Measures to reduce NO2
NO2 workshop Barcelona, 17-18 June 2010
                                           1


            ...
NO2 levels in Austria
Current situation – NO2
 Exceedances 2008: 21 (16 incl. margin of tolerance) out of 150 sites
 Exceedances 2009: 20 (14 in...
Trends – NO2
decline until
2000
increase close
to traffic
2000–2006
slight decline
2007-2009




                 4
Trend NO2 at selected traffic sites




Problem: primary NO2 of diesel cars
                                      5
Projection of future NO2 levels

                                               NOx and NO2 fleet emission factors in urba...
Trend NOx emissions 1990-2008
                       traffic: 51%
                       industry: 22%
                   ...
measures in Europe - overview
Types of measures
 to reduce (traffic) volume (activity)
 to change type of vehicles, installations (emission factors)
 to...
Reduction of traffic volume
 Congestion charge
 Parking schemes
 Increase of taxes and charges, road pricing
 Sectoral ban...
Type of vehicles, machinery
                                                Source: paultan.org


 Stimulating change of v...
Reduction of emissions at source
 Traffic
   Speed limit for passenger cars
   Remote sensing to detect high emitting vehi...
Re-allocation, confinement of
emissions
 Bypass roads, tunnels
 Night-time ban of HDV (Inntal motorway)
 Ban of through-tr...
interaction with other measures
Synergies and antagonisms




                            15
no-regret measures
(in most cases)
 Energy savings
 Efficiency improvements
 Combined heat and power generation
 Advanced ...
Antagonistic measures
    GHG reduction, increase of NOx
         Increased use of biomass, some biofuels (when
         w...
Synergies
 In general, synergies with GHG, PM reduction can be
 expected
 Reduction of costs to achieve environmental targ...
examples of measures
Low emission zones
 named in 2008/50/EG Annex XV B
 Implemented in:
   London
   Lund, Göteborg, Malmö, Stockholm
   40 ci...
Sectoral ban (AT)
 Ban of transport of specific goods by HDV on motorway
 (waste, rocks, soil, rubble, timber, cork, cars,...
Other measures
Taxes, charges
  Congestion charge in Stockholm, London
                                                   ...
Speed limits for passenger cars
 motorways in AT, ES, NL, ...
 reduction e.g. from 130/120 to 100 or
 80km/h
 side effects...
NO2 level dependent speed limit (AT)
 Reason: political and public acceptance
 Reduction v(cars) from 130km/h to 100km/h
 ...
Retrofitting
 SCR retrofitting possible for HDV, buses, off-road
 Has to be customized for each application,
 in some case...
Pilot projects for construction sites
(AT)
 charge dependent on EURO standard and
 transport distance
 transport via rail,...
impact of projects for construction
sites
 charge dependent on EURO standards, distance
   85 % EURO III (2005–2006)
   -7...
challenges & summary
challenges in Austria

 Compliance with LVs in 2011 and 2015, time extension NO2
   large gap in some areas     drastic (t...
Summary & conclusions
 (diesel) cars are dominant source for NO2 exceedances
 No single measure will result in compliance ...
Contact & Information
Christian Nagl
+43-1-31304-5866, christian.nagl@umweltbundesamt.at


NO2 workshop Brussels 14-15 Apr...
further information
measures of NEC program 2010
traffic

 M.1 – increase of tax on fuels
 M.2 – increase of road pricing for HDV at highways
...
measures of NEC program 2010
traffic

 M.7 – improvements rail freight traffic
 M.8 – control of road freight traffic
 M.9...
measures of NEC program 2010
stationary sources

 S.1 promotion use sulphur free oil
 S.2 voluntary agreement with the ene...
measures of NEC program 2010
domestic heating

 H.1 replacement of solid fuel single stoves
 H.2 solar heating and heat pu...
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Christian Nagl. Environment Agency Austria - (Mesures per a reduir els nivells de NO2 a Europa i Àustria)

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Christian Nagl. Environment Agency Austria - (Mesures per a reduir els nivells de NO2 a Europa i Àustria)

