THE SCIENCE OF SLEEP... MUSCLE ADAPTATION FORIMPOSED DEMANDS DR. BILL MISNER, Ph.D.Most of us, possibly from a disdain of, or a childhood "I-do-not-want-to-miss-something" fear, oftenresist the nodding and drowsy prodding call to sleep. Even the most mature, modern, health-consciousadult may, at times, view sleep as an unwelcome intruder into their play, work, or leisure activities. Thecostly expenditure of 27-35%(6.5-9.0 hours/day) of a lifetime, is mostly unconscious, and is thereforeno small amount of time. Is it possible to do without it? What are the consequences? From the study ofsevere sleep deprivation in small animals, scientists have estimated that the average human may not beable to live past 10 days without sleep! They are not sure what physiological mechanisms may causehuman death, but some have rumored that a body thermostatic failure will result, though this has notbeen confirmed.The opposite of death is anabolic, life-giving, growing, progressive health, which the correct amount ofsleep will nurture. When 65-73% of a day is spent on the demands of waking mental focus and physicalenergy expenditures(catabolism), then the remaining 27-35% must be donated to the rebuilding andrecharging processes in favor of deposit(anabolic) preceding the imposing daily demands which theenergy cycle exacts once again...HUMAN ANABOLIC RECUPERATIVE SLEEP IS CONNECTED TO A SENSITIVE BIOLOGICALCIRCADIAN CLOCKQuality sleep remarkably influences healthy anabolic mental and physical recuperation from all formsof stress. Measured electrical activity in the brain during sleep indicates recuperative cycles ofphysiological changes occur every 90 minutes. The active biological clock in human beings is set in aflux of "circadian rhythms" every 25-28 hours. This clock is set and reset by a 2500 lumen or luxpower found in the full-spectrum wave-length of sunlight at the start and finish of each day. Two otherclock-like rhythms occur between 3-6:00 a.m. and 3-6:00 p.m., when our body temperature dips adegree or two fahrenheit, causing drowsiness, or in the case of the latter, the mid-afternoon slump. Thehighest body temperatures peak between 6:00-9:00 p.m. causing a heightened alertness. Then, as wetend to "wind down" after 9:00 p.m. from daily activities, body temperatures lower, and we are lulledinto a state of drowsiness, enhanced by low voltage beta waves are "time-shifting" to higher voltagealpha waves. As alpha waves convert to producing slower theta waves during sleep stages #1 and #2,skeletal muscles are programmed to relax causing the "Hypnic Jerk" or "Nodding" one may experienceduring a boring lecture or after lunch. Theta wave modulations, when not resisted or interrupted, willsoon deteriorate to the slower delta waves which are characterize sleep stages #3 and #4. During theselatter stages rapid eye movement sleep(REM sleep), dreams, and muscle paralysis occur. If muscleparalysis does not occur, the vividness of the dream state will physically draw the dreamer into anactive state of "sleepwalking", or, worse yet, intense physical activity will further catabolize exhaustedmuscle tissues already in need of repair. Animal studies(Levie via Moses, 1997) have shown thisphenomenom if the brains ability to paralyze the muscles during the later sleep stages has beenneurologically removed, the animals jump around, growl, howl, and exhaust themselves while actively
dreaming. It has been shown that during deep dream-state or slow-wave sleep that Plasma GrowthHormone(HGH) in humans is found to be at its highest levels. (Prinz et al., 1983) Active, full, phasicrepair of soft tissue will not occur in the absence of HGH, or, if the sleep stage process is interrupted,suppressed, or modified.HOW CAN DEPRESSED SLEEP LOSS EFFECT STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, AND ENERGYPERFORMANCE LEVELSHuman circadian rhythms were measured and observed to cause evening sleep to begin later in summerthan winter, while waking occurred earlier in summer than winter.(Honma et al., 1992) Lack of highquality sleep literally "robs" up to half of the anabolic replenishment that both the muscles and themind crave each day. If, during deep slow-wave sleep (stages #3 and #4) significant growth hormonelevels are curtailed by exogenous events, destructive, catabolic processes are likely. Losing sleep hasbeen shown to have a detrimental negative effect on mental and physical recovery, if sleep is deprivedfor 24-48 hours. Once sleep is lost, it is very difficult to recuperate to the original mental or previousphysical levels. Subjects, who were deprived of sleep, recovered only 42% from a sleepless 48-hourtime period, and but recovered 72% from a similar 24 hours without sleep.(Rosenthal et al., 1991) Theimposition of noise pollution on sleep state has been shown to dramatically depress optimal sleep-stateblood chemistry. Aircraft noise from outside homes located near airports creates from 55-75 decibelsnoise inside the homes. This level of aircraft night noise was observed to raise adult catecholaminelevels of Adrenaline & Noradrenaline of all those sampled, and (conclusively) disrupted normal healthyanabolic sleep.(Maschke et al., 1993) Exposure to high-levels of noise during the day also has a derogatory effect ongetting a sound nights sleep. Daytime noise pollution(80 decibels or more) has been shown to elevateboth heart and respiration rates, disrupting full-staged recuperative sleep. (Fruhstorfer et al.,1984)Other similar hindrances and resultant sleep aberrations resulted in another research study wheresubjects received sleep in fragments.