up health or medical informa6on and 29% of cell owners ages 18-‐29 have done such searches. • 9% have so`ware applica6ons or "apps" on their phones that help them track or manage their health. Some 15% of those ages 18-‐29 have such apps.
Physicians were not responsible for the improvement. – No addi6onal meds – No signiﬁcant changes in management
• The mechanism appears to be pa6ent self-‐ awareness, accountability • An adherence mechanism is important • Providing a monitor is not enough
• To examine the content of exis6ng iPhone apps for smoking cessa6on – Quality of apps – Popularity of apps – Rela6onships between these variables
Cessa6on programs should: • Ask for tobacco use status • Advise every user to quit • Assess willingness to quit • Assist with a quit plan • Recommend approved meds • Prac6cal counseling • Intra-‐treatment social support • Connect to a quitline • Enhance mo6va6on • Arrange for follow-‐up
• Code for 20 measures of adherence to the US Public Health Service’s 2008 Clinical Prac6ce Guidelines for Trea6ng Tobacco Use and Dependence • Two independent coders • From iTunes, obtain data on download frequency and user ra6ng of each app
The Human Face of Big Data hhp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=uW_gyxZD2hc Discover hidden secrets about the world you live in • Compare answers about yourself, your family, trust, sleep, sex, da6ng and dreams with millions of others around the world. Map your daily footprint, share what brings you luck, and get a glimpse into the one thing people want to experience during their life6me.
Human subjects & the IRB • Informed, thoughmul consent is tricky. • Anonymity will gradually become impossible in data-‐rich smartphone studies. • Even with encrypted uploads and privacy-‐ preserving analysis, conﬁden6ality will be vulnerable to authori6es (theore6cally).
Main advantages • Poten6al for global recruitment and very large samples. • High convenience, ecological validity, and unobtrusiveness for par6cipants. • Easy media capture, mo6on sensing, and loca6on tracking. • Poten6al for delivery of high quality media using common technologies
Main disadvantages • Substan6al study prepara6on work in wri6ng, debugging, pilot tes6ng, and ﬁeld tes6ng. • Low contextual control over par6cipants’ physical and social environments during study. • Poten6ally very large and complex sets of data that require sophis6cated data analysis. • Ethical challenges in obtaining truly informed consent, protec6ng privacy and anonymity.
Recap! • Go to where your par6cipants are. • Mobile doesn’t mean on the go. • Users maher. • Base your decisions on data. • Human subjects (& IRB commihee members) are people, too. • Big advantages and challenges oﬀer an immense opportunity to keep pace.
Contact: Robert D. Furberg, PhD, MBA email@example.com @medicfurby SurveyPost blogs.r6.org/surveypost @SurveyPost