  1. 1. Measures to reduce NO2 NO2 workshop Barcelona, 17-18 June 2010 1 © M. Deweis
  2. 2. NO2 levels in Austria
  3. 3. Current situation – NO2 Exceedances 2008: 21 (16 incl. margin of tolerance) out of 150 sites Exceedances 2009: 20 (14 incl. MoT) out of 150 sites Highest levels: 63 g/m³ in 2009 (72 g/m³ in 2008) Areas concerned: Large cities – close to traffic (Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg) Next to highways in alpine valleys (Inn valley, Tauern) Sources: local up to 90% traffic; lorries 2/3, (diesel)-cars 1/3 3
  4. 4. Trends – NO2 decline until 2000 increase close to traffic 2000–2006 slight decline 2007-2009 4
  5. 5. Trend NO2 at selected traffic sites Problem: primary NO2 of diesel cars 5
  6. 6. Projection of future NO2 levels NOx and NO2 fleet emission factors in urban traffic Passenger cars gasoline 1.2 12 0.25 2.5 NOx Passenger cars diesel Passenger cars gasoline NO2 Passenger cars NOx [g/km] Passenger cars NO2 [g/km] Passenger cars diesel 1 HDV 10 0.2 HDV 2 HDV NOx [g/km] HDV NO2 [g/km] 0.8 8 0.15 1.5 0.6 6 0.1 1 0.4 4 0.2 2 0.05 0.5 0 0 0 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Year source: S. Hausberger, TU-Graz
  7. 7. Trend NOx emissions 1990-2008 traffic: 51% industry: 22% residential: 15% 7
  8. 8. measures in Europe - overview
  9. 9. Types of measures to reduce (traffic) volume (activity) to change type of vehicles, installations (emission factors) to change emission factors of vehicles, installations to re-allocate emissions either spatially or temporally to confine emissions 9
  10. 10. Reduction of traffic volume Congestion charge Parking schemes Increase of taxes and charges, road pricing Sectoral ban (Inn valley motorway) Encouragement of public transport, bicycles, walking, ... ... Source: wikipedia Source: LERK 10
  11. 11. Type of vehicles, machinery Source: paultan.org Stimulating change of vehicle fleet by: incentives to foster uptake of new EURO standards, EEVs (e.g. by differentiating taxes/charges) incentives for gas, electric, ... vehicles increase of tax on diesel Scrappage schemes Environmental zones, ban of certain vehicles, machinery Encourage/require use of electric machinery instead of gasoline driven 11
  12. 12. Reduction of emissions at source Traffic Speed limit for passenger cars Remote sensing to detect high emitting vehicles Reduction of idling of cars and trucks Traffic, off-road, stationary Selective Catalytic Reduction SCR (retrofitting, e.g. for ships, locomotives, stationary sources) shore-side electricity for ships Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) limitations, use of Ground Power Unit change of fuel (lower N-content) Residential heating district heating, new installations, Combined Heat and Power Production CHP, thermal insulation, ... 12
  13. 13. Re-allocation, confinement of emissions Bypass roads, tunnels Night-time ban of HDV (Inntal motorway) Ban of through-traffic (Higher stacks) Noise barriers 13
  14. 14. interaction with other measures
  15. 15. Synergies and antagonisms 15
  16. 16. no-regret measures (in most cases) Energy savings Efficiency improvements Combined heat and power generation Advanced residential combustion Reduction in traffic volume Speed limits for passenger cars Bans Shore-side electricity for ships ... BUT: impact assessment might be needed 16
  17. 17. Antagonistic measures GHG reduction, increase of NOx Increased use of biomass, some biofuels (when w/o changeover) (Increased share of Diesel)* Carbon capture and storage PM reduction, increase of NOx Diesel particle filter (in some cases; esp. increase of primary NO2) Source: http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/v33_2_00/research.htm NOx reduction, increase of GHG SCR, SNCR might lead to small decrease of efficiency (not for traffic!) increased use of natural gas (CH4 ) * thwarted by increased weight, power of diesel vehicles 17 Source: BMW
  18. 18. Synergies In general, synergies with GHG, PM reduction can be expected Reduction of costs to achieve environmental targets due to climate & energy package IIASA 2007, NEC report #5 costs C&EP costs TSAP 18
  19. 19. examples of measures
  20. 20. Low emission zones named in 2008/50/EG Annex XV B Implemented in: London Lund, Göteborg, Malmö, Stockholm 40 cities in Germany several Italian cities NL, DK ... 20
  21. 21. Sectoral ban (AT) Ban of transport of specific goods by HDV on motorway (waste, rocks, soil, rubble, timber, cork, cars, steel, tiles) Piggy-back transport on rail Implemented May 2008 / January 2009 Reduction of ≈200,000 HDV p.a. Reduction NO2 levels of 1.5% Infringement procedure launched 21 source: Federal Province of Tyrol
