Wolfgang Hafner - (De l’anàlisi comparativa del mercat (CMA) d’aglutinants de pols fina a les prohibicions en el trànsit: accions per a la millora de la qualitat de l’aire a Klagenfurt, Àustria)

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  • 1. From Fine-dust Binder CMA to Traffic Bans Actions for Air Quality Improvement in Klagenfurt, Austria Wolfgang Hafner City of Klagenfurt, Dep. Environment Protection Barcelona, 18.06.2010 1
  • 2. Klagenfurt
  • 3. 93.000 inhabitants 160.000 daily population 120 km2 Capital of province of Carinthia trade and school center of the region 3
  • 4. PM 10 Daily mean 22 – 32 g/m3 Samstag, 12. 11. 2005 4
  • 5. Fine Dust (PM 10 ) in Klagenfurt Temperatur cold calm ~ 700 - dry 1000 m Daily mean PM [ g/m³] 100 Hot spots 77 µg/m3 75 Urban background 50 Regional background 5
  • 6. Fine Dust (PM10) Nov 03 – April 04 140.0 120.0 100.0 80.0 Koschatstr. 60.0 Völkermarkter Str. Welzenegg 40.0 Neuer Platz 20.0 St.Veiter Str. 0.0 01.11.2003 01.12.2003 01.01.2004 01.02.2004 01.03.2004 01.04.2004 6
  • 7. EU-Project KAPA GS www.kapags.at 2004 - 2007 7
  • 8. Annual mean PM10 2005 8
  • 9. Sources apportionment PM 10 – Völkermarkter Str. (hot spot, traffic) traffic exhaust 10% traffic non-exhaust 22% background 52% residential heating 10% agriculture industry 0% 6%
  • 10. KAPA GS – results and measures 1st generation • 2nd generation
  • 11. 8 electronic environmental indicator boards example: Ebenthaler Straße
  • 12. Park & Ride West & Ost (2 parking lots and shuttle service) • all over the year • Mo-Fr 06.20–20.00 h, Sa -13.00 • every 20 min. • free of charge
  • 13. Car-free day 22.09.2006
  • 14. Traffic ban of inner city road 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Reduction of domestic heating emissions, 617 municipal apartments, effects on AM PM10
  • 17. CMA-trial 2006/2007 start: 25.11.06 end: 07.02.07 Calcium-Magnesium-Acetate is applied as a 25% solution
  • 18. ratio PM10 / NOx in Klagenfurt 0.45 2004/05 0.40 2005/06 without CMA 0.35 2006/07 with CMA ratio delta PM10/delta NOx 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 - 18 % PM10 0.05 0.00 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May
  • 19. Result: 15-31% PM10-reduction 19
  • 20. LIFEplus-Project CMA+ PM10 reduction by the application of liquid Calcium-Magnesium Acetate (CMA) in the Austrian an Italian cities Klagenfurt, Bruneck and Lienz
  • 21. Objectives of CMA+ • Development and demonstration of a standard methodology for the application of CMA as fine dust binder in winter, for dust bindung in summer and as de-icing agent • Dosage, time and frequency have to be clarified as well as issues of traffic safety.
  • 22. CMA as Finedust binder • CMA = Calcium-Magnesium- Acetate, 25%-solution • CMA is a deicing agent up to -16°C • CMA is hardly corrosive, biodegradable and harmless to plants and water
  • 23. Traffic Safety frictiontests in driving center – ÖAMTC Expert opinion on liability – ÖAMTC Investigation of accidents, driving behaviour, potential of conflicts and public opinion poll - KfV GripTester on test roads (TU Vienna) Friction tests in the lab (ACCT)
  • 24. 2 km testroads in Klagenfurt as of October 2009 Völkermarkter Straße Enzenbergstraße Rudolfsbahngürtel
  • 25. Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik Fachbereich Verkehr und Umwelt Results-Klagenfurt PM10 Daily Mean Values (Jan.-Apr. 2010) 100 50 CMA 90 Rudolfsbahn 45 80 Koschatstr. 40 70 35 60 30 µg/m³ [kg/d] 50 25 40 20 30 15 20 10 10 5 0 0 01.01.2010 08.01.2010 15.01.2010 22.01.2010 29.01.2010 05.02.2010 12.02.2010 19.02.2010 26.02.2010 05.03.2010 12.03.2010 19.03.2010 26.03.2010 02.04.2010 09.04.2010 16.04.2010 23.04.2010 Gerhard Namen Bachler CMA+ (EU-Life) Graz, 10.06.2010 27
  • 26. Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik Fachbereich Verkehr und Umwelt Results-Klagenfurt delta PM10/delta NOx Daily Mean Values (Jan.-Apr. 2010) 1 50 Rudolfsbahn 0.9 45 CMA 0.8 40 0.7 35 0.6 30 [kg/d] 0.5 25 0.4 20 0.3 15 0.2 10 0.1 5 0 0 01.01.2010 08.01.2010 15.01.2010 22.01.2010 29.01.2010 05.02.2010 12.02.2010 19.02.2010 26.02.2010 05.03.2010 12.03.2010 19.03.2010 26.03.2010 02.04.2010 Gerhard Namen Bachler CMA+ (EU-Life) Graz, 10.06.2010 28
  • 27. Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik Fachbereich Verkehr und Umwelt Summary A comparison between daily mean values w/o CMA application(Jan.-Apr. 2010) at both test sections in Klagenfurt showed: Lower delta PM10/delta NOx ratio at Völkermarkterstrasse and Rudolfsbahngürtel Reduction potential (Völkermarkterstrasse) ~20% on PM10 traffic (exhaust & non exhaust) Reduction potential (Rudolfsbahngürtel) ~30% on PM10 traffic (exhaust & non exhaust) Gerhard Namen Bachler CMA+ (EU-Life) Graz, 10.06.2010 29
