Guide to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Calculation 0
March 2013
GUIDANCE ON CALCULATING GREENHOUSE
GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS
Contents
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
1
1 INTRODUCTION 4
1.1 Scope and update of the Guida...
3.4 Buses and coaches 31
3.5 Sea transport 34
3.6 Air transport 35
3.7 Rail transport 38
3.7.1 Passenger transport 38
3.7....
1
Introduction
1.1 Scope and update of the Guidance
The Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions (hereinafte...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
4
As a complement to this Guidance, a greenhouse gas emission...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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• Incorporation of the calculation method for emissions fro...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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1.3 GHG emission categories in organisations
GHG emissions ...
SCOPE 3: OTHER INDIRECTSCOPE 1: DIRECT
SCOPE 2: ENERGY
INDIRECT
Fuel combustion
(e.g. heaters or
turbines)
Own-fleet trans...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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− Scope 3 emissions include other indirect emissions, such ...
1.4 Emissions covered by the Emissions Trading System
(ETS) Directive and non-ETS emissions
Directive 2009/29/EC amending ...
1.
1.
Energy
2
2.1 Electricity consumption
Emission factors
− To calculate the associated emissions, it is important to ap...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
11
EXAMPLE OF ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
An elderly care home wi...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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2.2 Fossil fuel consumption
Emission factors
− Units vary ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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− To calculate the associated emissions, apply the corresp...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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GAS OIL EXAMPLE
A household consuming 1,000 litres of heat...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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2.3 Biomass13
Emission factors14
• The use of pure biomass...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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2.4 Renewable energy
2.4.1 Renewable energy for self-consu...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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2.4.2 Renewable energy connected to the grid
• Producing r...
3
Transport
3.1 Cars
3.1.1 Passenger transport
CO2 emissions from motor vehicles (cars) can be calculated differently depe...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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A. Litres of fuel (diesel or petrol) consumed
DATA AVAILAB...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption
DATA...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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C. km covered and make and model of vehicle (diesel or pet...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.1.2 Goods transport
The same calculation method as for p...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.2 Lorries, pickups and minivans
3.2.1 Passenger transpor...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption (die...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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If none of the above data is available (fuel consumption, ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.2.2 Goods transport
The same calculation method as for p...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.3 Mopeds and motorbikes
3.3.1 Passenger transport
As wit...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption
DATA...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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If none of the above data is available (fuel consumption, ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.4 Buses and coaches
For petrol, diesel, biofuel or natur...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption
DATA...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
32
If none of the above data is available (fuel consumption, ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.5 Sea transport
The CO2 emission factors according to fu...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
34
3.6 Air transport
To estimate the emissions associated wit...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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1. Select ticket type (My ticket is): choose from Economy ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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EXAMPLE
A company with offices in Barcelona wishing to cal...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.7 Rail transport
3.7.1 Passenger transport
To calculate ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
38
3.7.2 Goods transport
To calculate the emissions associate...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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3.8 Agriculture
To calculate the emissions associated with...
4
Fugitive emissions
4.1 Fluorinated gases
The greenhouse gases (GHG) in the Kyoto Protocol include, amongst others, three...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
41
have leakage detection systems which alert the operator on...
Waste
5
5.1 Emissions from municipal waste management
To estimate the GHG emissions from municipal waste management, first...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
43
pre-treatment plants, and treatment and final disposal pla...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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B. m3
waste generated by fraction
DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATI...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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INITIAL
Total emissions = 3,086.91 kg CO2-eq = 3.09 t CO2-...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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For detailed information on the calculation method for GHG...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Annex 1
Estimate of emissions associated with events63
The...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Define the scope of emissions: electricity consumption, ai...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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emissions categories it wishes to estimate for an event. I...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Annex 2
Calculation of emissions in public authorities
Tow...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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The aim of this Annex is to provide town councils and othe...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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To estimate these emissions, see section 3 of this Guidanc...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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- Urban and intercity public transport not owned or manage...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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In accordance with the corresponding section of this Guida...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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SOURCE EMISSIONS
Public transport
• Urban (diesel)
• Inter...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Annex 3
EMISSION FACTORS FOR ENERGY
ENERGY SOURCE EMISSION...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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MODE OF
TRANSPORT
ACTIVITY DATA EMISSION FACTOR
Car
Urban ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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HFC-125 C2HF5 2800
HFC-134 C2H2F4 (CHF2CHF2) 1000
HFC-134a...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Emission factors by type of vehicle (g CO2/km)69
A. Separa...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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OTHER VEHICLES Emission factors: g CO2/km depending on spe...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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4 stroke 250-750 cc Euro 1 135.24 106.50 141.60
4 stroke 2...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Prior to Euro 1 105.04
Euro 1 79.58
Euro 2 73.21
2 stroke ...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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C. Year of entry into force of regulations defining techno...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Annex 476
List of CO2-neutral biomass
This is a list, by n...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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- Biomass fraction of mixed residues from food and beverag...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Annex 5
Average motor fuel prices77
Unleaded petrol 95 Mot...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Annex 6
Rail distances on Renfe high-speed lines:
LAV Barc...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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LAV Madrid-Segovia-Valladolid (northern corridor)
ORIGIN D...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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RENFE local rail distances:
Barcelona stations
ORIGIN DEST...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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L’Hospitalet de Llobregat-Vic-Puigcerdà-La Tor de Querol l...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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RENFE middle distance rail lines:
Saragossa-Lleida-Manresa...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Tarragona-Barcelona-Granollers-Girona-Figueres-Portbou lin...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Madrid-Saragossa-Riba-roja-Móra-Reus-Picamoixons-Valls-Rod...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km)
Barcelona A Coruña 1,891
...
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Madrid stations
ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km)
Chamartín...
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Northern area
ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km)
Madrid Burg...
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Eastern and southern area
ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km)...
Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013.
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Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat rail distances:
Barcelona -...
Guidance on calculating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Guidance on calculating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
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Guidance on calculating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

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The Catalan Office for Climate Change has updated the Guidance on calculating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This Guidance is a tool for any organisation, in example government agencies, companies, associations, and citizens in general. Moreover, together with the Calculator, the Guidance is the tool recommended to draw up GHG inventory for organizations joined to the Voluntary Agreements Programme for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

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Guidance on calculating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

  1. 1. Guide to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Calculation 0 March 2013 GUIDANCE ON CALCULATING GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS
  2. 2. Contents Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 1 1 INTRODUCTION 4 1.1 Scope and update of the Guidance 4 1.2 Conceptual framework 6 1.3 GHG emission categories in organisations 7 1.4 Emissions covered by the Emissions Trading System (ETS) Directive and non-ETS emissions 10 2 ENERGY 11 2.1 Electricity consumption 11 2.2 Fossil fuel consumption 13 2.3 Biomass 16 2.4 Renewable energy 17 2.4.1 Renewable energy for self-consumption 17 2.4.2 Renewable energy connected to the grid 18 .... 3 TRANSPORT 19 .... 3.1 Cars 19 3.1.1 Passenger transport 19 3.1.2 Goods transport 23 3.2 Lorries, pickups and minivans 24 3.2.1 Passenger transport 24 3.2.2 Goods transport 27 3.3 Mopeds and motorbikes 28 3.3.1 Passenger transport 28 3.3.2 Goods transport 30
  3. 3. 3.4 Buses and coaches 31 3.5 Sea transport 34 3.6 Air transport 35 3.7 Rail transport 38 3.7.1 Passenger transport 38 3.7.2 Goods transport 39 3.8 Agriculture 40 4 FUGITIVE EMISSIONS 41 4.1 Fluorinated gases 41 5 WASTE 43 5.1 Emissions from municipal waste management 43 Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 2 ANNEXES 1. Estimate of emissions associated with events 48 2. Calculation of emissions in public authorities 50 3. Emission factors 56 4. List of carbon-neutral biomass 64 5. Average motor fuel prices 66 6. Rail distances 67 7. Electricity mix calculation method 80
  4. 4. 1 Introduction 1.1 Scope and update of the Guidance The Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions (hereinafter, the Guidance) is designed to help estimate GHG emissions. This Guidance is intended as a tool to help organisations and the general public estimate the emissions associated with their activities, or the reduction to be expected once mitigation measures have been implemented. This Guidance also presents the framework of organisations' inventories or carbon footprints, and, based on internationally recognised protocols, explains the different types of emissions categories to be encountered. Likewise, it introduces the carbon footprint of events. The term ‘greenhouse gases’ (GHG) refers to CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq), which includes the six greenhouse gases included in the Kyoto Protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The Guidance in and of itself does not allow the possible total GHG emissions of an organisation or activity to be calculated. What the Guidance does enable you to calculate are emissions associated with energy consumption, in both stationary facilities and transport, fugitive fluorinated gas emissions, and emissions from municipal waste management. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 3
  5. 5. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 4 As a complement to this Guidance, a greenhouse gas emissions calculator has been drawn up as an aid to organisations and the general public (available via the calculator link). With this calculator, and following the recommendations in the Guidance, we can calculate CO2 emissions directly. Finally, the Guidance can also serve as a useful tool for organisations who are preparing a GHG emissions inventory under the Programme of Voluntary Agreements for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction initiated by the Government of Catalonia. This Guidance will be reviewed by the Catalan Office for Climate Change (OCCC) at least once a year. As part of the review, emission factors will be updated with the latest available data, and, wherever possible, the scope of the categories included in the calculation of GHG emissions will be extended. New features of the Guidance 2013 Some of the new features of this new edition of the Guidance are: • Update of the emission factors of fossil fuels according to the latest available data. • Update of the electricity mix using the latest available data in accordance with the OCCC's electricity mix calculation method. • Incorporation of the emission factor for agricultural gas oil (kg CO2/litre). • Incorporation of the emission factor of LPG (kg CO2/litre and g CO2/km). • Update of average motor fuel prices. • Update of the emission factors of motorised transport (g CO2/km) as per the update (May 2012) of the Corinair 2009 method and according to speed per type of vehicle of the Ministry of Territory and Sustainability.1 • Update of rail transport modes and their emission factors according to the latest available data. • Incorporation of the emission factor for gas oil for sea transport (kg CO2/l gas oil). 1 Data from SIMCAT (Information and Modelling System for Territorial Policy Assessment in Catalonia).
  6. 6. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 5 • Incorporation of the calculation method for emissions from municipal waste management. 1.2 Conceptual framework In general, when dealing with the concept of an organisation’s ‘carbon footprint’, we are describing the total impact of an organisation on the climate due to GHG emissions into the atmosphere. The term ‘organisation’ includes companies, institutions, government agencies, non-profit organisations and associations, amongst others. In order to quantify this ‘footprint’, it is imperative that an estimation protocol and GHG emissions accounting be applied. One of the methodologies used to quantify GHG emissions is ISO 14064 standard part 12 , and ISO 14069, which serves as a guide to applying ISO 14064, part 1. This standard was developed in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol)3 . When it comes to understanding, quantifying and managing GHG emissions, this GHG Protocol, of the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, is one of the most widely used at international level. These two documents are the major references on the subject. The carbon footprint of certain activities, such as an event, can also be determined as a way of estimating their impact in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The term carbon footprint is also applied to products, in which case the estimation methodologies are based on life-cycle analysis. 2 Standard UNE-ISO 14064-1. Greenhouse gases. Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. 3 See:www.ghgprotocol.org.
  7. 7. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 6 1.3 GHG emission categories in organisations GHG emissions associated with an organisation's activity can be classified according to whether they are direct or indirect. • Direct emissions are emissions from sources owned or controlled by the organisation. • Indirect emissions are emissions that are a consequence of the organisation’s activity, but that arise from sources owned or controlled by another organisation. Specifically, these emissions can be defined under three scopes: Scope 1: Direct emissions It includes direct emissions from sources owned or controlled by the organisation. For example, this group includes emissions from combustion sources such as boilers and organisation-owned or organisation-leased vehicles. Scope 2: Indirect emissions from electricity, heat, steam or cold generation It includes emissions derived from the consumption of electricity, heating or cooling or steam generated off-site but purchased by the organisation. The facilities producing the emissions are different from the organisation estimating emissions. Scope 3: Other indirect emissions It includes all other indirect emissions. Scope 3 emissions are the result of the organisation’s activities, but are from sources not owned or controlled by the organisation. Examples of Scope 3 activities are business trips, goods, material or passenger transport by another organisation, waste management by an organisation other than the generator and the production of purchased raw materials. Figure 1 shows a diagram with a breakdown of which emissions are included in the three scopes of GHG emissions, and which emissions can be calculated using this Guidance.