  22. 22. Other measures Taxes, charges Congestion charge in Stockholm, London Source: svd.se NOx charge for installations in SE, NL, NO NOx bubble for airports (CH) Source: svd.se 22
  23. 23. Speed limits for passenger cars motorways in AT, ES, NL, ... reduction e.g. from 130/120 to 100 or 80km/h side effects: less noise, GHG, accidents, injuries source: Air Quality Plans Technical Office. Environment and Housing Department. Autonomous Government of Catalonia Rotterdam, Inn valley: -3 to -5 g/m³ NO2 Enforcement decisive Inner-city effect (30km/h) small 23
  24. 24. NO2 level dependent speed limit (AT) Reason: political and public acceptance Reduction v(cars) from 130km/h to 100km/h Dependent on dispersion conditions, number and emissions of cars Same effect of permanent speed limit during winter, 75% of whole year High share of diesel cars high share for NO2 levels Costs: 2–5 Mio. €, if display necessary (permanent speed limit more cost effective) Quelle: Ökoscience 2007 24
  25. 25. Retrofitting SCR retrofitting possible for HDV, buses, off-road Has to be customized for each application, in some cases for each bus line High reduction of NOx (40-90%) possible Costs: LDV ≈3,500€ HDV ≈ 10,000€ Retrofitting not feasible for passenger cars 25
  26. 26. Pilot projects for construction sites (AT) charge dependent on EURO standard and transport distance transport via rail, ships recycling of waste at site problem: higher costs of rail transport, public procurement laws, EU law (particle filters) guidance documents (similar to Swiss guidance) © M. Deweis 26
  27. 27. impact of projects for construction sites charge dependent on EURO standards, distance 85 % EURO III (2005–2006) -75 % HDV km recycling of waste at site -35 % HDV trips 27
  28. 28. challenges & summary
  29. 29. challenges in Austria Compliance with LVs in 2011 and 2015, time extension NO2 large gap in some areas drastic (traffic) measures necessary hardly any reduction of NO2 levels (primary NO2 emissions, diesel-cars, type approval cycle) quantification of impact of measures political and public acceptance exemptions for certain vehicles, installations fragmentation of responsibility compliance with NEC 29
  30. 30. Summary & conclusions (diesel) cars are dominant source for NO2 exceedances No single measure will result in compliance in many areas In some areas in Europe, even EURO 6/VI will not result in compliance until 2020 CC measures support AQ, leads to a reduction of costs for AQ, even though some measures do have an antagonistic effect. Impact assessment might be necessary Retrofitting not possible for all types of vehicles 30
  31. 31. Contact & Information Christian Nagl +43-1-31304-5866, christian.nagl@umweltbundesamt.at NO2 workshop Brussels 14-15 April 2010: http://circa.europa.eu/Public/irc/env/ambient/library?l=/event s/workshop_14-15_2010&vm=detailed&sb=Title Umweltbundesamt NO2 Workshop www.umweltbundesamt.at Barcelona ■ 17-18 June 2010 31
  32. 32. further information
  33. 33. measures of NEC program 2010 traffic M.1 – increase of tax on fuels M.2 – increase of road pricing for HDV at highways M.3 – promoting fuel-efficient driving M.4 – support for early uptake of EURO 5/6 standards for passenger cars M.5 – traffic control systems M.6 – promoting mobility management 33
  34. 34. measures of NEC program 2010 traffic M.7 – improvements rail freight traffic M.8 – control of road freight traffic M.9 – promoting pedestrian and bicycle traffic M.10 – improvements in ship traffic (Danube river) M.11 – scrappage scheme M.12 – road pricing for HDV dependent on EURO standard M.13 – R&D in the transport sector 34
  35. 35. measures of NEC program 2010 stationary sources S.1 promotion use sulphur free oil S.2 voluntary agreement with the energy industry S.3 voluntary agreement with the cement industry S.4 voluntary agreement with the refinery S.5 amendment to the combustion regulation 35
  36. 36. measures of NEC program 2010 domestic heating H.1 replacement of solid fuel single stoves H.2 solar heating and heat pump H.3 replacement of old heating systems H.4 improve energy efficiency of buildings H.5 reinforced advice and control of solid fuel heating systems H.6 replacement of light fuel oil by higher graded oil H.7 promoting district heating H.8 sulphur free light fuel oil 36

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