Using Audio and Video to
Enhance your Class
Media Pedagogy for Professors
New Tools for Learning
Common Video Formats Common Audio Formats
• Flash Video • .MP3 files
• QuickTime • Real Audio
• Windows Media • .Wav files
• Real Video
Does it Work?
Examples of Video Examples of Audio
• Military research going back
• Sesame Street
Why use it?
Reduce Development Time
• Access vast libraries of audio and video.
• Reduce the time necessary to develop lecture materials.
• Eliminate the need to reserve audio and video from a library or instructional
• Save classroom time by assigning students to review parts of a lecture on their
• Use class time for meaningful discussions.
• Record a quick video message or lecture for your class.
• Provide visual representations that you could not achieve using a text book.
• Provide opportunities for remedial instruction.
• Empower you and your students to control the pace of the audio and video.
• Stimulate student interest and motivation to learn.
Format Hardware Software Internet Download
Audio - Speakers or - The necessary - Broadband Audio files are
Files headphone for audio player access or typically smaller
option higher than video
Video - Speakers or - The necessary - Broadband Video files can
Files headphone for audio player access or be large and
option higher require time for
Playing Audio vs. Video
Play Audio When
• The subject matter does not require a visual representation, such as a speech or an interview.
• You want to present a handout or slide supported by audio narration.
• The internet connection being used is not fast enough for video.
* check the audio quality to ensure that it will be audible at a volume loud enough in the desired listening
Play Video When
• The subject matter requires a visual representation, such as a step-by-step demonstration.
• Moving images would help establish relevancy or the context of the subject matter.
• Images would help better describe the subject matter.
• The internet connection being used is fast enough to support streaming video.
* check the video quality to ensure that it will 1) be audible in the desired listening environment, and 2)
the video will be visible in the desired viewing environment.
Streaming vs. Downloading
Downloading – a copy of the audio or video file is downloaded to your computer. You will
need to wait until the entire file is downloaded before playing it. This can take a long time
depending on the file size and the speed of the Internet connection.
Streaming – audio and video files are played directly from the website, and nothing is
downloaded to your computer. This results in less time required before a file plays.
Delivering Media to Students
How How How
• Direct link • iTunes U (podcasts) • iPod or other media player
• Embedding • Zune Marketplace • AppleTV
• Download • iPhone, Blackberry or • XBOX, PlayStation or Portable
other mobile phone handheld video game system
Teaching & Learning Principles
• Use audio or video to improve the credibility of the lecture. “Student confidence and
efforts to succeed are increased in proportion to the perceived credibility of the source.”
• Use audio or video to stimulate curiosity. “If you can stimulate a student’s curiosity
during the first few minutes of instruction, you are more likely to have a motivated
• Use audio or video to present problems to gain interest. “When students are presented
with a problem that catches their interest, the stage is set for learning.”
• Use audio or video to increase student interest by showing/explaining anecdotes or
vignettes about noteworthy people in the area of study, the obstacles they faced, their
accomplishments, and the consequences.
Examples of Educational Media
Instructional Website Instructions Uses in the classroom
Interviews with Newshour • Type the • Access to expert
experts keywords interviews increases
“energy experts” learner confidence.
in the search • Student motivation
box. increases in proportion to
• Press enter on the perceived credibility of
your keyboard. the source.
More Examples of Educational Media
Instructional Website Instructions Uses in the
Lab Google Video • Type the keywords • Stimulate curiosity and
demonstrations “Conversion of Bond motivation to learn.
Energy to Heat Energy • Demonstrate
& Light Energy” in the procedures and
search box. processes that are not
• Press enter on your practical in the
Field footage Internet Archive • Type the keywords Increase student
“Peace March. interest by showing
Thousands Oppose anecdotes or vignettes
Vietnam War” in the about noteworthy
search box. people.
• Press enter on your
Documentaries Internet Archive • Type the keywords Increase student
“JFK video, part 2” in interest by showing
the search box. anecdotes or vignettes
• Press enter on your about noteworthy
Creating a Link to Audio or Video
The following two links point to the same webpage, though the text used for the links
Guidelines for Preparing to use
Media in your Class
• Search for audio or video featuring content related to your topic.