  8. 8. SCOPE 3: OTHER INDIRECTSCOPE 1: DIRECT SCOPE 2: ENERGY INDIRECT Fuel combustion (e.g. heaters or turbines) Own-fleet transport (e.g. cars, lorries, plane or train) Process emissions (e.g. cement, aluminium, waste treatment) Fugitive emissions (e.g. air conditioning leaks, CH4 leaks from pipes) Consumption of electricity, heat and cooling and steam purchased and generated off-site Acquired materials and fuels (e.g. extraction, treatment and production) Transport-related activities (e.g. travelling to work, business trips, distribution) Waste treatment Leasing of assets, franchises and outsourced purchases Sale of goods and services (e.g. use of goods and services) Fuel consumption Electricity consumption Transport Fugitive emissions of fluorinated gases GUIDANCE Waste Figure 1. Classification of GHG emissions and emissions calculated using the Guidance − Scope 1 emissions include emissions derived from fuel combustion, own-fleet transport and other emissions such as process emissions4 (e.g. CO2 emissions produced in decarbonation of calcium carbonate to produce clinker in a cement factory) and fugitive emissions5 (e.g. fluorinated gas emissions from possible leaks from refrigeration equipment). Emissions from own-fleet transport are, as the name suggests, those generated by the fleet owned by the organisation calculating them. However, it is advisable to include emissions from third-party fleets when the organisation has the operational control, as it is therefore in a position to help reduce such emissions. − Scope 2 emissions include emissions generated from the consumption of purchased electricity, heating and cooling and steam produced off-site. 4 Process emissions: GHG emissions different from combustion emissions, produced as a result of intentional and unintentional reactions between substances or their processing, including chemical and electrolytic reduction of metals, chemical decomposition and formation of substances for use as products or raw materials in processes. CO2 emissions from biomass- based physical or chemical processes have been excluded (e.g.: grape fermentation, aerobic waste treatment, other). Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 7 5 Direct fugitive emissions: in accordance with ISO 14069, leaks from equipment and storage and transport systems, and leaks from reservoirs and injection wells.
  9. 9. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 8 − Scope 3 emissions include other indirect emissions, such as those generated from the purchase of materials and fuel, waste treatment, outsourced purchases, the sale of goods and services and transport-related activities. Here the concept of transport covers emissions from work-related travel off the company premises, such as business travel, distribution operations and commuting6 . These are ‘external’ trips because they are undertaken on a fleet not owned by the organisation. Emissions from transport on a non-owned fleet managed by the organisation should be excluded, as these are considered Scope 1 emissions. 6 Journeys from home to work and vice versa.
  10. 10. 1.4 Emissions covered by the Emissions Trading System (ETS) Directive and non-ETS emissions Directive 2009/29/EC amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% by the year 2020 compared to 1990 levels. This means that, in 2020, the emissions allowances assigned to facilities as part of the Community trading scheme must be below 21% in comparison to reported 2005 levels. In this respect, GHG emissions can be classed as emissions covered by the ETS Directive and emissions not covered by ETS Directive (known as non-ETS emissions). When dealing with mitigation, any tonne reduced is necessary and useful, but the distinction between ETS emissions and non-ETS emissions may be useful in subsequent analyses. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 9
  11. 11. 1. 1. Energy 2 2.1 Electricity consumption Emission factors − To calculate the associated emissions, it is important to apply a CO2 emission factor that can be attributed to electricity supply - also called the electricity mix (g CO2/kWh) - to represent emissions associated with electricity generation. − In Catalonia, any electricity consumed and not generated here, comes from the Spanish electricity grid, and there is no way of determining at which power station it was produced. Therefore, the data used in calculating the electricity mix concern the Spanish national grid. Furthermore, and according to the GHG Protocol7 and ISO 140698 , indirect emissions from electricity generation include only those emissions generated by all power stations in the network. For this reason, the OCCC recommends using the mix that reflects the emissions of the Spanish electricity grid associated with gross electricity generation. Annex 7 explains the electricity mix calculation method in detail. − The gross electricity generation mix recommended by the OCCC for 2012 is 300 g CO2/kWh. 7 GHG Protocol: Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 10 8 Greenhouse gases - Quantification and reporting of GHG emissions for organizations - Guidance for the application of ISO 14064-1.
  12. 12. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 11 EXAMPLE OF ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION An elderly care home with an annual electricity consumption of 38,000 kWh implements measures to save electricity, such as energy-efficient lighting and energy-saving air conditioning and appliances, which reduce electricity consumption by 8%. What is the resulting reduction in emissions? INITIAL FINAL Energy consumption = 38,000 kWh/year Energy consumption = 38,000 - (38,000 x 0.08) = 34,960 kWh/year CO2 emissions = (38,000 kWh/year x 300 g CO2/kWh) = 11,400,000 g CO2/year CO2 emissions = (34,960 kWh/year x 300 g CO2/kWh) = 10,488,000 g CO2/year Therefore the saving in emissions is: 11,400,000 g CO2 - 10,488,000 g CO2 = 912,000 g CO2/year (0.912 tCO2/year)
  13. 13. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 12 2.2 Fossil fuel consumption Emission factors − Units vary according to type of fuel: • Natural gas (m)3 • Butane gas (kg or number of cylinders) • Butane gas (kg or number of cylinders) • Gas oil (litres) • Fuel oil (kg) • Generic LPG (kg) • National and imported coal (kg) • Petroleum coke (kg) − Conversion factors to change mass or volume units into energy units, according to fuel type, representing the calorific value of fuels are as follows: FUEL CONVERSION FACTOR9 Natural gas (m)3 ) 10.70 kWh/Nm3 of natural gas10 Butane gas (kg) 12.44 kWh/kg of butane gas Propane gas (kg) 12.83 kWh/kg of propane gas Gas oil (kg) 11.78 kWh/kg of gas oil Fuel oil (kg) 11.16 kWh/kg of fuel oil Generic LPG (kg) 12.64 kWh/kg of generic LPG National coal (kg) 6.42 kWh/kg of national coal Imported coal (kg) 7.09 kWh/kg of imported coal Petroleum coke (kg) 9.03 kWh/kg of petroleum coke 9 Source: Own material based on data from Annex 8 of the Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990-2010 (2012) and from Annex I of Renewable Energies Plan 2011-2020. kWh according to LHC (lower heat capacity). 10 Cubic metres (m 3 ) of natural gas at normal conditions for pressure and temperature.
  14. 14. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 13 − To calculate the associated emissions, apply the corresponding emission factor, according to the following: FUEL EMISSION FACTOR 11 Natural gas (m3 ) 2.15 kg CO2/Nm3 natural gas Butane gas (kg) Butane gas (number of cylinders) 2.96 kg CO2/kg butane gas 37.06 kg CO2/cylinder (considering a 12.5-kg cylinder) Propane gas (kg) Propane gas (number of cylinders) 2.94 kg CO2/kg propane gas 102.84 kg CO2/cylinder (considering a 35-kg cylinder) Gas oil (litres) 2.79 kg CO2/l gas oil12 Fuel oil (kg) 3.05 kg CO2/kg fuel oil Generic LPG (kg) 2.96 kg CO2/kg generic LPG National coal (kg) 2.30 kg CO2/kg national coal Imported coal (kg) 2.58 kg CO2/kg imported coal Petroleum coke (kg) 3.19 kg CO2/kg petroleum coke NATURAL GAS EXAMPLE A household consuming 100 m3 of natural gas per month replaces the boiler with a more efficient model, which leads to a 5% reduction in total natural gas consumption. The reduction in associated CO2 emissions is calculated as follows: INITIAL FINAL Energy consumption = 100 m3 of natural gas/month Energy consumption = 100 - (100 x 0.05) = 95 m3 ofnatural gas/month CO2 emissions = (100 m3 x 2.15 kg/m3 ) = 215.00 kg CO2/month CO2emissions = (95 m3 x 2.15 kg/m3 ) = 204.25 kg CO2/month Therefore the saving in emissions is: 215.00 kg of CO2 - 204.25 kg of CO2 = 10.75 kg of CO2 /month; 10.75 kg of CO2 /month x 12 = 129.00 kg CO2 /year (0.129 t of CO2 /year) 11 Source: Own material based on data from Annex 8 of the Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990-2010 (2012). 12 Density of gas oil C at 15ºC: 900 kg/m 3 (Royal Decree 1088/2010).
  15. 15. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 14 GAS OIL EXAMPLE A household consuming 1,000 litres of heating oil per year changes fuel. It goes over to natural gas, consuming 931 m3 natural gas/year. The reduction in associated CO2 emissions is calculated as follows: INITIAL FINAL Energy consumption = 1,000 litres gas oil/year Energy consumption = 931 m3 of natural gas/year CO2 emissions = (1,000 l/year x 2.79 kg/l) = 2,790.00 kg CO2/year CO2 emissions = (931 m3 /year x 2.15 kg/Nm3 ) = 2,001.65 kg CO2/year Therefore the saving in emissions is: 2,790.00 kg CO2 - 2,001.65 kg CO2 = 788.35 kg CO2 /year (0.788 t CO2 /year)
  16. 16. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 15 2.3 Biomass13 Emission factors14 • The use of pure biomass15 as a fuel leads to what are considered neutral emissions, as the CO2 emitted during combustion had been previously absorbed from the atmosphere. Therefore, the emission factor applied to pure biomass is zero (t CO2/TJ or t or Nm3 ). In order to provide you with further information, Annex 2 contains a list of materials considered pure biomass with an emission factor of zero (t CO2/TJ, t CO2/t or t CO2/Nm3 )16 . BIOMASS EXAMPLE A plant in the ceramics sector with a natural gas consumption of 3.5 million m3 installs a biomass boiler fuelled with rice and corn husks, which means it can supply 15% of its energy itself. The reduction in associated CO2 emissions is calculated as follows: INITIAL FINAL Energy consumption = 3,500,000 m3 of natural gas/year Energy consumption = 3,500,000 - (3,500,000 x 0.15) = 2,975,000 m3 of natural gas/year CO2 emissions = (3,500,000 m3 /year x 2.15 kg/Nm3 ) = 7,525,000 kg CO2/year CO2 emissions = (2,975,000 m3 /year x 2.15 kg/Nm3 ) = 6,396,250 kg CO2/year Therefore the saving in emissions is: 7,525,000 kg CO2/year - 6,396,250 kg CO2/year = 1,128,750 kg CO2/year (1,128.75 t CO2/year) 13 ‘Biomass’ means non-fossilised and biodegradable organic material originating from plants, animals and micro-organisms, including products, by-products, residues and waste from agriculture, forestry and related industries as well as the non- fossilised and biodegradable organic fractions of industrial and municipal wastes, including gases and liquids recovered from the decomposition of non-fossilised and biodegradable organic material. http://eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:229:0001:0085:EN:PDF 14 It must be remembered that, when referring to biofuels, this emissions calculation method does not include associated emissions that may arise from its life cycle. 15 Fuel or material shall qualify as pure biomass if the non-biomass content accounts for no more than 3% of the total quantity of the fuel or material concerned: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:229:0001:0085:EN:PDF 16 Point 9 of Annex 1 of Commission Decision 2004/156/EC: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2004:059:0001:0074:EN:PDF
  17. 17. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 16 2.4 Renewable energy 2.4.1 Renewable energy for self-consumption • The use of renewable energy only for self-consumption results directly in a reduction of energy consumption (from the electricity grid and/or fossil fuels). EXAMPLE A swimming club with total heating requirements of 382,800 kWh a year (initially met by a natural gas boiler) installs a solar heating system to provide hot water and to heat the swimming pool, which generates 79,000 kWh/year. The reduction in associated CO2 emissions is calculated as follows: INITIAL FINAL Energy consumption = 382,800 kWh/year x 1 Nm3 /10.70 kWh = 35,775.70 m3 of natural gas/year Energy consumption = 382,800 - 79,000 = 303,800 kWh/year; 303,800 kWh/year x 1 Nm3 /10.70 kWh = 28,392.52 m3 of natural gas/year CO2 emissions = (35,775.70 m3 x 2.15 kg/Nm3 ) = 76,917.76 kg CO2/year CO2 emissions = (28,392.52 m3 x 2.15 kg/Nm3 ) = 61,043.93 kg CO2/year Therefore the saving in emissions is: 76,917.76 kg CO2/year - 61,043.93 kg CO2/year = 15,873.83 kg CO2/year (15.87 t CO2/year).
  18. 18. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 17 2.4.2 Renewable energy connected to the grid • Producing renewable energy (e.g. a solar or wind power installation) that is connected to the grid translates into a reduction of emissions for the total amount of electricity generated in Spain, that is, the electricity mix decreases proportionally. This means a reduction of emissions covered by the Emissions Trading System Directive, but in no case counts as a reduction of non-ETS emissions.
