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  1. 1. Grand theory. What does Innis do? Road map of academic argument
  2. 2. Minerva’s owl departs when the civilization is in decline And just before the owl leaves scholars produce their best
  3. 3. Innis takes a wide look at history and asks What is the effect of media technology on learning.
  4. 4. He posits his theories: THEORY: If the technology is complex- i.e Sanskrit then its costs are high and Monopolies and hierarchies are created.
  5. 5. Flexible languages can adapt to vernaculars But if not flexible then Monopolies and hierarchies are born Reading is different from writing It implies passive recognition of power
  6. 6. When a new technology appears A realignment occurs in monopoly of knowledge and hierarchy. Bangalore Church vs Lutherans
  7. 7. A technology that denies access to vernacular Will be broken down by force Cavalry example i.e paper and printing technologies broke the power of the church.
  8. 8. and The masses always have more power/force/strength than the ruling class So rulers have to use public opinion to stay in power
  9. 9. Therefore monopolies of power Have relations with Organized force.
  10. 10. Interest in learning requires stability Powerful organized force for protection
  11. 11. Concentrated learning requires written tradition Rigidity and lack of contact with vernacular
  12. 12. A great institution is The tomb of the founder As this rigidity increases the relations between The vernacular and organized force collapse
  13. 13. And while this is happening a new technology Comes in from the fringes of society. i.e Church banned printing press in France Books were smuggled in from elsewhere.
  14. 14. In the meantime scholars produce their best work. Move to more secure Areas and cause Flowering there i.e Ionians.
  15. 15. Organized force will be successful when Oral tradition vernacular technology combine Nationalistic Narratives and Ideologies Are examples Of this
  16. 16. When art reaches a state of perfection It will decline Perfection imported will have a stifling effect
  17. 17. New technologies for Innis Transport Script Cunieform Papyrus Parchment Paper Radio etc
  18. 18. Cunieform = old technology controlled by priests Horse = new technology enabled formation of city state unions Political organization evolved Village city union of cities Pharoanic empire system More flexible writing technology gave rise to more accessible Hebrew bible, allowed escape from temple ---- is this true?
  19. 19. writing Refutes myths Roman gods die Allows poetry and shades of meaning Rigid systems of law Abstract thought- philosophy History is born But in the Roman era the oral was still important
  20. 20. Plato ----- Oral + written tradition Aristotle--- reading not oral instruction Allows flexibility , open ended immortal inconclusiveness Monarchy of mind Love for collections- dilettantes, taste, respect Scholars now concerned with conservation, clarification, past
  21. 21. Books became powerful meant for those who read all books Literature became divorced from real life Ivory tower Libraries became powerhouses to offset power of Priests and temple
  22. 22. With the decline of the oral tradition power of expression and creation and grooves that determine channels of thought declined too. Literature, poetry , theatre died Jurisprudence and gladiator spectacles flourished
  23. 23. Hebrew Ordinary people speak Armaic Hebrew can’t absorb vernacular so Christianity escapes lower status by Deploying new fresh vernacular language.
  24. 24. New technology parchment replaces papyrus Durable/ compact/ easier to use Allows silent reading to self cumbersome/ not durable Kept in scrolls Rarely consulted Read aloud to group
  25. 25. China Buddhism Printing Paper
  26. 26. Paper’s appearance in Muslim Empire Coincides with the most splendid period.
  27. 27. Minerva’s Owl From Ionians to Athens to Greece to Rome To Europe. When Muslims take Egypt parchment stops Europe stagnates Then Arabs introduce Greek ideas to the West
  28. 28. The church Vs Printing and translation of bible inquisition
  29. 29. The development of printing The classics Pamphlets Books Magazines JOURNALISM and newspapers develop The influence of cable
  30. 30. <ul><li>Effects of discovery of printing press </li></ul><ul><li>savage religious wars 16 and 17th C </li></ul><ul><li>consolidation of vernaculars </li></ul><ul><li>rise of nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Latin declines </li></ul><ul><li>Oral tradition dies </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarship wanes </li></ul>