• Review the audio or video to make sure it is relevant and appropriate.
• Note the specific time interval of the audio or video segment you would like to
• Check the technical requirements for playing the audio or video file.
• Present any necessary technical requirements to your students.
• Create link(s) to the audio or video file(s) in your presentation.
• Anticipate student questions related to the audio or video file(s).
Guidelines for using Media in
• Introduce the audio or video file(s) to your class.
• Present the time code for the specific segment of the file the students will view.
• Relate the new audio or video material to previous student knowledge.
• Place the new material properly in relationship to the rest of the course content.
• Explain what you are expecting your student to get out of playing the media.
• Allocate classroom time for a discussion of the content.
Sample use of Media
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
Avian influenza is a virus that originates in birds. The infection is
very contagious among birds and can spread to some domesticated
birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys.
People can become infected with the avian influenza from having
contact with infected poultry. Infected people can transmit the virus,
though this is not common. This virus is similar to the other viruses
we have discussed during this module.
Please watch this video in its entirety, and visit the discussion forum
to answer the questions listed.
* You will need the Flash Player and either speakers or headphones to view this video on YouTube.
More Examples & Possibilities
Audio or Video Presentation Followed by a Classroom Activity
Step-by-Step • Hands-on practice
Demonstrations/Explanations • Question & answer sessions
Controversial Subject Matter • Classroom debate
Historical Subject Matter • Classroom discussion
Common Audio and Video Players
Player Format Files
QuickTime Player for Mac Audio and video player .MOV, more
Flash Player for Mac and Audio and video player .FLV, .MOV
Windows Media Player for Audio and video player .WMV, .AVI., .ASF, more
Flip4mac for Mac Audio and video player .WMV, .AVI, more
VLC Player for Mac and Audio and video player LOTS of files!
Real Player for Mac and Audio and video player .RM, .RA
Audio and Video Editing Programs
Program Format Level Availability
iMovie Audio and video editing Easy Free with some Macs
Windows Media Maker Audio and video editing Easy Free with Windows
Adobe Premiere ElementsAudio and video editing Medium Fee
Final Cut Pro Express Audio and video editing Medium Fee
MPEG Streamclip Audio and video editing Medium Free for Mac and
Adobe Flash Audio and video editing Easy Fee
QuickTime Pro Audio and video editing Easy Fee
Adobe Premiere Audio and video editing Advanc Fee
Final Cut Pro Audio and video editing Advanc Fee
• A codec is a software program that compresses an audio or video file to
reduce its size while retaining its quality.
• A codec contained inside of a player is also required to play back the
• Sites like YouTube automatically apply compression to your files as
soon as you upload them.
Audio and Video Encoders
Program Format Availabilty
MPEG Streamclip for Audio and video editor/ Free
Mac and Windows encoder
Audacity for Mac and Audio and video editor/ Free
QuickTime for Mac and Audio and video editor/ Free
Audio and Video Encoding
Original Format Convert to Program to use
AVI ? MPEG Stream Clip
Quick Time ? MPEG Stream Clip
Flash Video ? MPEG Stream Clip
WMV ? MPEG Stream Clip
Audio and Video Hosting Options
Sites Format Platform
YouTube Flash Video Mac/PC
TeacherTube Flash Video Mac/PC
Vimeo Flash Video Mac/PC
Viddler Flash Video Mac/PC
iTunes U Quick Time Mac/PC
Archive.org Flash Video, AVI Mac/PC
Blip.TV Flash Video Mac/PC
College server Variable Variable
CMS Variable Variable
Make your own Audio and Video
Site Format Level
Web Camera Audio and Video Easy
Headset with mic Audio Easy
Microphone Audio Easy
Portable Audio Audio Easy
Flip Camera Audio and Video Easy
Still Image Camera Audio and Video Easy to Medium
Video Camera Audio and Video Medium to Advanced