  19. 19. 3 Transport 3.1 Cars 3.1.1 Passenger transport CO2 emissions from motor vehicles (cars) can be calculated differently depending on the data available. This proposal specifically includes the calculation method for three types of data17 : A. litres of fuel (diesel or petrol) consumed; or, if this data is not available, option B; B. amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption (diesel or petrol); or, if this data is not available, option C; C. km covered and make and model of car (diesel or petrol). It also includes emission factors which are useful when the data available concerns the distance covered but the make and model of the car are unknown. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 18 17 The most appropriate method is that based on litres of fuel, followed by euros spent on fuel and, finally, calculation based on kilometres covered and exact make and model of vehicle.
  20. 20. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 19 A. Litres of fuel (diesel or petrol) consumed DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Fuel consumption (litres diesel or petrol) Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factors18 : • Petrol 95 or 98: 2.38 kg CO2/litre • Diesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre • Bioethanol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre - % bioethanol19 If we use bioethanol 5, the fuel has 5% bioethanol (and 95% petrol 95) and the associated emissions are 2.38 – (0.05 x 2.38) = 2.26 kg CO2/litre • Biodiesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre - % biodiesel20 If we use biodiesel-30, that means it's 30% biodiesel (and 70% diesel) and the associated emissions are = 2.61 – (0.3 x 2.61) = 1.83 kg CO2/litre • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): 1.63 kg CO2/litre21 It is important to keep in mind that, in the case of electric vehicles, CO2 emissions cannot be assumed to be zero. Electric vehicles generate CO2 emissions through the electricity they consume to charge their batteries. Therefore, to calculate the CO2 emissions for an electric vehicle, we must multiply electricity consumption due to charging the battery (kWh) by the electricity mix, available in section 2.1 of this Guidance. 18 Source: Own material based on data in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990-2010 (2012); density of gas oil at 15ºC = 833 kg/m 3 , density of petrol at 15ºC = 748 kg/m 3 , density of LPG at 15ºC = 539 kg/m 3 (Own material based on Royal Decree 1088/2010 and Royal Decree 61/2006). 19 The percentage of bioethanol in fuel may be 5%, 10% or 85%. If this data is unavailable, 5% is considered by default, since 5% bioethanol is valid for all petrol vehicles, with no need for changes to the engine. 20 The percentage of biodiesel in fuel may be 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% or 100%. If this data is unavailable, 30% is considered by default, as this mixture is frequently used. 21 A 50% propane/50% butane mix is considered.
  21. 21. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 20 B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Cost of fuel consumption (diesel or petrol) (euros) 1.Calculation of litres consumed: For Catalonia, the following data may be used as a guide22 : 2012: • Petrol 95: 143.2 euro cents/l • Petrol 98: 155.2 euro cents/l • Diesel: 137.3 euro cents/l • Biodiesel: 136.5 euro cents/l23 2.Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factors: • Petrol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre • Diesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre • Bioethanol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre - % bioethanol24 If we use bioethanol 5, the fuel has 5% bioethanol (and 95% petrol 95) and the associated emissions are 2.38 – (0.05 x 2.38) = 2.26 kg CO2/litre • Biodiesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre - % biodiesel25 If we use biodiesel-30, that means it's 30% biodiesel (and 70% diesel) and the associated emissions are = 2.61 – (0.3 x 2.61) = 1.83 kg CO2/litre 22 Own material based on http://www.mityc.es/energia/petroleo/Precios/Informes/InformesAnuales/Paginas/InformesAnuales.aspx and http://geoportal.mityc.es/hidrocarburos/eess/. The price of motor fuel varies according to autonomous community. If data is available for the autonomous community where the fuel was loaded (95 petrol or diesel), the data from Annex 5 must be applied. 23 Biodiesel contains various percentages of metal ester (10%, 20%, 30%, 100%...). 24 The percentage of bioethanol in fuel may be 5%, 10% or 85%. If this data is unavailable, 5% is considered by default, since 5% bioethanol is valid for all petrol vehicles, with no need for changes to the engine. 25 The percentage of biodiesel in fuel may be 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% or 100%. If this data is unavailable, 30% is considered by default, as this mixture is frequently used.
  22. 22. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 21 C. km covered and make and model of vehicle (diesel or petrol) DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR km covered and make and exact model of vehicle Direct calculation of CO2 (g CO2/km): • IDAE guide conversion factors according to make and model of vehicle (latest edition of the ‘Guide to Consumption and Emissions for New Vehicles’) http://www.idae.es/coches/ If none of the above data is available (fuel consumption, cost of fuel, distance covered plus make and model of vehicle), and only the distance covered (km) is known, the following emission factors may be used26 . EMISSIONS ACCORDING TO SPEED (g CO2/km) FUEL CUBIC CAPACITY URBAN (21 km/h) AVERAGE (70 km/h) Other roads HIGH (107 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways <1.4 l 205.87 135.96 156.50 1.4 - 2.01 l 252.62 157.34 173.33Petrol >2 l 344.32 192.88 220.33 <2 l 215.90 134.54 160.68 Diesel >2 l 265.94 169.62 202.22 Hybrid Any 105.43 101.86 129.44 LPG Any 175.95 136.10 175.07 Emissions according to distance covered vary depending on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics and speed limit. The table shows emission factors (g CO2/km) as an aggregate. The use of emission factors by vehicle type separated by driving type (g CO2/km), found in Annex 3, is recommended. 26 Source: Own material based on the Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009 (updated May 2012), chapter 1.A.3.b. Traffic speeds from SIMCAT 2010 (Information and Modelling System for Territorial Policy Assessment in Catalonia), Ministry of Territory and Sustainability.
  23. 23. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 22 3.1.2 Goods transport The same calculation method as for passenger transport emissions (section 3.1.1) is proposed for goods transport by car. To give the most realistic results possible, the percentage represented by the load transported in respect of the vehicle total load must be established. This can be done based on certain hypotheses according to the data available. The emissions associated with the transport of certain goods will be proportional to the percentage that those goods represent of the total load carried.
  24. 24. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 23 3.2 Lorries, pickups and minivans 3.2.1 Passenger transport As with cars, the calculation method varies according to the type of data available27 : A. Litres of fuel (diesel or petrol) consumed DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Fuel consumption (litres diesel or petrol) Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factors28 . • Petrol 95 or 98: 2.38 kg CO2/litre • Diesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre • Bioethanol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre - % bioethanol29 If we use bioethanol 5, the fuel has 5% bioethanol (and 95% petrol 95) and the associated emissions are 2.38 – (0.05 x 2.38) = 2.26 kg CO2/litre • Biodiesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre - % biodiesel30 If we use biodiesel-30, that means it's 30% biodiesel (and 70% diesel) and the associated emissions are = 2.61 – (0.3 x 2.61) = 1.83 kg CO2/litre • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): 1.63 kg CO2/litre31 It is important to keep in mind that, in the case of electric vehicles, CO2 emissions cannot be calculated as zero. Electric vehicles generate CO2 emissions through the electricity they consume to charge their batteries. Therefore, to calculate the CO2 emissions for an electric vehicle, we must multiply electricity consumption due to charging the battery (kWh) by the electricity mix, available in section 2.1 of this Guidance. 27 The most appropriate method is that based on litres of fuel, followed by euros spent on fuel. 28 Source: Own material based on data in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990-2010 (2012); density of gasoil at 15ºC= 833 kg/m 3 , density of petrol at 15ºC = 748 kg/m 3 (Own material based on Royal Decree 1088/2010). 29 The percentage of bioethanol in fuel may be 5%, 10% or 85%. If this data is unavailable, 5% is considered by default, since 5% bioethanol is valid for all petrol vehicles, with no need for changes to the engine. 30 The percentage of biodiesel in fuel may be 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% or 100%. If this data is unavailable, 30% is considered by default, as this mixture is frequently used. 31 A 50% propane/50% butane mix is considered.
  25. 25. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 24 B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption (diesel or petrol) DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Cost of fuel consumption (diesel or petrol) (euros) 1.Calculation of litres consumed (euro cents/litre): For Catalonia, the following data may be used as a guide32 : 2012: • Petrol 95: 143.2 euro cents/l • Petrol 98: 155.2 euro cents/l • Diesel: 137.3 euro cents/l • Biodiesel: 136.5 euro cents/l33 2.Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factors: • Petrol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre • Diesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre • Bioethanol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre - % bioethanol34 If we use bioethanol 5, the fuel has 5% bioethanol (and 95% petrol 95) and the associated emissions are 2.38 – (0.05 x 2.38) = 2.26 kg CO2/litre • Biodiesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre - % biodiesel35 If we use biodiesel-30, that means it's 30% biodiesel (and 70% diesel) and the associated emissions are = 2.61 – (0.3 x 2.61) = 1.83 kg CO2/litre 32 Own material based on http://www.mityc.es/energia/petroleo/Precios/Informes/InformesAnuales/Paginas/InformesAnuales.aspx and http://geoportal.mityc.es/hidrocarburos/eess/. The price of motor fuel varies according to autonomous community. If data is available for the autonomous community where the fuel was loaded (95 petrol or diesel), the data from Annex 5 must be applied. 33 Biodiesel contains various percentages of metal ester (10%, 20%, 30%, 100%...). 34 The percentage of bioethanol in fuel may be 5%, 10% or 85%. If this data is unavailable, 5% is considered by default, since 5% bioethanol is valid for all petrol vehicles, with no need for changes to the engine. 35 The percentage of biodiesel in fuel may be 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% or 100%. If this data is unavailable, 30% is considered by default, as this mixture is frequently used.
  26. 26. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 25 If none of the above data is available (fuel consumption, cost of fuel, distance covered plus make and model of vehicle), and only the distance covered (km) is known, the following emission factors may be used36 . EMISSIONS ACCORDING TO SPEED (g CO2/km) VEHICLE TYPE URBAN (21 km/h) AVERAGE (63 km/h) Other roads HIGH (97 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways Petrol Any 391.20 210.84 213.71Light (minivan) Diesel Any 307.69 194.48 268.78 EMISSIONS ACCORDING TO SPEED (g CO2/km) VEHICLE TYPE URBAN (12 km/h) AVERAGE (54 km/h) Other roads HIGH (84 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways <= 14 t 788.53 397.25 410.38 Rigid >14 t 1629.90 487.52 470.09 <= 34 t 1484.79 573.59 527.76 Heavy diesel (lorry) Articulated >34 t 2147.16 666.35 590.14 Emissions according to distance covered vary depending on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics and speed limit. The table shows emission factors (g CO2/km) as an aggregate. The use of emission factors by vehicle type separated by driving type (g CO2/km), found in Annex 3, is recommended. 36 Source: Own material based on the Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009 (updated May 2012), chapter 1.A.3.b. Traffic speeds from SIMCAT 2010 (Information and Modelling System for Territorial Policy Assessment in Catalonia), Ministry of Territory and Sustainability.
  27. 27. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 26 3.2.2 Goods transport The same calculation method as for passenger transport emissions (section 3.2.1) is proposed for goods transport by lorry, pickup and minivan. To give the most realistic results possible, the percentage represented by the load transported in respect of the vehicle total load must be established. This can be done based on certain hypotheses according to the data available. The emissions associated with the transport of certain goods will be proportional to the percentage that those goods represent of the total load carried.
  28. 28. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 27 3.3 Mopeds and motorbikes 3.3.1 Passenger transport As with cars, the calculation method varies according to the type of data available37 : A. Litres of fuel (diesel or petrol) consumed SOURCE OF DATA CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Fuel consumption (litres petrol) Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factor38 : • Petrol 95 or 98: 2.38 kg CO2/litre • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): 1.63 kg CO2/litre39 It is important to keep in mind that, in the case of electric vehicles, CO2 emissions cannot be calculated as zero. Electric vehicles generate CO2 emissions through the electricity they consume to charge their batteries. Therefore, to calculate the CO2 emissions for an electric vehicle, we must multiply electricity consumption due to charging the battery (kWh) by the electricity mix, available in section 2.1 of this Guidance. 37 The most appropriate method is that based on litres of fuel, followed by euros spent on fuel. 38 Source: Own material based on data in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990-2010 (2012); density of gas oil at 15ºC = 833 kg/m 3 , density of petrol at 15ºC = 748 kg/m 3 (Own material based on Royal Decree 1088/2010). 39 A 50% propane/50% butane mix is considered.