(Non -fragmented sleep cycles of at least 90+ minutes must beallowed for complete recovery). Fragmented sleep was endured by subjects who were arousedperiodically during sleep and were prevented from entering a complete cycle of sleep, for "natural"recovery. Constant arousal from sleep or naps prevented them from returning to pre-deprivation"normal" levels.(Levine et al., 1987) When sleep is altered, reduced, or extended, both performanceand mood are effected. Taub and Berger(1976) recorded observations of altering sleep durations bydelaying, extending, or advancing each phase of slumber by a 3-hour time span. Their subjects sufferedmeasurable decline in both vigilance performance and mood scale, independent of their individual totalsleep time. Getting a "perfect" nights sleep may mean having a "quiet" day, a "stress-free" workexperience, a "soundless", "light-free-dark"sleeping environment, and nutritionally supported by a"balance of macronutrients to a precise ratio of specific micronutrients". (All of the previous"underlined" are difficult but NOT impossible to control.)BALANCING THE EXACT MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE WITH THE SPECIFIC-PRECISE RATIOOF MICRONUTRIENTSThe biochemistry of sleep is remarkably influenced by what we eat or drink. Relatively small amountsof alcohol(0.8 grams alcohol per kilogram body weight) have been observed to suppress plasma growthhormone values 75% when a single drink is consummed prior to sleep.(Prinz et al., 1980) Perhaps moredramatic is how a poor choice of solid foods may not only reverse the replenishing anabolic effectsfrom a good nights sleep, but may also create the undesired catabolic reactions from a poor nightssleep. Dr. James Balch(1990) has conceded that when micronutrient ratios of calcium to magnesium areimbalanced, or if a person is not getting enough of each mineral from poor absorption rates, insomniawill haunt the malnourished.
Ten percent(10%) of non-chelated mineral supplements are absorbed in the small intestines, while 60%of the chelated minerals are absorbed. A single symptom from calcium-magnesium mineral deficiencyis a "blunt arousal" after a few hours of sleep, with the inability to fall back to sleep. Dietarydeficiencies of vitamin B-complex micronutrients, (specifically B-5 and B-6), create similar disruptionsin sound sleep patterns. Other villains of sound sleep, Dr. Balch named, are prescription medications,caffeine, obesity, hypothyroidism, or systemic disorders. Likewise foods high in the amino acidtyrosine, or its metabolite-derivitive tyramine, have been shown to activate the adrenal glands to releasea brain neuro-chemical stimulant dose of norepinephrine, which coerces the alert waking state. Thetyrosine-tyramine rich foods to be avoided at the evening meal are cheeses, beer, wine, broad beanpods, chicken liver, sauerkraut, chocolate, bacon, ham, sausage, eggplant, potatoes, spinach, andtomatoes. Low muscle glycogen stores from excessive or prolonged exercise fasting and high-protein-low fat-low-carbohydrate diets may have a negative effect on the optimal sleep pattern. Nutritive sleep-inducing "friendly foods", when eaten at the evening meal will assist sound sleep patterns. These foodscontain high amounts of another amino acid, tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, the precursor formelatonin, an active neurotransmitter for sleep inducement. Foods found to be rich in tryptophan arebananas, figs, dates, yogurt, oatmeal, turkey, tuna, or grapefruit. Complex carbohydrates tend toenhance pre-slumber drowsiness if eaten in several small meals throughout the day.SUMMING UP PRIORITIES FOR OPTIMAL ANABOLIC SLEEP RECOVERY!While some ergogenic experts(Colgan 1993) argue for the HGH anabolic advantage of "naps" takenduring the day, or between high-caloric energy expenditures(such as two-a-day workouts), others(Levievia Moses 1997) warn against any interruption of circadian rhythms set by continuous sleep patternsand sunlight. However all scientists appear to agree if more muscular or mental energy is spent duringthe day, THE greater the need for quality, continuous, anabolic multiple-stage sleep.A prioritized summary, in order of importance, simplifies for individual practice what may produce themaximal desired physiological sleep patterns:* Transition from alert, active, stimulation sources to less active relaxing activities must beimplemented daily up to 3 hours prior to sleep.(reading, listening to music, warm bath, a walk)* Eat foods 2 hours or less prior to bedtime which are rich in complex carbohydrates, tryptophan, andcontain a 2:1 ratio of calcium* to magnesium* in chelated form, with high optimal intake of B-Complex*(especially B-5* & B-6*).* Avoid foods rich in tyrosine or tyramine, caffeine, alcohol, during the 6 hour period prior to going tobed.* Avoid stimulating arousal from exercise, stress, or medications 6 hours prior to sleep.* Assist sleep pattern synchronization with sunlight by developing the habit of going to bed when thesun sets and waking near the time it rises. Reinforcing circadian rhythms by providing a quiet, darkenvironment where you sleep and when you sleep will cause maximal anabolic sleep returns.* If you "Nap" between two-a-day workouts, attempt to sleep at least 90 minutes for a complete REM-HGH physiological sleep cycle event.micronutrient profile for optimal anabolic sleep.DR. BILL MISNER, Ph.D.E-CAPS INC. & HAMMER NUTRITION LTD.1-800-336-1977
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