Anemia - Introduction
Normal ErythropoiesisKidney                            Bone marrow   Multi-potent                                         ...
Anemia• Understanding anemia  – Disease - to be treated on its own merits  – Condition - a secondary manifestation of    a...
Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia• Complete blood count• Peripheral smear• Reticulocyte count  – Relative reticulocyte count...
Classification of Anemia Based on              RBC Kinetics and Size                             MCV                Microc...
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia:            Diagnosis• Mild (MCV > 70 fl)         • Severe (MCV < 70 )  –   Iron deficiency ...
Macrocytic Anemia with Low        Reticulocyte Count• Megaloblastic anemia  – Vitamin B12 deficiency  – Folate deficiency•...
Anemia   introduction - medicaldump.com
Anemia   introduction - medicaldump.com
Anemia   introduction - medicaldump.com
Anemia   introduction - medicaldump.com
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Anemia introduction - medicaldump.com

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Anemia introduction - medicaldump.com

  1. 1. Anemia - Introduction
  2. 2. Normal ErythropoiesisKidney Bone marrow Multi-potent stem cell Epo mRNA Erythroid stem cell Epo Oxygen sensor 3-4 days Blood vessel Peripheral blood RBC survival 100-120 days
  3. 3. Anemia• Understanding anemia – Disease - to be treated on its own merits – Condition - a secondary manifestation of another disease – Symptoms depend on severity/acuity• Causes – Decreased production – Blood loss – Hemolysis
  4. 4. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia• Complete blood count• Peripheral smear• Reticulocyte count – Relative reticulocyte count ♦ Percent of all RBC (normal 0.8%–1.5%) – Absolute reticulocyte count ♦ Relative reticulocyte count x RBC count ♦ Normal 50,000–75,000/µl ♦ Examples: 6 1.1% x 4.96 x10 = 55,000/l 6 12.2% x 2.05 x10 = 250,000/l
  5. 5. Classification of Anemia Based on RBC Kinetics and Size MCV Microcytic Normocytic MacrocyticRetic Low Common Common Commoncount High Uncommon Common Uncommon
  6. 6. Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Diagnosis• Mild (MCV > 70 fl) • Severe (MCV < 70 ) – Iron deficiency – Iron deficiency – Thalassemia – Thalassemia – Lead toxicity – Sideroblastic anemia – Anemia of chronic disease
  7. 7. Macrocytic Anemia with Low Reticulocyte Count• Megaloblastic anemia – Vitamin B12 deficiency – Folate deficiency• Non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemia – Liver disease – Hypothyroidism – Drug-induced (DNA synthesis block) – Myelodysplastic syndrome

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