  29. 29. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 28 B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Cost of fuel consumption (petrol) (euros) 1. Calculation of litres consumed (euro cents/litre): For Catalonia, the following data may be used as a guide40 : 2012: • Petrol 95: 143.2 euro cents/l • Petrol 98: 155.2 euro cents/l 2. Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factor: • Petrol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre 40 Own material based on http://www.mityc.es/energia/petroleo/Precios/Informes/InformesAnuales/Paginas/InformesAnuales.aspx and http://geoportal.mityc.es/hidrocarburos/eess/. The price of motor fuel varies according to autonomous community. If data is available for the autonomous community where the fuel was loaded (95 petrol or diesel), the data from Annex 5 must be applied.
  30. 30. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 29 If none of the above data is available (fuel consumption, cost of fuel, distance covered plus make and model of vehicle), and only the distance covered (km) is known, the following emission factors may be used41 . EMISSIONS ACCORDING TO SPEED (g CO2/km) VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION URBAN (25 km/h) AVERAGE (70 km/h) Other roads HIGH (107 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways Conventional 79.58 - - Moped Average Euro class 39.87 - - 2 stroke < 250 cc 105.22 85.87 126.32 4 stroke < 250 cc 83.03 80.56 108.48 4 stroke 250-750 cc 134.71 105.73 138.00 Motorbike 4 stroke > 750 cc 169.37 123.60 149.01 Emissions according to distance covered vary depending on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics and speed limit. The table shows emission factors (g CO2/km) as an aggregate. The use of emission factors by vehicle type separated by driving type (g CO2/km), found in Annex 3, is recommended. 3.3.2 Goods transport The same calculation method as for passenger transport emissions (section 3.3.1) is proposed for goods transport by motorbike. To give the most realistic results possible, the percentage represented by the load transported in respect of the vehicle total load must be established. This can be done based on certain hypotheses according to the data available. The emissions associated with the transport of certain goods will be proportional to the percentage that those goods represent of the total load carried. 41 Source: Own material based on the Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009 (updated May 2012), chapter 1.A.3.b. Traffic speeds from SIMCAT 2010 (Information and Modelling System for Territorial Policy Assessment in Catalonia), Ministry of Territory and Sustainability.
  31. 31. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 30 3.4 Buses and coaches For petrol, diesel, biofuel or natural gas buses or coaches, the CO2 emission factors by fuel are42 : A. Litres of fuel (diesel or petrol) consumed DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Fuel consumption (litres diesel or petrol) Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factors43 : • Petrol 95 or 98: 2.38 kg CO2/litre • Diesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre • Bioethanol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre - % bioethanol44 • If we use bioethanol 5, the fuel has 5% bioethanol (and 95% petrol 95) and the associated emissions are 2.38 – (0.05 x 2.38) = 2.26 kg CO2/litre • Biodiesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre - % biodiesel45 • If we use biodiesel-30, that means it's 30% biodiesel (and 70% diesel) and the associated emissions are = 2.61 – (0.3 x 2.61) = 1.83 kg CO2/litre • Natural gas: 2.74 kg CO2/kg gas natural46 • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): 1.63 kg CO2/litre47 It is important to keep in mind that, in the case of electric vehicles, CO2 emissions cannot be calculated as zero. Electric vehicles generate CO2 emissions through the electricity they consume to charge their batteries. Therefore, to calculate the CO2 emissions for an electric vehicle, we must multiply electricity consumption due to charging the battery (kWh) by the electricity mix, available in section 2.1 of this Guidance. 42 The most appropriate method is that based on litres of fuel, followed by euros spent on fuel. 43 Source: Own material based on data in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990-2010 (2012); density of gas oil at 15ºC = 833 kg/m 3 , density of petrol at 15ºC = 748 kg/m 3 (Own material based on Royal Decree 1088/2010). 44 The percentage of bioethanol in fuel may be 5%, 10% or 85%. If this data is unavailable, 5% is considered by default, since 5% bioethanol is valid for all petrol vehicles, with no need for changes to the engine. 45 The percentage of biodiesel in fuel may be 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% or 100%. If this data is unavailable, 30% is considered by default, as this mixture is frequently used. 46 Source: Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990-2010 (2012). 47 A 50% propane/50% butane mix is considered.
  32. 32. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 31 B. Amount (in euros) associated with fuel consumption DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Cost of fuel consumption (diesel or petrol) (euros) 1. Calculation of litres consumed: For Catalonia, the following data may be used as a guide48 : 2012: • Petrol 95: 143.2 euro cents/l • Petrol 98: 155.2 euro cents/l • Diesel: 137.3 euro cents/l • Biodiesel: 136.5 euro cents/l49 2. Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factors: • Petrol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre • Diesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre • Bioethanol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre - % bioethanol50 If we use bioethanol 5, the fuel has 5% bioethanol (and 95% petrol 95) and the associated emissions are 2.38 – (0.05 x 2.38) = 2.26 kg CO2/litre • Biodiesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre - % biodiesel51 If we use biodiesel-30, that means it's 30% biodiesel (and 70% diesel) and the associated emissions are = 2.61 – (0.3 x 2.61) = 1.83 kg CO2/litre 48 Own material based on http://www.mityc.es/energia/petroleo/Precios/Informes/InformesAnuales/Paginas/InformesAnuales.aspx and http://geoportal.mityc.es/hidrocarburos/eess/. The price of motor fuel varies according to autonomous community. If data is available for the autonomous community where the fuel was loaded (95 petrol or diesel), the data from Annex 5 must be applied. 49 Biodiesel contains various percentages of metal ester (10%, 20%, 30%, 100%...). 50 The percentage of bioethanol in fuel may be 5%, 10% or 85%. If this data is unavailable, 5% is considered by default, since 5% bioethanol is valid for all petrol vehicles, with no need for changes to the engine. 51 The percentage of biodiesel in fuel may be 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% or 100%. If this data is unavailable, 30% is considered by default, as this mixture is frequently used.
  33. 33. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 32 If none of the above data is available (fuel consumption, cost of fuel, distance covered plus make and model of vehicle), and only the distance covered (km) is known, the following emission factors may be used52 . EMISSIONS ACCORDING TO SPEED (g CO2/km) VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION URBAN (12 km/h) AVERAGE (54 km/h) Other roads HIGH (84 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways Standard <= 18 t 1873.20 721.12 596.21 Diesel coach 3 axles > 18 t 2211.94 810.13 665.10 Emissions according to distance covered vary depending on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics and speed limit. The table shows emission factors (g CO2/km) as an aggregate. The use of emission factors by vehicle type separated by driving type (g CO2/km), found in Annex 3, is recommended. To calculate the emissions associated with urban natural gas buses, the following factor is applied: MODE EMISSION FACTOR (g CO2/passenger/km)53 URBAN NATURAL GAS- POWERED BUS 82.81 The emission factor associated with urban buses is an average datum based on theoretical data on CO2 emissions per kilometre and a hypothetical average occupancy of urban and intercity buses of 16 passengers/bus. The urban bus is a mode of public transport that offers citizens a range of advantages, such as linking areas with no alternative means of transport, as well as providing the benefits associated with less congestion and improved air quality thanks to a decrease in private transport. 52 Source: Own material based on the Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009 (updated May 2012), chapter 1.A.3.b. Traffic speeds from SIMCAT 2010 (Information and Modelling System for Territorial Policy Assessment in Catalonia), Ministry of Territory and Sustainability. 53 Source: Own material based on data from http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook- 2009/ (chapter 1.A.3.b) and data on theoretical average occupancy of urban and intercity buses.
  34. 34. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 33 3.5 Sea transport The CO2 emission factors according to fuel used are: FUEL EMISSION FACTOR54 Diesel/Gas oil 3.206 kg CO2/kg gas oil 2.725 kg CO2/l gas oil55 Light fuel oil 3.151 kg CO2/kg light fuel oil Heavy fuel oil 3.114 kg CO2/kg heavy fuel oil Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 3.015 kg CO2/kg LPG Liquefied natural gas (LNG) 2.750 kg CO2/kg LNG 54 Source: Own material based on Guidelines for Voluntary Use of the Ship Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI). MEPC.1/Circ. 684. http://www.imo.org. 55 Density of shipping gas oil at 15ºC= 850 kg/m 3 (Own material based on Royal Decree 1088/2010).
  35. 35. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 34 3.6 Air transport To estimate the emissions associated with plane journeys, parameters are used for each type of plane, such as distance covered (kilometres), take-off height and cruising altitude, amongst others. Therefore, the associated emissions are not proportional to the kilometres covered. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations that sets the necessary standards and regulations for the safety, efficiency and regularity of air transport and its environmental protection. The ICAO has developed a CO2 emissions calculator for air travel based on a specific methodology. Verified by the ICAO, the methodology applies the best publicly available industry data and considers factors such as type of plane, route-specific data, passenger load factors and cargo carried.56 The ICAO CO2 emissions calculator is available at: ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator. To use the calculator, follow this procedure: • Enter airport of origin in the 'From' field. If the user enters the name of the city of origin, a drop-down list appears with the codes of the city's airports. Select the airport of origin from the list. • Enter destination airport in the 'To' field. If the user enters the name of the city of destination, a drop-down list appears with the codes of the city's airports. Select the destination airport from the list. Once the airport of origin is selected, only an airport to which there is a direct flight can be entered as a destination. Therefore, on flights with one or more stopovers, each flight must be entered separately. The example below shows the steps to follow for a flight with one stopover. To calculate the emissions for a flight Barcelona (BCN) – Denver (DEN) with a stopover in London (LHR) (round trip) for one economy-class passenger, follow the steps below: 56 For more information on the ICAO method, see: ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator. Version 5. June 2012 MODIFIED LINK. The ICAO calculator does not consider the radiative forcing index or other multipliers because the scientific community has not reached a consensus on their use (Questions and answers on the ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator).
  36. 36. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 35 1. Select ticket type (My ticket is): choose from Economy Class or Premium Class (Economy Premium, Business, or First). In the example, Economy Class. 2. Select the type of trip: One-Way or Round Trip. In the example, Round Trip. 3. Indicate how many passengers are taking the flight (Number of passengers). In the example, one. 4. Airport of origin (‘From’ field): BARCELONA, ESP (BCN). 5. Destination airport (‘To’ field): LONDON (GBR) (LHR). 6. Click on Add a flight. This enables us to enter a second flight following a stopover in London. 7. A new drop-down list is created automatically where the airport of origin is LONDON (GBR) (LHR), enter DENVER, USA (DEN) in the ‘To’ field 8. Finally, calculate the CO2 emissions by clicking on Calculate. The result obtained is 1,224.22 kg CO2, and if we click on More Details we can see other data, such as: • Distance covered on each flight: 1,146 km from Barcelona to London, and 7,491 km from London to Denver. • Average fuel consumption (kg): 4,397 kg of fuel on the Barcelona–London stretch and 59,670 kg of fuel on the London–Denver stretch.
  37. 37. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 36 EXAMPLE A company with offices in Barcelona wishing to calculate the annual impact its business flights have on climate change makes the following calculations for its personnel. Origin Destination No. of passengers taking the flight Annual emissions (kg CO2) Barcelona (BARCELONA, ESP (BCN)) Madrid (MADRID, ESP (MAD)) 5 637.13 Barcelona (BARCELONA, ESP (BCN)) Brussels (BRUSSELS, BEL (BRU)) 2 399.40 Barcelona (BARCELONA, ESP (BCN)) Denver, with stopover in London DENVER, USA (DEN) (via LONDON, GBR (LHR)) 1 1,224.22 Annual total 2,260.75 All flights in the example are economy class and round trip. The number of passengers is given as entry data and the annual emissions for each trip are given by the ICAO calculator.
  38. 38. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 37 3.7 Rail transport 3.7.1 Passenger transport To calculate the emissions associated with rail transport, the following factors are applied, according to mode of transport57 : MODE EMISSION FACTOR (g CO2/passenger *km) RENFE HIGH-SPEED (AVE) 28.8 RENFE AVANT 31.5 RENFE LONG DISTANCE 30.6 RENFE MIIDDLE DISTANCE (REGIONAL) 30.0 RENFE LOCAL 42.0 FGC 32.7 TRAM 73.8 METRO 49.6 The emissions associated with rail transport are covered by the Emissions Trading System Directive when they involve electric trains. 57 Source: RENFE, FGC and tram: Own material based on Ministry of Territory and Sustainability data. Metro: Own material based on data for 2011 from Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (including metro line 9). All emission factors include electricity consumption due to traction and at stations. The Spanish electricity mix for 2012 has been used (see section 2.1).
  39. 39. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 38 3.7.2 Goods transport To calculate the emissions associated with rail freight transport, the following factor is applied58 : MODE EMISSION FACTOR (g CO2/ t load x km) RENFE DIESEL 40.85 FGC DIESEL 42.48 RENFE ELECTRIC 21 The emissions associated with rail transport are covered by the Emissions Trading System Directive when they involve electric trains. 58 Own material based on Ministry of Territory and Sustainability data. For electric trains, the 2012 Spanish electricity mix has been used (see section 2.1).
