drops eye /oral drops aerosol spray nasal spray patch dry powder for inhalation aerosol pessary foam solution gel vaginal gel ointment injection syrup suspension oral suspension suppository granule c apsule tablet effervescent / soluable / dispersible / coated tablet
Drug d osage lat. quaque seconda hora / every 2-nd hour q2h lat. quaque hora / every hour qh at night noctè lat. statim / at once stat lat. pro re nata / as and when required p.r.n lat. quarter in die lat. quarter in die lat.quater in die summendus four times daily qd q.i.d q.d.s lat. ter in diem summendum lat. ter in die three times daily t.d.s t.i.d lat. bis in die / two times daily b.i.d once daily od omni mane / every morning omni nocte / every night o.m o.n
Routes of Administration topical top. per rectum p.r by mouth / orally p.o intra-articular i.a topical top. subcutaneus s.c intravenous i.v intra-muscular intra-peritoneal i. m i.p English Abbreviation Latvian
Routes of Administration sublingual SL Percutaneous Endoscopic Jejunostomy PEJ Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy PEG Naso-jejunal tube NJ i nhalation Inh Naso-gastric tube nebulisation NG Neb English Abbreviation Latvian
Anti-emetics Ondansetron (Zofran ® ) 0.15mg / kg i.v for 15min usually 4mg, also deeply i.m Cyclizine 50mg p.o / i..v / i.m TDS Metoclopramide (Maxolon ® ) 10mg i.v for 1-2 min TDS also p.o / i.m Post opiates/anaesthesia Phenothiazines best: Prochlorperazine : nausea > 20mg , po 2h 10mg prophylactics: 5-10mg 2-3 times / daily 25mg supp. initially, then after 6h changed for 5-10 mg p.o or deeply i.m 12.5mg, then after 6h changed for 5-10 mg p.o Chlorpromazine : 10-25mg every 4-6h p.o 25 mg i.m, followed by 25-50mg every 3-4h 100mg supp. every 6-8h
Writing ug for microgram which might be read as mg and patient given 1000 times too much.
Allergy box on drug chart left empty
Three fatal episodes where a prescriber prescribes a penicillin to someone documented to be allergic penicillin and the penicillin is given despite the allergy being stated on the wrist band(s) and drug chart
A study comparing administration error in UK, Germany & France found
Product not labelled/incorrectly labelled in 43%, 99% and 20% of doses respectively
Wrong diluent used in 1%, 49% and 18%
Wrong administration selected for 49%, 21% and 5% of doses observed
At least one deviation from aseptic technique was observed among 100%, 58% and 19%
In the UK, no cleaning of preparation area or hand washing was observed for any of the prepared doses
Only 1% of cases swabbing the vial top
In the UK, the most frequent medication errors were related to an incorrect administration rate (48%).