  • 28. CMA
  • 29. Summer trials in Klagenfurt - Druckerweg PM10 - Reduction 3 x 30 g/m2 appr. 50%
  • 30. Aerea without CMA Aerea with CMA
  • 31. laboratory • Roadsimulator – Schweden, VTI • Friction tests – ACCT, Wien
  • 32. 50 km/h, ”dry” CMA-treated surface Number of wheel passages after road simulator start 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 3 2 PM10 TEOM (mg m-3) ”Dry” CMA effect? 1 0 0 1 2 3 Time after road simulator start (h)
  • 33. PM10 results, CMA and RH effect
  • 34. PM10 results, RH effect
  • 35. A dry CMA-treated surface compared to a dry clean surface 1.2 dM/dlogDp 0.8 0.4 0 0.6 0.7 0.80.9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 10
  • 36. CMA – current results • Significant PM10-reduktion by CMA at kerb side (30% daily / 20% monthly / 10% annual mean) • 10 g/m2 is sufficient • No influence on traffic safety • Frequency of application still unclear: depends on traffic flow, humidity and temperature ? • Deicing effect is very good, but only preventiv • Very good reduction on unpaved roads (at least - 50%), but with higher dosage of 100 g/m2, every 2 – 4 week
  • 37. International Congress Innovative Winter Service for Finedust reduction first results from – 30.September 2010, 9-18 Uhr presentations by national and international experts – 1.October 2010, 9-13 Uhr Workshop for practicioners
  • 38. PM 10 - JMW 45 GW ab 2005 in A und EU 40 35 30 St.Andrä 25 Wolfsberg µg/m3 Klagenfurt-Koschatstr. Klagenfurt-Völkermarkterstr. 20 Zell-Ebenthal 15 10 5 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 40
  • 39. PM10 - Anzahl der Tage pro Jahr mitthe daily mean limit value Number of days exceeding Grenzwertüberschreitungen 90 Limit value for PM10: 50 g/m3 80 Daily mean 70 35 exceedances allowed per year in EU Anzahl der Tage > 50 µg/m3 60 30 in A as of 2005 50 25 in A as of 2010 St.Andrä Wolfsberg Klagenfurt-Koschatstr. 40 Klagenfurt-Völkermarkterstr. Zell-Ebenthal 30 20 10 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 41
  • 40. 42
  • 41. EU-Project „PM inter“ Interregional interaction of measures to reduce domestic fuels and traffic in Klagenfurt, South Styria and Maribor • Programme: INTERREG IV Slowenien-Österreich • Duration: 01.01.2010 - 31.12.2012 • 7 Partner: Klagenfurt, Marburg, Kärnten, Steiermark, TU Graz, Gesundheitsinstitut und Uni Marburg • Clarification of high PM10-background polllution in Carinthia, Styria and Slovenia foccusing on domestic fuels 43
  • 42. NO2 - JMW 50 45 Limit 2005 in A, ab 2010 in EU 40 35 A-limit 2010 30 A-limit 2012 St.Andrä Wolfsberg µg/m3 25 Klagenfurt-Koschatstr. Klagenfurt-Völkermarkterstr. 20 Zell-Ebenthal 15 10 5 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 44
  • 43. NO2- Annual mean value 2005 45
  • 44. Sources apportionment NOx – Völkermarkter Str. (hot spot, traffic) HDV 10% public transport 19% passenger cars 42% domestic fuels 7% Industy 6% background 16% 46
  • 45. NO2-Reduction by new Buses + traffic flow reduction in inner city 47
  • 46. Air Quality Action Plan for Klagenfurt 20 measures with 245 actions (PM10 and NO2) CMA-Application Park & Ride West and East Efficient charging system for parking Cheaper monthly tickets for public tranport (21 € instead of 35 €) Refurbishment of 2400 municipal apartments (district heating instead of single stoves) • Extension of districheating by new NG-power plant ? • Renewal of busfleet Euro 5, EEV-Standard (CNG ?) Traffic ban of inner city roads ? Environmental zones ? • Priority for public transport (e.g. bus lanes) ? • Additional park & ride systems in north and South ? further EU-Projects, e.g. PMinter (domestic fuels), REZIPE & CEMOBIL (E-mobilität) Public relations 48
  • 47. Conclusion from the point of view of Klagenfurt • EU-limits for NO2 and PM10 / PM2.5 can be achieved by – Finedust binder (CMA) – Reduction of domestic fuels by extension of domestic heating network – Renewal of public busfleet – Stop for traffic increase (efficient parking fee system, priority for public transport, walking and cycling) • Austrian limit values (35 / 30 µg/m3 NO2, 25 exceedance days for PM10) are not achieveable at hot spot
  • 48. E-mobility 2 EU-projects REZIPE: Renewable Energies for Zero Emission Transport in Europe CEMOBIL: CO2-neutral Electromobility for the reduction of PM10, NO2 and CO2 in Klagenfurt 50
  • 49. Lienz 30.9.- www.feinstaubfrei.at 1.10.2010 www.life-spas.at www.life-cma.at wolfgang.hafner@klagenfurt.at 51