  40. 40. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 39 3.8 Agriculture To calculate the emissions associated with an agricultural vehicle, the following factor is applied: FUEL EMISSION FACTOR59 (kg CO2/litre) Agricultural gas oil 2.67 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)60 1.63 It is important to keep in mind that, in the case of electric vehicles, CO2 emissions cannot be calculated as zero. Electric vehicles generate CO2 emissions through the electricity they consume to charge their batteries. Therefore, to calculate the CO2 emissions for an electric vehicle, we must multiply electricity consumption due to charging the battery (kWh) by the electricity mix, available in section 2.1 of this Guidance. . 59 Source: Own material based on data from the Greenhouse Gas Inventories Report 1990-2010 (2012) and density of agricultural gas oil at 15ºC = 850 kg/m 3 (Own material based on Royal Decree 1088/2010). 60 A 50% propane/50% butane mix is considered.
  41. 41. 4 Fugitive emissions 4.1 Fluorinated gases The greenhouse gases (GHG) in the Kyoto Protocol include, amongst others, three groups of fluorinated gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Fluorinated gases are used in various types of products and applications, specifically and depending on the type of gas: - HFCs are the most common group of fluorinated gases. They are used in various sectors and in a number of applications, such as refrigerants in refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump equipment, blowing agents for foams, fire extinguishers, aerosol propellants and solvents. - PFCs are generally used in the electronics sector and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, and to a lesser extent in refrigeration in place of CFC. In the past, PFCs were also used as fire extinguishers and can still be found in old fire protection systems. - SF6 is used mainly as an insulating gas, in high-voltage switchgear and as a protective gas in magnesium and aluminium production. To calculate the fugitive emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases, the emission factor given in the table in Annex 3 is applied to the quantity of fluorinated gas (unit mass). Fugitive emissions may be produced due to unwanted leaks of fluorinated gas. There are various types of controls to detect such leaks. These controls may be standard, routine checks on equipment containing 3 kilos or more of F-gas charge, post-repair checks following detection of a leak, or start-up checks in recently installed equipment. Likewise, equipment containing 300 kg or more of fluorinated gas must Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 40
  42. 42. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 41 have leakage detection systems which alert the operator on detection. When a leak is detected, regardless of the type of check made, the quantity of fluorinated gas added must be noted in the equipment records. The following are just some examples of how to determine the F-gas charge (kg), based on which potential GHG emissions are calculated: A. Equipment labels. B. Manual or technical specifications from the manufacturer, supplier or services company. C. Equipment records. EXAMPLE OF FUGITIVE FLUORINATED GAS EMISSIONS A plant has a heat pump with an F-gas charge of 45 kg. The heat pump does not have a leak detector and during a routine check a leak is detected. It is repaired and 2 kg of fluorinated gas (HFC-134a) is recharged. The associated CO2 emissions are calculated as follows: INITIAL FINAL F-gas charge = 43 kg HFC-134a F-gas charge = 45 kg HFC-134a CO2 emissions = 2 kg HFC-134a x 1,300 = 2,600 kg CO2-eq Total associated emissions: 2,600 kg CO2-eq
  43. 43. Waste 5 5.1 Emissions from municipal waste management To estimate the GHG emissions from municipal waste management, first establish the amount of waste generated and the type of management it undergoes (separate collection or otherwise). The GHG emission factors included in this section consider: • Municipal solid waste, that is, waste generated in households, shops, offices and services, and waste not considered hazardous and that can be treated like waste generated in the aforementioned places and activities. The following are also considered municipal solid waste: waste from street, green space, recreation area and beach cleaning; dead pets; discarded furniture, electric and electronic equipment, clothes, batteries, utensils and abandoned vehicles; waste and rubble from minor building and domestic repair work. Also included is commercial waste, defined as waste generated by the retail or wholesale trade, hotels and restaurants, bars, markets, offices and services. In terms of management, waste from industry that could be considered municipal also falls into this subgroup. • The following fractions: paper and cardboard, glass packaging, light packaging, organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and the non-segregated fraction. • CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions expressed in CO2-eq. In normal operating conditions, waste management does not generate F-gas emissions (HFC, PFC or SF6). • The emissions generated from the moment the product becomes waste and is put in a bin up to its final treatment. That is, direct and indirect emissions from the complete management process: collection and transport, transfer plants, Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 42
  44. 44. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 43 pre-treatment plants, and treatment and final disposal plants. Likewise, and under ISO 14064, part 1, ISO 14069, and the GHG Protocol, emissions savings obtained from waste treatment processes are not considered. If there is no separate collection, the emission factor is the same as that of the non- segregated fraction, that is, 1,028.97 g CO2-eq/kg waste. With separate collection, the emission factor varies according to the waste fraction. The amount of waste generated may be given in different units: A. kg waste per fraction. B. m3 waste per fraction. A. kg waste generated per fraction AVAILABLE DATA CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Waste generation (kg waste) Calculation of CO2 emissions based on the following emission factors61 : • Glass packaging: 36.93 g CO2-eq/kg waste • Light packaging: 126.51 g CO2-eq/kg waste • Paper/cardboard: 62.84 g CO2-eq/kg waste • OFMSW: 109.65 g CO2-eq/kg waste • Non-segregated fraction: 1,028.97 g CO2-eq/kg waste 61 Source: Calculation of GHG emissions from Municipal Waste Management. Method for Organisations. November 2012.
  45. 45. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 44 B. m3 waste generated by fraction DATA AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHOD AND EMISSION FACTOR Waste generation (m3 waste) 1. Calculation of kg of waste generated by fraction: To calculate kilos of waste when the known datum is m3 of waste, apply the following weight/volume factors62 : • Glass packaging: 300 kg/m3 • Light packaging: 28 kg/m3 • Paper/cardboard: 65 kg/m3 • OFMSW: 600 kg/m3 • Non-segregated fraction: 120 kg/m3 2. Calculation of CO2 emissions from emission factors in Table A (g CO2- eq/kg waste): • Glass packaging: 36.93 g CO2-eq/kg waste • Light packaging: 126.51 g CO2-eq/kg waste • Paper/cardboard: 62.84 g CO2-eq/kg waste • OFMSW: 109.65 g CO2-eq/kg waste • Non-segregated fraction: 1,028.97 g CO2-eq/kg waste EXAMPLE OF EMISSIONS DERIVED FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT An elderly care home generates 3,000 kg of waste a year. The home has never segregated waste since it opened, but this year, the Management decided to segregate paper, packaging, glass, organic matter and the non-segregated fraction, following the ‘Best Practice Guidelines’ promoted by the Catalan Ministry of Health. If we consider that the total amount of municipal waste has not varied from year to year, the saving in emissions due to a change in waste management (from no segregation to waste segregation into fractions) is calculated as follows: 62 Source: Waste Agency of Catalonia (ARC): Approximate weight/volume conversion factors of the five main waste fractions.
  46. 46. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 45 INITIAL Total emissions = 3,086.91 kg CO2-eq = 3.09 t CO2-eq ×2 -eq kg 97.028,1 waste gCO -eqgCO 2 2 kgCO 1000 1 -eq =Waste ,3 000 kg 19. kgCO eq× =Total 3 ,086 2 FINAL Total emissions = 7.39+75.91+18.85+98.68+1,028.97 = 1,229.80 kg CO2-eq = 1.23 t CO2- eq EMISSIONS AVOIDED So, segregating waste into fractions at source led to a saving in emissions at the home equivalent to: Saving: 3,086.91 kg CO2-eq – 1,229.80 kg CO2-eq = 1,857.11 kg CO2-eq, which equals a 60.2% reduction in emissions from waste. × 36 2 -eq kg 9. g3 CO -eq gCO 2kgCO 1000 1 -eq =Glass 200 kg × = 7.39 kgCO -eq2 2waste × 126 2 -eq kg 15. waste gCO -eq gCO 2kgCO 1000 1 -eq =Packaging 600 kg -eq× = 75 .91 kgCO 2 2 × .62 2 -eq kg g84 CO -eq gCO 2kgCO 1000 1 -eq = kg kgCO eq-2× =Paper/ Cardboard 300 18 .85 2waste × 109 2 -eq kg 56. waste gCO -eq gCO 2kgCO 1000 1 -eq = kg kgCO -eqOrganic × =900 98 .68 2 2 × × =1000Non- segregated = ,1 1 ,028 .972 2 2kg -eq kg 028 79. waste gCO -eq gCO 2kgCO 1000 1 -eq kgCO -eq
  47. 47. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 46 For detailed information on the calculation method for GHG emissions from municipal waste management, see the OCCC publication Calculation of GHG Emissions from Municipal Waste Management. Method for Organisations.
  48. 48. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 47 Annex 1 Estimate of emissions associated with events63 The holding of events involves GHG emissions, which can be estimated. This annex covers the aspects to be considered in estimating GHG emissions associated with the holding of events. It contains a non-exhaustive list, in that it cannot include every aspect to be considered and therefore can be amended according to the nature of the event for which we are estimating the GHG emissions. When holding an event, first, define the type of event. It may be a symposium, congress, conference, course, opening ceremony, official presentation, etc., and can last any length of time (one-off or over several days). Depending on the source of the emissions associated with it, the event can be classed as: • Emissions from energy consumption: fossil fuel consumption and electricity consumption. • Emissions from transport. • Emissions from the use of materials and resources: consumption of materials and resources other than fossil fuels and electricity. To estimate emissions associated with each of the above, the calculation limits must be determined. To do so, a series of key factors that condition the calculation must be defined. These factors are: • Emissions from energy consumption: Define the spatial scope: venue where the event is held, accommodation for out-of-town visitors, other. Define the timeframe: only the days on which the event takes place, or including assembly/dismantling days. 63 See also the Guide to Environmentally Friendly Events, which aims to serve as a tool for government agencies considering organising an event, in the context of greening public procurement.
  49. 49. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 48 Define the scope of emissions: electricity consumption, air conditioning, electrical equipment, fossil fuel equipment. Identify the calculation method: for example, use of unit emission factors (electricity mix, fossil fuel mix). The Guidance and the calculator it is based on are useful tools in this respect. • Emissions from transport: Define the scope of mobility: number of attendees and journeys (origin and destination) − Trips by attendees (participants, organisers and speakers) from their home town to the site of the event. − Trips linked to specific event activities. − Trips to accommodation by out-of-town visitors. − Trips by logistics services (assembly services, material and service providers). − Other trips. In order have this information available, assess the need to request information on mode of transport and kilometres covered (or starting point and destination) in the various journeys made by attendees. Identify the calculation method: for example, unit emission factors for each means of transport. The Guidance and the calculator it is based on are useful tools in this respect. • Emissions from the use of materials and resources: Define the scope of materials and resources (raw materials, water, waste generated). Identify the calculation method: with the Guidance and calculator, emissions from municipal waste management can now be estimated. The emissions from each of these areas may be more or less representative of the total emissions depending on the type of event. Each organisation can decide which
  50. 50. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 49 emissions categories it wishes to estimate for an event. It is important, however, to include the more significant emissions categories in the calculation of total emissions. The method for calculating the emissions associated with events will depend on the type of data available. The table below shows the type of calculation that can be done with this Guidance64 : Type of calculation Available data Emissions calculation method ENERGY CONSUMPTION Emissions from energy consumption kWh consumed Calculation based on electricity mix kWh generated by the fossil fuel consumed Emissions from fossil fuel consumption kg or l fossil fuel consumed Calculation based on corresponding emission factor TRANSPORT65 litres of fuel consumed Calculation based on corresponding emission factor Emissions from cars, lorries/pickups/minivans, mopeds/motorbikes, buses/coaches € spent on fuel consumed (not valid for urban natural gas-powered bus) Calculation based on estimate of litres of fuel consumed Emissions from cars, lorries/pickups/minivans, mopeds/motorbikes, urban buses, rail transport km covered on journey and mode of transport Calculation based on reference vehicle for cars Calculation based on average emission factor for cars (if make and model are not known) and for the other means of transport Emissions from air transport Origin and destination (including stopovers) Calculation based on ICAO calculator Emissions from sea transport kg of fuel consumed Calculation based on corresponding emission factor WASTE GENERATION Emissions derived from municipal waste generation kg or m3 generated per fraction Calculation based on corresponding emission factors 64 Annex 3 of the Guidance lists emission factors according to the data available on the activity. 65 In calculating emissions from transport, two groups are considered: 1. Emissions from organisation-owned transport; therefore, estimates are made based on data such as fuel consumption, euros spent on fuel or distance covered, and make and model of vehicle (as per section 3 of the Guidance). 2. Emissions from the transport of people taking part: here the degree of estimation will be greater, because average emission factors will have to be applied per type of vehicle (g CO2/km), as often the exact type of vehicle of each participant is unknown.
  51. 51. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 50 Annex 2 Calculation of emissions in public authorities Towns the world over, and in general the different geographical levels of government agencies, have become aware of the changes taking place and the threats posed by global warming. They have recognised the need to monitor and manage their greenhouse gas emissions. By doing so, they can be prepared and establish public policies and municipal actions that help to mitigate climate change and improve our ability to adapt to the changes taking place. The fight against climate change is a huge challenge in which the contribution of local governments is essential, as many of their policies are capable of affecting processes that alter the composition of the atmosphere. Municipal emissions inventories, for instance, include GHG emissions derived directly from town council activities, such as energy consumption for street lighting, facilities and vehicle fleets; and also emissions on which town councils can act, albeit indirectly: the domestic sector, services, transport, waste and water. Therefore, two parallel levels of inventory can be established: • Public Authority Inventory: includes emissions from local authority operations (town council or any other public administration), that can be calculated like those of any other organisation by applying this Guidance. • Territorial Inventory: this includes all emissions in a municipality, region or area defined according to the geopolitical limits of the Administration, associated with the activities of its inhabitants and the facilities in the territory. An inventory of these emissions could be comparable to national greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Such inventories are more complex and require a specific methodology, which is currently being developed. Within the framework of ISO 14064, some organisations, such as the ICLEI and the ADEME, amongst others, are preparing guides and recommendations on drawing up these inventories.
  52. 52. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 51 The aim of this Annex is to provide town councils and other government agencies with guidelines for calculating their GHG emissions at organisation level (Public Authority Inventory). Specifically, it includes emissions related to the authorities' direct activities, such as energy consumption (electricity and fossil fuels) for street lighting, municipal or government facilities (town council, municipal education centres, sports facilities) and municipal or government vehicle fleets. As in any organisation, three scopes of emissions are defined: 1. Scope 1: direct emissions This includes direct town council or administration emissions from sources they own or manage. This scope includes the following emissions categories: - Emissions due to fossil fuel consumption in public authority facilities: o Town Council or government agency offices o Education centres o Sports facilities o Social and cultural centres, civic halls and libraries o Other (markets, cemeteries, wastewater treatment plants...) o Etc. To estimate these emissions, see section 2.2 of this Guidance. - Emissions generated by fossil fuel consumption in transport owned by the government: o Own transport fleet, municipal or government vehicle fleet. o Urban public transport, owned or managed by the government or town council. o Intercity public transport, owned or managed by the government or town council.
  53. 53. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 52 To estimate these emissions, see section 3 of this Guidance. - Process emissions, if applicable. For example, emissions from waste treatment in public authority-owned plants. 2. Scope 2: indirect emissions from electricity and heat generation This includes emissions from the consumption of electricity, heating and cooling and steam in government facilities generated by someone else’s facilities. This scope includes the following categories: - Emissions caused by electricity consumption in the aforementioned public authority facilities. - Emissions caused by electricity consumption for street lighting. - Emissions caused by electricity consumption for traffic lights. - Emissions caused by consumption of steam, heating or cooling in public authority facilities. To estimate these emissions, see section 2.1 of this Guidance. 3. Scope 3: other indirect emissions This includes other indirect emissions from sources not government owned or managed. They include emissions from: - Outsourced vehicle fleet. Examples of such vehicles (may vary according to town council or authority): o Street cleaning o Municipal solid waste collection o Police o Beach cleaning o Etc.
  54. 54. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 53 - Urban and intercity public transport not owned or managed by the public authority. - Activities related to employee transport and trips abroad. To estimate these emissions, see section 3 of this Guidance. - Treatment of waste generated in municipal or government facilities in treatment plants not owned by the public authority.66 - Purchasing of materials and products, such as office material, paper, etc. - Other indirect emissions. EXAMPLE: EMISSIONS CALCULATION FOR A TOWN COUNCIL A town council wants to calculate its own emissions, that is, its Public Authority Inventory. It has therefore gathered data on energy consumption in its own operations, as follows: • Street lighting and traffic lights: 1,961,000 kWh (electricity) • Facilities: o Electricity: 1,942,500 kWh o Natural gas: 137,140 m3 o Diesel: 15,450 l • Own vehicle fleet: o Diesel: 15,250 l o Petrol: 1,786 l • Outsourced vehicle fleet: o Diesel: 122,000 l o Petrol: 3,975 l • Public transport: o Urban (diesel): 46,795 l o Intercity (diesel): 31,370 l 66 If the treatment plant is owned by the public authority, these emissions should be included in Scope 1 as direct process emissions.
  55. 55. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 54 In accordance with the corresponding section of this Guidance (sections 2.1 - 2.2 on calculating emissions associated with energy consumption and sections 3.1 - 3.4 on emissions associated with consumption in transport), the town council's emissions are: SOURCE EMISSIONS Street lighting and traffic lights CO2 emissions = (1,961,000 kWh x 0.300 kgCO2/kWh) = 588,300 kg CO2 Facilities • Electricity • Natural gas • Diesel TOTAL CO2 emissions = (1,942,500 kWh x 0.300 kg CO2/kWh) = 582,750 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = (137,140 m3 x 2.15 kg CO2/m3 ) = 294,851 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = (15,450 l x 2.79 kg CO2/l) = 43,106 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = 582,750 + 294,851 + 43,106 = 920,707 kg CO2 Own vehicle fleet • Diesel • Petrol TOTAL CO2 emissions = (15,250 l x 2.61 kg CO2/l) = 39,803 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = (1,786 l x 2.38 kg CO2/l) = 4,251 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = 39,803 + 4,251 = 44,054 kg CO2 Outsourced vehicle fleet • Diesel • Petrol TOTAL CO2 emissions = (122,000 l x 2.61 kg CO2/l) = 318,420 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = (3,975 l x 2.38 kg CO2/l) = 9,461 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = 318,420 + 9,460 = 327,881 kg CO2
  56. 56. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 55 SOURCE EMISSIONS Public transport • Urban (diesel) • Intercity (diesel) TOTAL CO2 emissions = (46,795 l x 2.61 kg CO2/l) = 122,135 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = (31,370 l x 2.61 kg CO2/l) = 81,876 kg CO2 CO2 emissions = 122,135 + 81,876 = 204,011 kg CO2 Therefore, total emissions for the town council as a public authority are: 588,300 kg CO2 + 920,707 kg CO2 + 44,054 kg CO2 + 327,881 kg CO2 + 204,011 kg CO2 = 2,084,953 kg CO2 (2,085 t CO2)
  57. 57. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 56 Annex 3 EMISSION FACTORS FOR ENERGY ENERGY SOURCE EMISSION FACTOR Electricity (kWh) 300 g CO2/kWh Natural gas (m 3 ) 2.15 kg CO2/Nm 3 Butane gas (kg) Butane gas (no. of cylinders) 2.96 kg CO2/kg butane gas 37.06 kg CO2/cylinder (considering a 12.5-kg cylinder) Propane gas (kg) Propane gas (no. of cylinders) 2.94 kg CO2/kg propane gas 102.84 kg CO2/cylinder (considering a 35-kg cylinder) Gas oil (litres) 2.79 kg CO2/l gas oil 67 Fuel oil (kg) 3.05 kg CO2/kg fuel oil Generic LPG (kg) 2.96 kg CO2/kg generic LPG National coal (kg) 2.30 kg CO2/kg national coal Imported coal (kg) 2.58 kg CO2/kg imported coal Petroleum coke (kg) 3.20 kg CO2/kg petroleum coke EMISSION FACTORS FOR TRANSPORT MODE OF TRANSPORT ACTIVITY DATA EMISSION FACTOR Car Lorry, pickup and minivan Motorbike Bus and coach Sea transport Litres / kg of fuel consumed Petrol 95 or 98: 2.38 kg CO2/litre Diesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre Agricultural gas oil: 2.67 kg CO2/litre Bioethanol: 2.38 kg CO2/litre - % bioethanol Biodiesel: 2.61 kg CO2/litre - % biodiesel Sea transport Diesel / gas oil: 3.206 kg CO2/kg gas oil Light fuel oil: 3.151 kg CO2/kg light fuel oil Heavy fuel oil: 3.114 kg CO2/kg heavy fuel oil Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): 3.015 kg CO2/kg LPG Liquefied natural gas (LNG): 2.750 kg CO2/kg LNG Car Lorry, pickup and minivan Motorbike Bus and coach Euros spent 2012: Petrol 95: 143.2 euro cents/litre Petrol 98: 155.2 euro cents/litre Diesel: 137.3 euro cents/litre Biodiesel: 136.5 euro cents/litre 67 Density of gas oil C at 15ºC: 900 kg/m 3 (Royal Decree 1088/2010).
  58. 58. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 57 MODE OF TRANSPORT ACTIVITY DATA EMISSION FACTOR Car Urban bus Rail km covered Mode of transport Car: IDAE guide according to make and model of vehicle (g CO2/km): http://www.idae.es/coches/ Urban bus: 82.81 g CO2/passenger*km Renfe High-Speed (AVE): 28.8 g CO2/passenger*km Renfe AVANT: 31.5 g CO2/passenger*km Renfe long distance: 30.6 g CO2/passenger*km Renfe middle distance (regional): 30.0 g CO2/passenger*km Renfe local: 42.0 g CO2/passenger*km Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya: 32.7 g CO2/passenger*km Tram: 73.8 g CO2/passenger*km Metro: 49.6 g CO2/passenger*km Renfe (diesel freight): 40.85 g CO2/tonne load*km FGC (diesel freight): 42.48 g CO2/tonne load*km Renfe (electric freight): 21 g CO2/tonne load*km Sea transport Litres of fuel consumed Diesel / gas oil: 3.206 kg CO2/kg gas oil 2.725 kg CO2/l gas oil Light fuel oil: 3.151 kg CO2/kg light fuel oil Heavy fuel oil: 3.114 kg CO2/kg heavy fuel oil Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): 3.015 kg CO2/kg LPG Liquefied natural gas: 2.750 kg CO2/kg LNG Air transport Origin and destination (including stopovers) ICAO calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental- protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS OF FLUORINATED GREENHOUSE GASES COVERED BY THE KYOTO PROTOCOL68 GAS FORMULA GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IPCC 1995 HYDROFLUOROCARBONS HFC-23 CHF3 11700 HFC-32 CH2F2 650 HFC-41 CH3F 150 HFC-43-10mee C5H2F10 1300 68 Source: IPPC Second Assessment Report, 1995.
  59. 59. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 58 HFC-125 C2HF5 2800 HFC-134 C2H2F4 (CHF2CHF2) 1000 HFC-134a C2H2F4 (CH2FCF3) 1300 HFC-152a C2H4F2 (CH3CHF2) 140 HFC-143 C2H3F3 (CHF2CH2F) 300 HFC-143a C2H3F3 (CF3CH3) 3800 HFC-227ea C3HF7 2900 HFC-236fa C3H2F6 6300 HFC-245ca C3H3F5 560 PERFLUOROCARBONS Perfluoromethane CF4 6500 Perfluoroethane C2F6 9200 Perfluoropropane C3F8 7000 Perfluorobutane C4F10 7000 Perfluorocyclobutane c-C4F8 8700 Perfluoropentane C5F12 7500 Perfluorohexane C6F14 7400 SULPHUR HEXAFLUORIDE SF6 23900
  60. 60. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 59 Emission factors by type of vehicle (g CO2/km)69 A. Separated by driving type PETROL CARS: Emission factors: g CO2/km depending on speed TECHNOLOGY CUBIC CAPACITY URBAN (21 km/h) AVERAGE (70 km/h) Other roads HIGH (107 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways <1.4 l 199.91 138.27 160.60 1.4 - 2.01 l 253.20 156.48 175.11 >2 l 346.71 184.87 232.59 Prior to Euro 1 Average conventional 266.61 159.87 189.43 <1.4 l 211.84 133.65 152.40 1.4 - 2.01 l 252.03 158.21 171.55 >2.01 l 341.92 200.89 208.07 Euro 1 and later Average Euro 1 and later 268.60 164.25 177.34 Average <1.4 l 205.87 135.96 156.50 Average 1.4 - 2 l 252.62 157.34 173.33Any Average > 2l 344.32 192.88 220.33 DIESEL CARS Emission factors: g CO2/km depending on speed TECHNOLOGY CUBIC CAPACITY URBAN (21 km/h) AVERAGE (70 km/h) Other roads HIGH (107 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways Prior to Euro 1 All capacities 253.86 129.31 175.06 <2 l 200.45 134.53 160.14 Euro 1 >2 l 269.96 183.06 211.28 <2 l 213.55 138.21 159.60 Euro 2 >2 l 269.96 183.06 211.28 <2 l 195.72 136.10 147.91 Euro 3 >2 l 269.96 183.06 211.28 Average <2 l 215.90 134.54 160.68 Any Average >2 l 265.94 169.62 202.22 HYBRID CARS (PETROL): Emission factors: g CO2/km depending on speed TECHNOLOGY CUBIC CAPACITY URBAN (21 km/h) AVERAGE (70 km/h) Other roads HIGH (107 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways Euro 4 All capacities 105.43 101.86 129.44 LPG CARS Emission factors: g CO2/km depending on speed TECHNOLOGY CUBIC CAPACITY URBAN (21 km/h) AVERAGE (70 km/h) Other roads HIGH (107 km/h) Motorways and dual carriageways Any All capacities 175.95 136.10 175.07 69 Source: Own material based on the Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009 (updated May 2012), chapter 1.A.3.b. Traffic speeds from SIMCAT 2010 (Information and Modelling System for Territorial Policy Assessment in Catalonia), Ministry of Territory and Sustainability.
  61. 61. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 60 OTHER VEHICLES Emission factors: g CO2/km depending on speed TYPE OF VEHICLE SUBCATEGORY URBAN AVERAGE (Other roads) HIGH (Motorways and dual carriageways) Standard <= 18 t 1,873.20 721.12 596.21 Diesel coaches 70 3 axle >18 t 2,211.94 810.13 665.10 Rigid <=7.5 t 500.09 291.53 339.58 Rigid 7.5 - 12 t 874.48 436.20 437.03 Rigid 12 - 14 t 991.02 464.02 454.53 Rigid 14 - 20 t 1,295.62 562.33 518.69 Rigid 20 - 26 t 1,616.33 694.42 610.05 Rigid 26 - 28 t 1,639.17 742.30 641.68 Rigid 28 - 32 t 1,720.54 852.63 744.64 Rigid 32 t 1,877.85 842.61 721.31 Average rigid 1,314.39 610.75 558.44 Articulated 14 - 20 t 1,254.75 546.14 487.02 Articulated 20 - 28 t 1,566.96 705.97 603.19 Articulated 28 - 34 t 1,632.66 746.30 628.98 Articulated 34 - 40 t 1,916.96 854.09 701.59 Articulated 40 - 50 t 2,081.89 952.15 778.07 Articulated 50 - 60 t 2,442.63 1,138.69 918.81 Average articulated 1,815.97 823.89 686.28 Diesel lorries 71 Average total 1,565.18 717.32 622.36 Prior to Euro 1 360.46 193.86 196.35 Euro 1 and later 421.94 227.82 231.07 Petrol light-duty vehicles72 Average light petrol 391.20 210.84 213.71 Prior to Euro 1 321.89 206.56 284.53 Euro 1 and later 293.48 182.41 253.04Diesel light-duty vehicles Average light diesel 307.69 194.48 268.78 Conventional 79.58 - - Euro 1 47.75 - - Euro 2 38.45 - - Euro 3 33.42 - - Average Euro 39.87 - - Mopeds 73 Average mopeds 59.72 - - 2 stroke < 250 cc Prior to Euro 1 109.52 90.13 133.61 2 stroke < 250 cc Euro 1 and later 100.92 81.61 119.03 4 stroke < 250 cc Prior to Euro 1 97.04 96.72 131.35 4 stroke < 250 cc Euro 1 79.80 80.11 110.38 4 stroke < 250 cc Euro 2-3 72.25 64.84 83.71 Motorbikes 74 4 stroke 250-750 cc Prior to Euro 1 146.90 112.91 141.16 70 Coach speed: urban 12 km/h, average 54 km/h and top 84 km/h. 71 Heavy vehicle speed: urban 12 km/h, average 54 km/h and top 84 km/h. 72 Light vehicle speed: urban 21 km/h, average 63 km/h and top 97 km/h. 73 Moped speed: urban 25 km/h. 74 Motorbike speed: urban 25 km/h, average 70 km/h and top 107 km/h.
  62. 62. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 61 4 stroke 250-750 cc Euro 1 135.24 106.50 141.60 4 stroke 250-750 cc Euro 2-3 122.00 97.77 131.24 4 stoke > 750 cc Prior to Euro 1 171.50 130.63 160.71 4 stroke > 750 cc Euro 1 171.70 120.91 140.41 4 stroke > 750 cc Euro 2-3 164.90 119.25 145.93 Average 2 stroke < 250 cc 105.22 85.87 126.32 Average 4 stroke < 250 cc 83.03 80.56 108.48 Average 4 stroke 250-750 cc 134.71 105.73 138.00 Average 4 stroke > 750 cc 3 169.37 123.60 149.01 B. Average values by any type of speed75 TYPE OF VEHICLE CUBIC CAPACITY TECHNOLOGY EMISSION FACTOR g CO2 / km Prior to Euro 1 206.90 <1.4 l Euro 1 and later 178.25 Prior to Euro 1 245.09 1.4 - 2.01 l Euro 1 and later 210.08 Prior to Euro 1 302.39 Petrol cars >2.01 l Euro 1 and later 273.74 Prior to Euro 1 197.69 <2.0 l Euro 1 and later 172.59 Prior to Euro 1 235.35 Diesel cars >2.0 l Euro 1 and later 229.07 Hybrid cars 1.4 - 2.01 l Euro 1 and later 82.76 Prior to Euro 1 177.83 LPG cars 1.4 - 2.01 l Euro 1 and later 171.81 Prior to Euro 1 270.56 Petrol light-duty vehicles < 3.5 t Euro 1 and later 318.30 Prior to Euro 1 279.28 Diesel light-duty vehicles < 3.5 t Euro 1 and later 251.04 Prior to Euro I 392.25 <= 7.5 t Euro I and later 316.94 Prior to Euro I 571.12 7.5 - 16 t Euro I and later 486.39 Prior to Euro I 787.64 16 - 32 t Euro I and later 658.98 Prior to Euro I 931.99 Diesel lorries > 32 t Euro I and later 787.64 Prior to Euro I 825.29 Diesel coaches Standard <= 18 t Euro I and later 775.09 Prior to Euro 1 79.58 Euro 1 47.75 Euro 2 38.20 Mopeds < 50 cc Euro 3 35.01 75 These emission factors are average values regardless of type of journey. Using them may give more approximate results than using emission factors according to journey type (Section A. Annex 3).
  63. 63. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 62 Prior to Euro 1 105.04 Euro 1 79.58 Euro 2 73.21 2 stroke > 50 cc Euro 3 54.11 Prior to Euro 1 101.86 4 stroke < 250 cc Euro 1 and later 114.59 Prior to Euro 1 117.77 4 stroke 250-750 cc Euro 1 and later 114.59 Prior to Euro 1 143.24 Motorbikes 4 stroke > 750 cc Euro 1 and later 146.42
  64. 64. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 63 C. Year of entry into force of regulations defining technology for various modes of transport TYPE OF VEHICLE SUBCATEGORY TECHNOLOGY Year technology was applied Prior to Euro 1 1985 Petrol cars <1.4 l 1.4 - 2.01 l >2.01 l Euro 1 1993 Prior to Euro 1 until 1992 Euro 1 1993 Euro 2 1997 Diesel cars <2.0 l >2.0 l Euro 3 2000 Hybrid cars 1.4 - 2.01 l Euro 4 2005 Prior to Euro 1 until 1992 Petrol light-duty vehicles < 3.5 t Euro 1 and later 1993 Prior to Euro 1 until 1992 Diesel light-duty vehicles < 3.5 t Euro 1 and later 1993 Prior to Euro I until 1991 Diesel lorries <= 7.5 t 7.5 - 16 t 16 - 32 t > 32 t Euro I and later 1992 Prior to Euro I until 1991 Diesel coaches Standard <= 18 t Articulated > 18 t Euro I and later 1992 Prior to Euro 1 until 1998 Euro 1 1999Mopeds < 50 cc Euro 2 2002 Prior to Euro 1 until 1998 Euro 1 1999 Euro 2 2003 Motorbikes 2 stroke > 50 cc 4 stroke < 250 cc 4 stroke 250-750 cc 4 stroke > 750 cc Euro 3 2006
  65. 65. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 64 Annex 476 List of CO2-neutral biomass This is a list, by no means exhaustive, of some materials that, in applying these guidelines, are considered biomass and weighted with an emission factor of 0 [t CO2/TJ or t or m3 ]. The peat and fossil fractions of the materials listed below shall not be considered biomass. 1) Plants and parts of plants, amongst others: - Straw - Hay and grass - Leaves, wood, roots, stumps, bark - Crops; for example, maize and triticale 2) Biomass wastes, products and by-products, amongst others: - Industrial waste wood (waste wood from woodworking and wood processing operations and waste wood from operations in the wood materials industry) - Used wood (used products made from wood, wood materials) and products and by- products from wood processing operations - Wood-based waste from the pulp and paper industries; for example, black liquor - Forestry residues - Animal, fish and food meal, fat, oil and tallow - Primary residues from food and beverage production - Manure - Agricultural plant residues - Sewage sludge - Biogas produced by digestion, fermentation or gasification of biomass - Harbour sludge and other waterbody sludge and sediments - Landfill gas 3) Biomass fractions of mixed materials, amongst others: - Biomass fraction of flotsam from waterbody management 76 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:229:0001:0085:EN:PDF
  66. 66. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 65 - Biomass fraction of mixed residues from food and beverage production - Biomass fraction of composites containing wood - Biomass fraction of textile wastes - Biomass fraction of paper, cardboard, pasteboard - Biomass fraction of municipal and industrial waste - Biomass fraction of processed municipal and industrial waste 4) Fuels whose components and intermediate products have all been produced from biomass, amongst others: - Bioethanol - Biodiesel - Etherised bioethanol - Biomethanol - Biodimethylether - Bio-oil (a pyrolysis oil fuel) and bio-gas
  67. 67. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 66 Annex 5 Average motor fuel prices77 Unleaded petrol 95 Motor gas oil Prices with tax by autonomous community (euro cents/litre) 2012 2012 Andalusia 143.1 137.4 Aragon 138.3 132.3 Asturias 141.6 135.5 Balearic Islands 143.9 138.1 Cantabria 142.2 136.7 Castile and León 143.5 137.8 Castile-La Mancha 143.3 137.4 Catalonia 143.2 137.3 Community of Valencia 144.2 138.4 Extremadura 143.2 137.3 Galicia 141.7 135.0 La Rioja 138.8 133.3 Madrid 140.8 135.2 Murcia 141.3 134.4 Navarre 139.3 132.6 Basque Country 139.1 133.7 National average 142.5 136.5 77 Own material based on http://www.mityc.es/energia/petroleo/Precios/Informes/InformesAnuales/Paginas/InformesAnuales.aspx and http://geoportal.mityc.es/hidrocarburos/eess/
  68. 68. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 67 Annex 6 Rail distances on Renfe high-speed lines: LAV Barcelona-Madrid (Madrid-Zaragoza-Barcelona-French border) (north-eastern corridor) ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Guadalajara - Yebes 64.4 Las Inviernas 116 Ariza AV 182.7 Calatayud 221.1 Plasencia de Jalón 273.4 Zaragoza Delicias 306.7 Bifurcació Osca 311.7 Bujaraloz 356.5 Lleida Pirineus 442.1 Lleida 452.5 Artesa 448.6 Segrià 452.5 Les Borges 456.6 L'Espluga 488.9 L'Alcover 509.3 LAV Mediterranean corridor 512.8 El Camp de Tarragona 520.9 La Gornal 549.3 L'Arboç 552.7 Vilafranca del Penedès 565.9 Gelida 579.6 Sant Vicenç dels Horts 595.8 El Llobregat 610.4 Estació del Prat 613.1 Madrid - Puerta de Atocha Barcelona - Sants 620.9 LAV Madrid-Toledo ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Los Gavilanes 14.3 Parla 24.4 LAV Madrid-Levante 28 Yeles 35.3 LAV- Mad-Seville/Malaga 53.7 Río Tajo 63.4 Madrid - Puerta de Atocha Toledo 74.5
  69. 69. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 68 LAV Madrid-Segovia-Valladolid (northern corridor) ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Soto del Real 35 Segovia-Guimar 67.8 Garcillán 85.5 Olmedo 132.5 Madrid - Puerta de Atocha Valladolid - Campo Grande 179.1 LAV Madrid-Ciudad Real-Cordoba-Seville (NAFA = new rail access to Andalusia) ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Los Gavilanes 14.3 Parla 24.4 LAV Madrid-Levante 28 Yeles 35.3 La Sagra (LAV to Toledo) 53.7 Río Tajo 63.4 Mora 89.5 Urda 119.7 Ciudad Real 170.7 Calatrava 196.56 Puertollano 209.81 Venta la Inés 244.5 Conquista 267.3 Villanueva de Córdoba 285.2 Córdoba Central 345.2 Bifurcació a LAV a Málaga 358 Hornachuelos 387.1 Guadajoz 426.1 Cantillana 442.7 Majarabique 460.5 Madrid - Puerta de Atocha Sevilla Santa Justa 470.8 LAV Cordoba-Malaga (NAFA = new rail access to Andalusia) ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Río Guadalquivir 5.8 Santaella 34.6 Estac. Puente Genil-Herrera 61.4 Estac. Antaquera-Santa Ana 96.6 Los Prados 149.5 Fork to LAV in Malaga Málaga-María Zambrano 154.5
  70. 70. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 69 RENFE local rail distances: Barcelona stations ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Bellvitge Sant Andreu Comtal 12.4 Sant Andreu Comtal Montcada Bifurcació 4.7 L’Hospitalet Montcada Bifurcació 17 Passeig de Gràcia Estació de França 4.8 Estació de França La Sagrera 5.6 Sant Vicenç de Calders-Barcelona-Maçanet Massanes line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Barcelona 52 Arenys de Mar 96 Sant Vicenç de Calders Maçanet Massanes 133 Lleida-La Pobla de Segur line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Alcoletge 7.031 Vilanova de la Barca 12.759 Térmens 16.657 Vallfogona de Balaguer 25.52 Balaguer 26.101 Gerb 30.494 Sant Llorenç de Montgai 35.848 Vilanova de la Sal 41.77 Santa Linya 44.6 Àger 54.93 Cellers-Llimiana 63.144 Guàrdia de Tremp 68.2 Palau de Noguera 72.375 Tremp 76.2 Salàs de Pallars 84.265 Lleida Pirineus La Pobla de Segur 88.89 Molins de Rei-Barcelona-Mataró-Blanes-Maçanet Massanes line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Barcelona-La Sagrera 9 Arenys de Mar 53 Molins de Rei Maçanet Massanes 90
  71. 71. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 70 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat-Vic-Puigcerdà-La Tor de Querol line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Barcelona-Passeig de Gràcia 6.6 Montcada Bifurcació 17 Montcada i Reixac-Sant Joan 18.5 Ripollet 20.2 Santa Perpètua de Mogoda 23.2 Mollet 25.2 Parets del Vallès 28.1 Granollers 36.6 Les Franqueses de Vallès 39.3 Llerona 41.6 La Garriga 45.5 El Figaró 50.2 Sant Martí de Centelles 55.4 Centelles 60.6 Balenyà - Els Hostalets 62.7 Balenyà - Tona-Seva 66.1 Taradell - Mont-rodon 71 Vic 76.9 Manlleu 85.3 Borgonyà 95.6 Torelló 93 Sant Quirze de Besora 101.3 La Farga de Bebiè 104.9 Ripoll 113.5 Campdevànol 117.9 Aigües de Ribes 124.4 Ribes de Freser 127 Planoles 133.7 Toses 142.9 La Molina 148.6 Urtx-Alp 155.1 Puigcerdà 158.2 L’Hospitalet La Tor de Querol 165.8
  72. 72. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 71 RENFE middle distance rail lines: Saragossa-Lleida-Manresa-Barcelona ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Selgua 122.8 Montsó-Riu Cinca 127.5 Binèfar 138.3 Tamarit-El Torricó 149 Almacelles 159.3 Raimat 165.2 Lleida Pirineus 183.6 Pla de Vilanoveta 185.9 Bell-lloc d'Urgell 196.4 Mollerussa 206.1 Golmés 208.9 Castellnou de Seana 212 Bellpuig 215.8 Anglesola 221.5 Tàrrega 266.8 Cervera 240.1 Sant Guim de Freixenet 254 Sant Martí de Sesgueioles 262.4 Calaf 266.8 Seguers-Sant Pere Sallavinera 276.7 Aguilar de Segarra 282.1 Rajadell 289.2 Manresa 301.6 Saragossa Montcada Bifurcació 356.7 Valencia-Tarragona line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Ulldecona-Alcanar-la Sénia 162.2 L'Aldea-Amposta-Tortosa 185.2 Camarles-Deltebre 190.7 L'Ampolla-el Perelló-Deltebre 195.9 L'Ametlla de Mar 207.3 Vandellòs 236.3 L'Hospitalet de l'Infant 243 Mont-roig del Camp 251.1 Cambrils 257.1 Salou 263.5 Port Aventura 265.6 Valencia Tarragona 275.6
  73. 73. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 72 Tarragona-Barcelona-Granollers-Girona-Figueres-Portbou line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Altafulla-Tamarit 10.8 Torredembarra 13.6 Sant Vicenç de Calders 59.1 Martorell 73.2 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 95.2 Barcelona-Passeig de Gràcia 101.8 Barcelona-Sant Andreu Comtal 113.2 Granollers centre 134.6 Sant Celoni 157.1 Maçanet Massanes 175.6 Sils 183.4 Caldes de Malavella 189.4 Riudellots de la Selva 195.7 Fornells de laSelva 200.4 Girona 205.6 Celrà 214.7 Bordils-Juià 218.2 Flaçà 221.9 Sant Jordi Desvalls 224.4 Camallera 230.6 Sant Miquel de Fluvià 236.6 Tonyà 238.5 Vilamalla 241.6 Figueres 247 Peralada 253.2 Vilajuïga 258.9 Llançà 266.2 Platja de Garbet 269.1 Colera 270.8 Tarragona Portbou 273.1
  74. 74. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 73 Madrid-Saragossa-Riba-roja-Móra-Reus-Picamoixons-Valls-Roda de Barà- Vilanova-Barcelona line Via Roda de Barà ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Saragossa 326 Caspe 453 Favara de Matarranya 470.6 Nonasp 479.9 Faió-la Pobla de Massaluca 490.2 Riba-roja d'Ebre 504.2 Flix 511.6 Ascó 518.5 Móra la Nova 531.3 Els Guiamets 540.6 Capçanes 544 Marçà Falset 551.3 Pradell 556.1 Duesaigües l'Argentera 561.6 Riudecanyes Botarell 566.8 Les Borges del Camp 571.9 Reus 579.5 La Plana Picamoixons 596.3 Valls 602.4 Roda de Barà 625 Vilanova i la Geltrú 636 Madrid Bellvitge 688.1 Tarragona-Lleida line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE / km Puigverd de Lleida 11.6 Juneda 19.5 Les Borges 24.5 La Floresta 29.1 PAET canal d'Urgell 32.9 Vinaixa 40.4 PAET riu Milans 47.1 Vimbodí 48.2 L'Espluga de Francolí 53 Montblanc 59.5 Vilaverd 64.1 La Riba 66.5 La Plana de Picamoixons 68.6 Alcover 74 La Selva del Camp 80.3 Reus 85.4 Vila-seca 94.3 Lleida Pirineus Tarragona 103.5
  75. 75. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 74 ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Barcelona A Coruña 1,891 Ávila 1,165 Badajoz (via Cáceres) 1,172 Badajoz (via Ciudad Real) 868 Bilbao 688 Burgos 605 Cáceres 1,053 Cadiz (via Cáceres) 1,522 El Ferrol 1,908 Gijón 1,635 Huelva Cargas 1,418 Huelva Término 1,422 Huesca 336 Irún 692 Jerez de los Caballeros 1,237 Jerez de la Frontera (via Cáceres) 1,469 León 1,464 Lleida Pirineus 183 Logroño 516 Lugo 1,773 Madrid 697 Mérida (via Cáceres) 1,125 Ourense 1,748 Oviedo 1,603 Palencia 771 Pamplona 536 Plasencia 972 Pontevedra 1,946 Salamanca 1,276 San Sebastián 675 Santander 842 Santander 1,559 Santiago (via A Coruña) 1,959 Santiago (via Ourense) 1,878 Segovia 798 Seville (via Cáceres) 1,364 Valladolid 727 Valladolid 1,293 Vigo (via A Coruña) 2,044 Vigo (via Ourense) 1,854 Vitoria 631 Zafra 1,190 Zamora 859 Zamora 1,341 Zaragoza 371
  76. 76. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 75 Madrid stations ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Chamartín Puerta de Atocha 8 North-western area ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Madrid Ávila 121 Segovia 101 Salamanca 232 Zamora 297 Valladolid 249 Palencia 298 León 420 Santander 515 Oviedo 559 Gijón 591 Lugo 729 A Coruña 847 El Ferrol 864 Ourense 704 Santiago (via A Coruña) 915 Santiago (via Ourense) 834 Pontevedra 983 Vigo (via A Coruña) 1,000 Vigo (via Ourense) 816 Eastern area ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Madrid Castellón 554 Castellón (via Saragossa) 692 Cartagena 531 Cuenca 209 Huesca 405 Gandia 553 Lleida Pirineus 514 Manresa 632 Móra 508 Reus 556 Tarragona (via Saragossa) 575 Teruel 514 Valencia (Euromed) 491 Valancia (via Cuenca) 408 Valancia (via Saragossa) 685 Xàtiva 435 Saragossa (via Guadalajara) 326
  77. 77. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 76 Northern area ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Madrid Burgos (direct to Madrid) 281 Burgos (via Valladolid) 371 Bilbao 473 Bilbao (via Valladolid) 563 Guadalajara 57 Irún 550 Irún (via Valladolid) 640 Logroño 350 Logroño (via Valladolid) 440 Pamplona 498 Pamplona (via Valladolid -Vitoria) 588 Pamplona (via Valladolid-Logroño) 594 San Sebastián 533 San Sebastián (via Valladolid) 623 Soria 250 Vitoria 403 Vitoria (via Valladolid) 493 Zaragoza 495 Zaragoza (via Valladolid-Logroño) 585
  78. 78. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 77 Eastern and southern area ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Madrid Alicante 464 Albacete 288 Algeciras (via Granada) 804 Almería 564 Aranjuez 57 Badajoz (via Cáceres) 458 Badajoz (via Ciudad Real) 497 Cáceres 339 Cáceres (via Ciudad Real) 510 Cadiz (via Badajoz) 855 Cadiz (via Cordoba-Seville) 737 Cadiz (via Granada-Seville) 882 Ciudad Real 269 Cordoba 450 Fuengirola (via Cordoba) 654 Fuengirola (via Granada) 727 Granada 497 Huelva Cargas 704 Huelva Término 708 Jaén 382 Jerez de la Frontera (via Cordoba) 684 Jerez de la Frontera (via Granada) 829 Jerez de los Caballeros 570 Jerez de la Frontera (via Badajoz) 802 Malaga (via Cordoba) 624 Malaga (via Granada) 697 Manzanares 205 Mérida (via Ciudad Real) 438 Mérida (via Cáceres) 411 Murcia 466 Plasencia 275 Seville (via Cordoba) 579 Seville (via Granada) 724 Seville (via Badajoz) 697 Valencia Alcàntara 426 Zafra 523
  79. 79. Guidance on Calculating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions 2013. 78 Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat rail distances: Barcelona - Manresa line ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE (km) Magòria - La Campana 1.52 Ildefons Cerdà 2.09 Europa/Fira 2.8 La Gornal 3.46 Sant Josep 4.54 L’Hospitalet - Av. del Carrilet 5.22 Almeda 6.79 Cornellà de Llobregat – La Riera 7.98 Sant Boi de Llobregat 10.39 Molí Nou - Ciutat Cooperativa 11.79 Colònia Güell 12.58 Santa Coloma de Cervelló 13.53 Sant Vicenç dels Horts 15.67 Can Ros 17.05 Quatre Camins 17.94 Pallejà 19.61 Sant Andreu de la Barca 23.37 El Palau 24.76 Martorell - Vila 27.86 Martorell - Central 29.57 Martorell - Enllaç 30.17 Abrera 34.68 Olesa de Montserrat 37.46 Montserrat - Aeri 44.61 Monistrol de Montserrat 46.55 Castellbell i el Vilar 50.76 Sant Vicenç - Castellgalí 54.03 Manresa - Viladordis 61.18 Manresa - Alta 62.67 Barcelona – Plaça d’Espanya Manresa baixador 62.92

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